To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

Close front unrounded vowel

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Close front unrounded vowel
i
IPA Number301
Encoding
Entity (decimal)i
Unicode (hex)U+0069
X-SAMPAi
Braille
⠊ (braille pattern dots-24)
Audio sample

The close front unrounded vowel, or high front unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound that occurs in most spoken languages, represented in the International Phonetic Alphabet by the symbol i. It is similar to the vowel sound in the English word meet—and often called long-e in American English.[2] Although in English this sound has additional length (usually being represented as /iː/) and is not normally pronounced as a pure vowel (it is a slight diphthong), some dialects have been reported to pronounce the phoneme as a pure sound.[3] A pure [i] sound is also heard in many other languages, such as French, in words like chic.

The close front unrounded vowel is the vocalic equivalent of the palatal approximant [j]. They alternate with each other in certain languages, such as French, and in the diphthongs of some languages, [i̯] with the non-syllabic diacritic and [j] are used in different transcription systems to represent the same sound.

Languages that use the Latin script commonly use the letter ⟨i⟩ to represent this sound, though there are some exceptions: in English orthography that letter is usually associated with /aɪ/ (as in bite) or /ɪ/ (as in bit), and /iː/ is more commonly represented by ⟨e⟩, ⟨ea⟩, ⟨ee⟩, ⟨ie⟩ or ⟨ei⟩, as in the words scene, bean, meet, niece, conceive; (see Great Vowel Shift). Irish orthography reflects both etymology and whether preceding consonants are broad or slender, so such combinations as ⟨aí⟩, ⟨ei⟩, and ⟨aío⟩ all represent /iː/.

Features

  • Its vowel height is close, also known as high, which means the tongue is positioned close to the roof of the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant.
  • Its vowel backness is front, which means the tongue is positioned forward in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant.
  • It is unrounded, which means that the lips are not rounded.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans[4] dief [dif] 'thief' See Afrikaans phonology
Arabic Standard[5] دين‎/diin [d̪iːn] 'religion' See Arabic phonology
Chinese Mandarin[6][7] / qī About this sound[tɕʰi˥] 'seven' See Standard Chinese phonology
Chuvash çип [ɕ̬ip] 'thread'
Czech[8][9] bílý About this sound[ˈbiːliː] 'white' See Czech phonology
Dutch[10][11] biet About this sound[bit] 'beet' See Dutch phonology
English[12] All dialects free About this sound[fɹiː] 'free' Depending on dialect, can be pronounced as a diphthong. See English phonology
Australian[13] bit [bit] 'bit' Also described as near-close front [ɪ̟].[14] See Australian English phonology
French[15][16] fini [fini] 'finished' See French phonology
German[17][18] Ziel About this sound[t͡siːl] 'goal' See Standard German phonology
Greek Modern Standard[19][20] κήπος / kípos [ˈc̠ipo̞s̠] 'garden' See Modern Greek phonology
Hungarian[21] ív [iːv] 'arch' See Hungarian phonology
Italian[22] bile [ˈbiːle̞] 'rage' See Italian phonology
Japanese[23] /gin About this sound[ɡʲiɴ] 'silver' See Japanese phonology
Korean[24] 아이 / ai [ɐi] 'child' See Korean phonology
Kurdish[25][26] Kurmanji (Northern) şîr [ʃiːɾ] 'milk' See Kurdish phonology
Sorani (Central) شیر/šîr
Palewani (Southern)
Lithuanian vyras [viːrɐs̪] 'man' See Lithuanian orthography
Malay Malaysian Malay ikut [i.kʊt] 'to follow' See Malay phonology
Polish[27] miś About this sound[ˈmʲiɕ] 'teddy bear' See Polish phonology
Portuguese[28] fino [ˈfinu] 'thin' Also occurs as an unstressed allophone of other vowels. May be represented by ⟨y⟩. See Portuguese phonology
Romanian[29] insulă [ˈin̪s̪ulə] 'island' See Romanian phonology
Rungus[30] rikot [ˈri.kot] 'to come'
Russian[31] лист/list About this sound[lʲis̪t̪] 'leaf' Only occurs word-initially or after palatalized consonants. See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[32] vile [ʋîle̞] 'hayfork' See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Spanish[33] tipo [ˈt̪ipo̞] 'type' May also be represented by ⟨y⟩. See Spanish phonology
Sotho[34] ho bitsa [huˌbit͡sʼɑ̈] 'to call' Contrasts close, near-close and close-mid front unrounded vowels.[34] See Sotho phonology
Swedish Central Standard[35][36] bli [bliː] 'to stay' Often realized as a sequence [ij] or [iʝ] (hear the word: About this sound[blij]); it may also be fricated [iᶻː] or, in some regions, fricated and centralized ([ɨᶻː]).[36][37] See Swedish phonology
Thai[38] กริช/krit [krìt] 'dagger'
Turkish[39][40] ip [ip] 'rope' See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian[41] місто/misto ['misto] 'city, town' See Ukrainian phonology
Welsh es i [eːʃ iː] 'I went' See Welsh phonology
Yoruba[42] síbí [síbí] 'spoon'

Notes

  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ Maddox, Maeve. "DailyWritingTips: The Six Spellings of "Long E"". www.dailywritingtips.com. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
  3. ^ Labov, William; Sharon, Ash; Boberg, Charles (2006). The Atlas of North American English. Berlin: Mouton-de Gruyter. chpt. 17. ISBN 978-3-11-016746-7.
  4. ^ Donaldson (1993), p. 2.
  5. ^ Thelwall (1990), p. 38.
  6. ^ Lee & Zee (2003), p. 110.
  7. ^ Duanmu (2007), pp. 35–36.
  8. ^ Dankovičová (1999), p. 72.
  9. ^ Šimáčková, Podlipský & Chládková (2012), p. 228.
  10. ^ Gussenhoven (1992), p. 47.
  11. ^ Verhoeven (2005), p. 245.
  12. ^ Roach (2004), p. 240.
  13. ^ Cox & Palethorpe (2007), p. 344.
  14. ^ Cox & Fletcher (2017), p. 65.
  15. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993), p. 73.
  16. ^ Collins & Mees (2013), p. 225.
  17. ^ Hall (2003), pp. 78, 107.
  18. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 34.
  19. ^ Arvaniti (2007), p. 28.
  20. ^ Trudgill (2009), p. 81.
  21. ^ Szende (1994), p. 92.
  22. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004), p. 119.
  23. ^ Okada (1999), p. 117.
  24. ^ Lee (1999), p. 121.
  25. ^ Thackston (2006a), p. 1.
  26. ^ Khan & Lescot (1970), pp. 8-16.
  27. ^ Jassem (2003), p. 105.
  28. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 92.
  29. ^ Sarlin (2014), p. 18.
  30. ^ Forschner, T. A. (December 1994). Outline of A Momogun Grammar (Rungus Dialect) (PDF). Kudat. p. 6. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 September 2020.
  31. ^ Jones & Ward (1969), p. 30.
  32. ^ Landau et al. (1999), p. 67.
  33. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003), p. 256.
  34. ^ a b Doke & Mofokeng (1974), p. ?.
  35. ^ Engstrand (1999), p. 140.
  36. ^ a b Riad (2014), p. 21.
  37. ^ Engstrand (1999), p. 141.
  38. ^ Tingsabadh & Abramson (1993), p. 24.
  39. ^ Zimmer & Organ (1999), p. 155.
  40. ^ Göksel & Kerslake (2005), p. 10.
  41. ^ Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995), p. 4.
  42. ^ Bamgboṣe (1969), p. 166.

References

External links

This page was last edited on 6 May 2021, at 07:57
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.