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Clifford J. Rogers

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Clifford J. Rogers is a professor of history at the United States Military Academy at West Point. He has also been a Leverhulme Visiting Professor at Swansea University, an Olin Fellow in Military and Strategic History at Yale, and a Fulbright Fellow at the Institute of Historical Research in London.

Rogers writes mainly on medieval military history. His War Cruel and Sharp: English Strategy under Edward III, 1327-1360 won the 2003 Verbruggen Prize awarded by De Re Militari.[1] He has also been awarded the Royal Historical Society's Alexander Prize medal and a Society for Military History Moncado Prize for his articles, some of which are collected in his Essays on Medieval Military History: Strategy, Military Revolutions and the Hundred Years War.

His Soldiers' Lives through History: The Middle Ages[2] received the 2009 Verbruggen Prize. A podcast of a lecture based on part of that book, focusing on the soldier's experience of battle, has been posted online by the New York Military Affairs Symposium.[3]

Rogers is the editor of the three-volume Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology, which received a Distinguished Book Award from the Society for Military History,[4] The Wars of Edward III: Sources and Interpretations, and The Military Revolution Debate. He is co-editor of The Journal of Medieval Military History,[5] The West Point History of the Civil War, The West Point History of World War II, and The West Point History of the American Revolution (each of which received an Army Historical Foundation Distinguished Writing Award), and the essay collection Civilians in the Path of War. He is co-Senior Editor of the 71-chapter interactive digital military history textbook The West Point History of Warfare, which received the 2016 Society of Military History - George C. Marshall Foundation Prize for the Use of Digital Technology in Teaching Military History.[6]

Although Rogers' work on military revolutions has found favor with many historians,[7] some (including Kelly DeVries[8] and John Stone[9]) argue that his analysis suffers from "technological determinism."

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • ✪ Christine Nordahl - Pediatric Neuroimaging of Autism, UC Davis MIND Institute
  • ✪ Master's Ceremony Fall 2018
  • ✪ Spring 2018 Commencement, Doctoral Ceremony

Transcription

Hi, my name is Christine Wu Nordahl. I'm an assistant professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences. My lab is located at the UC Davis MIND Institute and the focus of my lab is to conduct pediatric neuroimaging studies of autism. As many of you know, autism spectrum disorder is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder, and the hallmark features are social communication impairment, and the presence of restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. Autism is behaviorally diagnosed around the age of three and current estimates suggest that about one in 88 children in the United States have a diagnosis of autism. Now, in my lab I use structural and functional neuroimaging to try to understand the neural basis of autism. Basically, we get these MRI scans, and from these MRI scans we can do a whole host of different kinds of analyses. For one, we look at volumetric analysis of every different neuroanatomical region in the brain and we can measure the size of these regions. We can look at cortical thickness and surface area of the cerebral cortex. We can also look at the folding patterns of the cerebral cortex to compare how these are different between individuals with autism and individuals with typical development. Using a type of imaging called diffusion tensor imaging, we can look at the white matter pathways which connect the different areas of the brain and we can also use something called functional MRI to look at functional connectivity between different regions of the brain. Now, there have been about a hundred or more studies using neuroimaging tools to try to understand the neural basis of autism, but the vast majority of these studies are looking at individuals who are older, children or adults or adolescents with autism, to try to understand the neural basis. Now, most of these individuals have had lifelong courses of behavioral or medical interventions that have presumably altered their brain structure and conductivity in some way. So, in my lab we decided that it was very important to try to look at the neural basis of autism in children who are very recently diagnosed with autism. So, most of the studies in my lap focus on kids around two to three years of age, close in time to the age of diagnosis. Of course the challenge here is trying to get MRI scans in these little kids. There have been several studies looking at individuals with autism in this age range, but most have used general anesthesia in order to conduct the MRI scans. We were concerned about ethical issues in using general anesthesia for research studies, so we in my lab focused on developing some very effective protocols to gather the MRI scan during natural nocturnal sleep. So, here is a picture of what the MRI magnet looks like before and after we carry out a sleep imaging study. This is all conducted at the UC Davis Imaging Research Center. What you can see on the left in the before picture is what you or I would see when we walk into the imaging room. However, because we are working with young children, we wanted to create a more child-friendly environment. So, we basically decorate the room so that it's a more child-friendly environment, where we cover up the scanner, and we can make a nice big bed out of the MRI table, where a child's parents can get up and lie down with them to comfort them to fall asleep. In the week ahead of the MRI scan we actually send a parent home with what we call our MRI practice kit and this includes earplugs and headphones which we ask the parents to try getting their child used to wearing when they're sleeping in the comfort of their own beds before we come into the Imaging Center for the actual scan. And then during the actual scan, once the child has fallen into a deep sleep, we stay with a child and we actually invite the parent to stay with the child as well, and we monitor them very closely in case they wake up. If they do wake up, we then stop the scan right then and parent is there to comfort the child. Now , when we initially embarked on this endeavor, we were told by our colleagues around the country that we could expect that we would be successful in about fifty to sixty percent of the children that we tried to image in this way. However, after nine years of scanning kids, doing pediatric sleep imaging, I'm happy to say that we have collected scans on well over 300 preschoolers and toddlers both with autism and typical development. Many of these have been scanned multiple times in our longitudinal studies and our success rate is closer to ninety percent. So, it takes a lot of patience and perseverance, but it really pays off because then we get these beautiful MRI images where we can try to understand the neural basis of autism close in time to the age of diagnosis, before these children have had many different behavioral interventions. So, a recent focus in my lab is to actually look closer at girls with autism. As many of you know, autism is much more common in boys . Autism is diagnosed in about four times as many boys as girls and most research studies to date reflect this male bias. In fact, in a literature review that we did in my lab of previous MRI studies that have included both boys and girls with autism, the average sample size of girls in these studies was only about 10. That's not enough girls being studied to really understand if their neural basis of autism is different from boys with autism. So, girls with autism are very understudied. We think that trying to understand the biological differences between boys and girls with autism could potentially lead to the development of individualized treatments and interventions that might be more effective in one gender or the other. And so we have a recent study launched called Girls with Autism Imaging of Neurodevelopment, or the GAIN study, and the goal of this study is to recruit a large sex-balanced sample. So our goal is to have about a hundred girls with autism compared to about a hundred boys with autism, and again we're targeting children close time to the age of diagnosis, at two to three and a half years of age . We're going to image these children for two additional time points so that we can follow how their brains are growing over this critical period of development. I just want to share with you some preliminary findings that we have so far that have come out of the GAIN study. Here, I'm showing you two different comparisons, and we're looking at cortical volume here. So, we parcellated the cerebral cortex into 34 different cortical regions per hemisphere. We've conducted a multivariate pattern analysis to look for patterns of differences in the top row between females with autism and typically developing females in the bottom row. We have a comparison of males with autism compared to typically developing males ,and what you can see in both of these comparisons is that there are multiple brain regions that are different between the individuals with autism and the typically developing. However, what I find very striking about this is that there is absolutely no overlap in the pattern of brain regions identified in the top row in the females versus the bottom row. This suggests to me that there indeed are differences in the neural basis of autism between boys and girls and we really need to study girls more to truly elucidate what these differences are. And just another finding that I can share with you today from our diffusion imaging, now we're looking at the white matter tracks in the brain. And what you can see on the left is, again, boys with autism compared with typically developing boys, and those are the white matter tracks that we identified as alternated between boys with autism and typically developing boys. There are five major white matter tracks in which we observed alterations. However, when we did that same comparison in girls, girls with autism now compared to girls with typical development, we saw much more diffuse pattern of alterations, many more white matter tracks were altered. In the bottom, I'm just showing you the profile of one of these tracks. In the blue line, you're seeing the difference between boys with autism and typically developing boys, and you can see that that line hovers near zero. Whereas in girls, in the red line, there are big differences in this white matter track. So, we have many other studies going on in our lab. In the study that I've been talking about, we're not only collecting MRI scans and behavioral assessments, but we're also collecting blood from these children, so that we can look at different genetic and immunological factors in females with autism. We also are, in our original cohort of children, who were two to three when we started imaging them about nine years ago, we recently received funding to follow these children, now out to eight to 12 years of age, in middle childhood, to get another MRI time point to see how these children are growing up and how their brains are changing. Another important question in that study is, are their any early brain predictors of later outcome in these children with autism? Now there are studies in the lab focused on hippocampal development in the normative population. We actually know very little about how the brain develops in this age range, even in typical development, and so we have some studies focused on that as well. And then, because there is a strong interest in fragile X at the MIND Institute, we have some studies comparing the neural phenotype of children with fragile X and autism with children with idiopathic autism. So, I couldn't do any of this alone. I've had many wonderful mentors along the way. David Amaral has been a wonderful scientific mentor. Sally Ozonoff, Len Abedutto, who is the director of the MIND Institute, have been instrumental in helping me navigate getting my first funding and conducting the GAIN study. UC Davis has wonderful mentoring from the Mentoring Academy, with Julie Schweitzer and Sally Rogers providing mentoring to all of the junior faculty at the MIND Institute. And within the Department of Psychiatry, Peter Yellowlees has been a wonderful resource, again, for the junior faculty, as we conduct our research. So, thanks very much. I'm glad I was able to share some of my research with you today. I hope that it was informative. Thank you.

Publications

Books:

The Military Revolution Debate, ed. Clifford J. Rogers (Boulder: Westview Press, 1995). [Paperback and hardback. Kindle ed. 2011]

The Wars of Edward III: Sources and Interpretations, ed. Clifford J. Rogers (Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 1999). [Paperback ed. 2010.]

War Cruel and Sharp: English Strategy under Edward III, 1327-1360 (Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2000). [Paperback ed. 2014.]

Civilians in the Path of War, ed. Mark Grimsley and Clifford J. Rogers (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2002). [Paperback ed. 2007.]

Soldiers’ Lives through History: The Middle Ages (New York: Greenwood, 2007).

Essays on Medieval Military History: Strategy, Military Revolutions, and the Hundred Years War (London: Ashgate/Variorum, 2010).

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology. Editor-in-Chief, Associate Editor for France, and joint Associate Editor for Britain. 3 vols. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2010).

The West Point History of Warfare, Senior Editors Clifford J. Rogers and Ty Seidule. A 71-chapter history of warfare with 49 authors, created for iPad interactive format. Beta version released 2013-14. Version 1.0 release forthcoming 2015-16.

The West Point History of the Civil War, ed. Clifford J. Rogers, Ty Seidule, and Samuel J. Watson. Print edition: (New York: Simon and Schuster, Oct. 2014). Enhanced E-Book Edition: (New York: Rowan Technologies Solutions, October 2014).

The West Point History of World War II, vol. 1, ed. Clifford J. Rogers, Ty Seidule, and Steve R. Waddell. Print edition: (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2015). Enhanced E-Book Edition: (New York: Rowan Technologies Solutions, 2015).

The West Point History of World War II, vol. 2, ed. Clifford J. Rogers, Ty Seidule, and Steve R. Waddell. Print edition: (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2016). Enhanced E-Book Edition: (New York: Rowan Technologies Solutions, 2016)

The West Point History of the American Revolution, ed. Clifford J. Rogers, Ty Seidule, and Samuel J. Watson. Print edition: (New York: Simon and Schuster, Oct. 2017). Enhanced E-Book Edition: (New York: Rowan Technologies Solutions, October 2017).

Scholarly articles and book chapters:

"Edward III and the Dialectics of Strategy, 1327-1360," Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6th ser., 4 (1994): 83-102. Reprinted in The Wars of Edward III, and in Kelly DeVries, ed., Medieval Warfare, 1300-1450 (London: Ashgate, 2010).

"The Military Revolutions of the Hundred Years’ War," The Journal of Military History, 57 (April, 1993): 241-278. Reprinted with revisions in C. J. Rogers, ed. The Military Revolution Debate (Boulder: Westview, 1995), and reprinted in Paul E. J. Hammer, ed. Warfare in Early Modern Europe, 1450-1660 (London: Ashgate, 2007).

“The Offensive/Defensive in Medieval Strategy,” From Crecy to Mohacs: Warfare in the Late Middle Ages (1346-1526). Acta of the XXIInd Colloquium of the International Commission of Military History (Vienna, 1996) (Vienna: Heeresgeschichtliches Museum/Militärhistorisches Institut, 1997): 158-171.

“The Efficacy of the Medieval Longbow:  A Reply to Kelly DeVries,” War in History 5, no. 2 (1998): 233-42.

“An Unknown News Bulletin from the Siege of Tournai in 1340,” War in History, 5, no. 3 (1998): 358-366.

“The Scottish Invasion of 1346,” Northern History, XXXIV (1998): 51-69.

“Three New Accounts of the Neville’s Cross Campaign,” C. J. Rogers and M. C. Buck. Northern History, XXXIV (1998): 70-81.

“The Age of the Hundred Years' War,” in Medieval Warfare: A History, ed. Maurice Keen (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999): 136-160.

“A Continuation of the Manuel d'histoire de Philippe VI for the Years 1328-1339,” English Historical Review, CXIV (1999): 1256-1266.

“ ‘Military Revolutions’ and ‘Revolutions in Military Affairs’: A Historian’s Perspective” in Thierry Gongora and Harald von Riekhoff (eds.), Toward a Revolution in Military Affairs? Defense and Security at the Dawn of the 21st Century. (Westport: Greenwood Press, 2000): 21-36.

"The Anglo-French Peace Negotiations of 1354-1360 Reconsidered," in The Age of Edward III, ed. James Bothwell (York: York Medieval Press, 2001): 193-213.

“‘As If a New Sun Had Arisen:’ England’s Fourteenth-century RMA,” in The Dynamics of Military Revolution, 1300-2050, ed. MacGregor Knox and Williamson Murray (Cambridge: Cambridge U.P., 2001): 15-34.

"By Fire and Sword:  Bellum Hostile and 'Civilians' in the Hundred Years War,” in Civilians in the Path of War, ed. Mark Grimsley and Clifford J. Rogers (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2002): 33-78.

“Clausewitz, Genius, and the Rules,” Journal of Military History, 66 (2002): 1167-76.

“The Vegetian ‘Science of Warfare’ in the Middle Ages,” Journal of Medieval Military History 1 (2003): 1-20.

“The Bergerac Campaign (1345) and the Generalship of Henry of Lancaster,” Journal of Medieval Military History 2 (2004): 89-110.

“The Medieval Legacy,” Early Modern Military History, ed. Geoff Mortimer (London: Palgrave, 2004): 6-24.

“Henry V’s Military Strategy in 1415,” The Hundred Years War: A Wider Focus, ed. L. J. Andrew Villalon and Donald J. Kagay (Leiden: Brill, 2005): 399-427.

“Sir Thomas Dagworth in Brittany, 1346-7: Restellou and La Roche Derrien,” Journal of Medieval Military History 3 (2005): 127-154.

“The Battle of Agincourt,” The Hundred Years War (Part II): Different Vistas, ed. L. J. Andrew Villalon and Donald J. Kagay (Leiden: Brill, 2008): 37-132.

“The Practice of War,” A Companion to the Medieval World, ed. Edward D. English and Carol L. Lansing (London: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009): 435-454.

“The Black Prince in Gascony and France (1355-6), According to MS78 of Corpus Christi College, Oxford,” Journal of Medieval Military History 7 (2009): 168-175.

“The Idea of Military Revolutions in Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Texts,” Revista de História das Ideias 30 (2009): 395-415.

"Tactics and the Face of Battle,” in Frank Tallett and D.J.B. Trim, eds. European Warfare, 1350-1750 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010): 203-235.

“The Artillery and Artillery Fortress Revolutions Revisited,” in Nicolas Prouteau, Emmanuel de Crouy-Chanel and Nicolas Faucherre, eds., Artillerie et Fortification, 1200-1600 (Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2011): 75-80.

“The Longbow, the Infantry Revolution, and Technological Determinism,” The Journal of Medieval History 37 (2011): 321-341.

“Giraldus Cambrensis, Edward I, and the Conquest of Wales,” in Successful Strategies. Triumphing in War and Peace from Antiquity to the Present, ed. Williamson Murray and Richard Hart Sinnreich (Cambridge: Cambridge U.P., 2014): 65-99.

“Carolingian Cavalry in Battle: The Evidence Reconsidered,” in Crusading and Warfare in the Middle Ages: Realities and Representations. Essays in Honour of John France, ed. Simon John and Nicolas Morton (Farnham: Ashgate, 2014), 1-11.

“Early and High Medieval Warfare,” The West Point History of Warfare, senior eds. Clifford J. Rogers and James T. Seidule, chapter eds. Clifford J. Rogers and John Stapleton, Jr. (New York: Rowan Technology Solutions, 2015).

“Warfare in the Late Middle Ages: The Hundred Years War, 1337-1453,” The West Point History of Warfare, ed. Clifford J. Rogers and James T. Seidule, vol. 1, European Warfare to 1900, senior eds. Clifford J. Rogers and James T. Seidule, chapter eds. Clifford J. Rogers and John Stapleton, Jr. (New York: Rowan Technology Solutions, 2015).

“Warfare, 500-1500,” in The Cambridge History of the World, vol. 5, Expanding Webs of Exchange and Conquest, 500 CE-1500 CE, ed. Benjamin Kedar and Merry Wiesner-Hanks (Cambridge: Cambridge U.P., 2015.)

“Afghanistan: The Thirty Years War and Counting,” by Lester W. Grau and Clifford J. Rogers, in The West Point History of Warfare, senior eds. Clifford J. Rogers and James T. Seidule, chapter eds. Clifford J. Rogers and Gail Yoshitani. (New York: Rowan Technology Solutions, 2015).

“The War at Mid-Point,” in The West Point History of World War II, vol. 1, ed. Clifford J. Rogers, Ty Seidule and Steve R. Waddell (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2015), 281-290.

"The Anglo-Burgundian Alliance in the Hundred Years' War,” Grand Strategy and Alliances, ed. Peter Mansoor and Williamson Murray (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016), 216-253.

“Assessing the Wars of the French Revolution and Napoleon: Clausewitz and Jomini,” (e-book chapter) in The West Point History of Warfare, ed. Clifford J. Rogers and Ty Seidule; chapter eds. Clifford J. Rogers and John Stapleton, Jr. (New York: Rowan Technology Solutions, 2017).

“The Symbolic Meaning of Edward III’s Garter Badge,” in Gary Baker, Craig Lambert, and David Simpkin, eds., Military Communities in Late Medieval England: Essays in Honour of Andrew Ayton (Woodbridge: Boydell, 2018): 125-146.

“Medieval Strategy and the Economics of Conquest,” The Journal of Military History 82 (2018): 709-38.

“Gunpowder Artillery in Europe, 1326-1500: Innovation and Impact,” in Robert S. Ehlers, Jr.; Sarah K. Douglas; and Daniel P. M. Curzon, eds., Technology, Violence and War. Essays in Honor of John F. Guilmartin, Jr. (Leiden: Brill, 2019): 39-71.

“A Note on Chandos Herald at the Battle of Nájera (1367),” The Medieval Chronicle 12 (2019): 227-37.

References

  1. ^ "Minutes from the De Re Militari Business Meeting". De Re Militari. March 8, 2003. Archived from the original on January 15, 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-06.
  2. ^ Review from TMR available online at http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=tmr;cc=tmr;q1=soldiers%20%20lives;rgn=main;view=text;idno=baj9928.0901.012.
  3. ^ http://nymas.org/podcasts.html
  4. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20101129154735/http://smh-hq.org/awards/awards/books.html. Archived from the original on November 29, 2010. Retrieved March 2, 2011. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  5. ^ The Journal of Medieval Military History
  6. ^ http://www.smh-hq.org/awards/digital.html
  7. ^ For example, Chase, Firearms, p. 224; Gat, War in Human Civilization, p.763; Parker, Military Revolution (1996), p. 185, Gruber, "Atlantic Warfare, 1440-1763," 418.
  8. ^ Kelly DeVries, “Catapults are Not Atom Bombs: Towards a Redefinition of ‘Effectiveness’ in Premodern Military Technology,” War in History, 4 (1997): 454-70; cf. C. J. Rogers, “The Efficacy of the English Longbow: A Reply to Kelly DeVries,” War in History, 5 (1998):233-42.
  9. ^ Journal of Military History; Apr 2004, Vol. 68 Issue 2, p361-380
This page was last edited on 11 July 2019, at 15:21
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