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Coat of arms of Albany, New York

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Coat of arms of Albany, New York
A heraldic shield is shown with a double-scalloped top coming to a point at bottom; the bottom is red with two golden sheaves of wheat, the top is silver with a beaver gnawing at a fallen tree. A caucasian man is on the left of the shield; he carries a sickle and supports the shield with his left hand. An Indian man is on the right of the shield; he carries a bow and wears a feather, and supports the shield with his left hand. They both stand on a scroll with the word "Assiduity" on it. Above the shield is a brown sloop with three white sails and a blue flag.
Details
Armiger Civic
Adopted 1789
Crest A sloop with three sails and a blue flag
Torse      Argent and      gules
Escutcheon

Party per fess argent and gules:

  • Upper section: a tree prostrate being gnawed by a beaver on a silver background
  • Lower section: two sheaves of wheat on a red background
Supporters A European farmer on the left and an American Indian on the right
Motto Assiduity
Use Seal of Albany, Flag of Albany

The coat of arms of Albany, New York, is the heraldic symbol representing the city of Albany, the capital of the U.S. state of New York. The coat of arms is rarely seen by itself; it is almost always used in the city seal or on the city flag. The current coat of arms was adopted in 1789, although prior to that it was significantly simpler, ranging from stylized lettering to a caricature of a beaver. Included in the coat of arms are references to Albany's agricultural and fur-trading past. It is supported by a white man and an American Indian and is crested by a sloop. The coat of arms is meant to represent the "symbols of industry and its rewards to man and beast on land and sea".[1]

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Transcription

New York is the 3rd most populated state in the country with around 20 million inhabitants. The state was the eleventh to join the Union on July 26th, 1788, 31 days after Virginia, the tenth state, ratified the Constitution and joined the Union on June 25th, 1788. New York has an area of 54,556 square miles, making it larger than 23 states. The state is directly ahead of Florida population wise with around 600,000 more inhabitants, while it is directly behind Texas with around 6 million less inhabitants. New York borders the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec in the North, Vermont in the Northeast, Massachusetts and Connecticut in the Southeast, as well as New Jersey and Pennsylvania in the South. Along with it’s larger border to the North, New York also shares a border with Ontario in the West on the Niagara peninsula. It’s location places it in the Eastern time zone. The highest point in New York is the peak of Mount Marcy at 5,343 feet above sea level. This peak is part of the Adirondack Mountains and the larger Appalachian mountains. The lowest point is where the state meets the Atlantic in the Southeast. The largest city in New York population wise is New York City, which doubles as the largest city in the U.S.. New York City has a population of 8.5 million in the city proper and 20.2 million in the metropolitan area. This city is made of five boroughs, namely Manhattan, the Bronx, Brooklyn, Queens, and Staten Island. The second largest city in the state, Buffalo, has a population of 250,000 in the city proper and 1.1 million in the metropolitan area. This city is in the Northwest, directly bordering both Lake Erie and Canada in the West. Located just 17 miles from the U.S. side of Niagara falls, both cities share the same metropolitan area. Located 260 miles from Buffalo and Niagara Falls, the state capital, Albany, can be found. This city has been the capital of New York since 1797. With a population of around 100,000 in the city proper and 1.2 million in the metropolitan area, Albany is the 6th largest city in the state. Albany is located in the aptly named Albany county, one of the 62 counties that can be found within New York. Kings County, the location of New York City’s Brooklyn borough, is the largest of these population wise, with an approximate 2.7 million inhabitants. The least populated county in New York, Hamilton County, is located in the Northern Central region of the state and has a mere 5,000 inhabitants. New York’s state flag consists of the state’s coat of arms on a field of blue. This coat of arms was formally adopted in 1778, however the modern flag itself was not adopted until 1901. The center shield two ships sailing in the Hudson River, bordered by a mountain range and rising sun. Above this shield, an eagle can be seen resting on a globe of the Western hemisphere. The woman on the left represents liberty, as a liberty cap can be seen on the end of her staff. The woman on the right represents justice, as she can be seen holding the scales of justice and is wearing a blindfold. The state motto, “Excelsior”, is displayed on a white ribbon below the shield, literally meaning higher in Latin, however in this case representing New York’s aspirations of reaching upward to higher goals. The first European to discover New York was Giovanni da Verrazzano, an Italian sailing for the French. Verrazzano first explored the coast in 1524, entering New York bay on April 17th. Despite this, no claims were made to New York. In 1609, Henry Hudson departed Amsterdam and sailed up the Hudson river. Five years later, another Dutch explorer, Hendrick Christiaensen, built Fort Nassau in modern Albany to act as a fur trading post. Shortly following this, the Netherlands would claim New York, using both Fort Nassau and Hudson’s expedition to provide legitimacy. The Dutch called their new land “New Netherland”, with the largest settlement being New Amsterdam. This city served as the seat of New Netherland’s colonial government and was located on the Southern tip of Manhattan. The British conquered New Netherland in 1664, renaming both the colony and city “New York”. During the American Revolution, New York played a critical role in the formation of the U.S. Many battles occured within the state’s borders including the Battle of Long Island, the Battles of Saratoga, the Battle of Harlem Heights, the Siege of Fort Ticonderoga, and the Battle of Fort Washington. New York was granted statehood on July 26th, 1788. During the Civil War, New York remained in the Union. The state provided more men to the Union army than any other state, playing a key role in the Union’s eventual victory. Despite this, no battles occured within the state throughout the Civil War. Following the war and into the modern day, New York remains a crucial member of the Union, serving as both an economic and cultural hub. This is Morrethy. Thanks for watching.

Contents

History

A black and white image shows a wax seal consisting of an octagon with a crown and the letters ALB inside it.
Figure 1: Albany's first seal, dating from 1686
A black and white image shows a wax seal consisting of a circle, inside which is a beaver at center, topped by the letters ALBANY, atop the year 1752.
Figure 2: Albany's seal in 1752, including the beaver, year, and full name of city

Albany began as the Dutch fur-trading post Fort Orange in 1624. Around the fort grew the village of Beverwijck (English: Beaver District),[2][Note 1] which was incorporated in 1652.[3] In 1664, the English sacked New Netherland and Beverwyck was renamed Albany in honor of the Duke of York and Duke of Albany (later James II of England).[Note 2]

When the city was incorporated by provincial governor Thomas Dongan in 1686 under the Dongan Charter, it was empowered to have its own seal:

The said Mayor, Aldermen and Commonalty of the City of Albany, and their successor shall and may forever hereafter, have one common seal to serve for the sealing of all and singular their affairs and business touching or concerning the said corporation. And it shall and may be lawful to and for the said Mayor, Aldermen and Commonalty of the said city of Albany, and their successors, as they shall see cause, to break, change, alter and new make their said common seal, and as often as to them shall seem convenient.[7]

The first known use of the seal was on a deed from the city of Albany sold at auction. Signed by Albany's first mayor, Pieter Schuyler, the document was sealed with red wax, the design on which was an octagon with a monogram of the letters ALB in the center topped with a crown (see Figure 1). This document was found in 1886. This seal was again seen on a document from 1736, though that too was not found until 1886. The letters are presumed to be an abbreviation of the name of the city. However the meaning of the crown is unknown; it was noted for being "hardly a kingly crown, nor in shape like a coronet, the head attire of nobility".[8]

Prior to 1752 (but after 1736), the seal had a beaver at center, with the letters "ALB" above it.[9] This seal was replaced in 1752 with the abbreviation removed and replaced with "Albany" above the beaver and the year below as such:

Resolved and ordered by this Board—That the old seal of this corporation, now in the hands of the Mayor, be changed and altered, and that there be a new seal in its place, which new seal, being now produced to this board and approved of by them, the same is ordered to be lodged in the hands of our present clerk in his office for the use and behoof of this corporation, and that the present now new seal be henceforth our seal and called, deemed and esteemed the common seal of this corporation until it be altered and changed and the aforesaid former seal be null and void and dead in law to all intents and purposes whatsoever.[10]

The seal from 1752 is shown in Figure 2. The beaver honored Albany's past as an important fur trading port.[11] Adding to the history of this seal, one historian states, "[The seal] displays the beaver, but looking in the original, more like a drowned cat than the fat and sleek animal, it was intended to represent. Neither the resolution nor the records state why the change was made."[12] In 1755 the original seal (Figure 1) was reinstated for use by the mayor in licensing businesses. So at this point the city had two seals, one corporate and one public. The earlier seal, however, was last seen in 1761 and the beaver continued as the sole city seal from then on.[13]

The current seal was adopted in 1789[14] and first shows up in 1790, when Simeon De Witt, Albany's city surveyor, included the arms on his map of the city. An updated map from 1794 also includes the arms. Both versions include a full landscape in the upper portion of the shield including multiple beavers and trees, as opposed to just one beaver and tree in the current version.[1] There is no documented reasoning for changing the seal from the beaver to the coat of arms, and the coat of arms itself "seems to [have] no record authority" making it in any way official.[13]

Description

The current coat of arms consists of numerous traditional heraldic attributes. The shield is party per fess argent and gules; that is, split horizontally in two with a red lower half and silver upper half. Its lower half contains two golden sheaves of wheat on a red background; this design represents Albany's agricultural past. The upper half, which has a silver background, depicts a beaver gnawing at the stump of a fallen tree. This scene represents Beverwyck's former fur trade, which was vital to the development of Albany. One supporter can be seen on each side of the shield. The man on the left is a European-descended farmer dressed in simple clothes; he is supporting the shield with his left hand. His right hand rests on his hip and a sickle hangs from his waist; this references Albany's former agricultural society. The man on the right is an American Indian dressed in a loin cloth and wearing moccasins and a quiver. He supports the shield with his right hand and holds a bow over his left shoulder.[1] The two men supporting the shield together represent the cooperation between white immigrants and Indians in the early development of the city,[15] which would not have existed without the Indian fur trade. The men stand on a scroll displaying the motto Assiduity, meaning "the quality of acting with constant and careful attention".[14] The torse is argent and gules, following the pattern of the shield. The crest is a sloop under full sail facing left, "denoting Albany's supremacy at the head of the sloop navigation of the Hudson River".[16] The coat of arms represents the "symbols of industry and its rewards to man and beast on land and sea".[1] At the time of Albany's bicentennial (1886), it was believed that only New York City and Albany possessed arms charged on a shield upheld by supporters.[17]

Uses

A bronze statue is seen that depicts most of the details of the coat of arms shown in the infobox image. The men and the sloop are three-dimensional representations of the respective components in the shield. The shield itself is relief work.
This statue of the coat of arms was done by local cartoonist Hy Rosen and installed in 1986.

Albany's coat of arms is best known for its use on the city seal and flag. The seal incorporates the coat of arms in an outlined, white circle, with the letters, "The Seal of the City of Albany" above it. The flag is a horizontal tricolor of orange, white, and blue, and was adopted in 1909 as part of the tricentennial celebration of Henry Hudson's discovery of the Hudson River.[14] It was based on the Prince's Flag as flown by the Dutch East India Company (VOC), for which Hudson sailed in 1609. Its flag was also a tricolor and included the company's logo where the Albany coat of arms is located today.[14]

Like Albany's flag, the Prince's Flag was an orange, white, and blue tricolor. The orange was derived from the coat of arms of the Prince of Orange, William the Silent.[18] After 1660, the orange stripe had been replaced by a red one, as the Dutch flag still remains, though no particular reason is cited.[19] Albany chose to use the historic flag as its base. The flag was surrounded by controversy in 1916, when Albany's Common Council voted to change the colors to red, white, and blue as a show of patriotism during World War I. The change was vetoed by Mayor Joseph Stevens.[14]

A life-size sculpture of the coat of arms was created by artist and former Times Union political cartoonist Hy Rosen in 1986. Rosen took some liberty with the design, such as adding farm tools to emphasize the city's agricultural and trading history, as well as adding previously undocumented detail; the left supporter also takes on more of the look of an explorer (e.g., Henry Hudson) than a farmer. The statue was commissioned by Norstar Bank President Peter D. Kiernan as part of the park across Broadway from the then-newly renovated Union Station, which Norstar used as its headquarters until buyer Bank of America moved its employees out of the building in 2010. The statue still stands in Tricentennial Park on Broadway.[15][20]

The Prince's Flag, which influenced the design of Albany's flag; note the similarities to the flag to the right.
The flag of Albany incorporates the coat of arms on the center of the 16th-century flag of the Dutch Republic.
The seal of Albany places the coat of arms on an outlined, white circle, with the letters, "The Seal of the City of Albany" above it.

Notes

  1. ^ Beverwijck has since been Anglicized to Beverwyck, not to be confused with the neighborhood in Albany.
  2. ^ James Stuart (1633–1701), brother and successor of Charles II, was both the Duke of York and Duke of Albany before being crowned James II of England and James VII of Scotland in 1685. His title of Duke of York is the source of the name of the province of New York.[4] Duke of Albany was a Scottish title given since 1398, generally to a younger son of the King of Scots.[5] The name is ultimately derived from Alba, the Gaelic name for Scotland.[6]

References

  1. ^ a b c d The Albany Institute (1887). Transactions of the Albany Institute (Volume 11). Albany: Weed, Parsons & Co., Printers. p. 142. OCLC 4911702. 
  2. ^ Venema, Janny (2003). Beverwijck: A Dutch Village on the American Frontier, 1652–1664. Hilversum: Verloren. p. 12. ISBN 0-7914-6079-7. 
  3. ^ Rittner, Don (2002). Then & Now: Albany. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing. p. 7. ISBN 0-7385-1142-0. 
  4. ^ Brodhead, John Romeyn (1874). History of the State of New York. New York City: Harper & Brothers, Publishers. p. 744. OCLC 458890237. 
  5. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (Albany, Dukes of). Encyclopædia Britannica Company. 1910. p. 487. OCLC 197297659. 
  6. ^ Leslie, Jhone (1888). E.G. Cody, ed. The Historie of Scotland. James Dalrymple. Edinburgh: William Blackwood and Sons. p. 354. OCLC 3217086. 
  7. ^ Banks, Anthony Bleeker; Franklin Martin Danaher and Andrew Hamilton (1888). Albany Bicentennial: Historical Memoirs. Albany, New York: Banks and Brothers. p. 415. OCLC 3416646. 
  8. ^ Banks, Danaher, and Hamilton (1888), p. 416
  9. ^ Reynolds, Cuyler (1906). Albany Chronicles: A History of the City Arranged Chronologically, From the Earliest Settlement to the Present Time. Albany: J. B. Lyon Company. p. 246. 
  10. ^ Banks, Danaher, and Hamilton (1888), p. 418
  11. ^ Munsell, Joel (1865). Collections on the History of Albany: from its Discovery to the Present Time (Volume 1). Albany, New York: Joel Munsell. p. 196. OCLC 2750413. 
  12. ^ Banks, Danaher, and Hamilton (1888), p. 419
  13. ^ a b Banks, Danaher, and Hamilton (1888), p. 420
  14. ^ a b c d e Nearing, Brian (2004-11-30). "Three Cheers for the Orange, White, and Blue". Times Union (Albany). Hearst Newspapers. p. B1. Retrieved 2010-08-03. [permanent dead link]
  15. ^ a b McEneny, John (2006). Albany, Capital City on the Hudson: An Illustrated History. Sun Valley, California: American Historical Press. p. 182. ISBN 1-892724-53-7. 
  16. ^ Banks, Danaher, and Hamilton (1888), p. 421
  17. ^ Banks, Danahar, and Hamilton (1888), p. 422
  18. ^ McCandless, Brian; Gilbert Grovsenor (1917). Flags of the World. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society. p. 375. OCLC 2826771. 
  19. ^ Holden, Edward S. (1906). Our Country's Flag and the Flags of Foreign Countries. New York City: D. Appleton and Company. p. 157. OCLC 483945318. 
  20. ^ Waite, Diana S. (1993). Albany Architecture: A Guide to the City. Albany: Mount Ida Press. pp. 106–107. ISBN 0-9625368-1-4. 

This page was last edited on 21 August 2018, at 09:37
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