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iHeartMedia, Inc.
  • CC Media Holdings, Inc.
  • (iHeartMedia, Inc. holding company)
Company typePublic
NasdaqIHRT (Class A Common Stock)
OTC Pink Current: IHRTB (Class B Common Stock)
  • 1972; 52 years ago (1972) (Clear Channel Communications subsidiary)
  • 2014; 10 years ago (2014) (iHeartMedia, Inc. holding company)
Key people
RevenueIncrease US$2.6 billion (2019)[4]
Decrease US$506.7 million (2019)[4]
Increase US$113 million (2019)[4]
Total assetsDecrease US$11 billion (2019) [4]
Total equityIncrease US$2.9 billion (2019)[4]
Number of employees
9,588[5] (2021)
DivisionsiHeartMedia (sans "Inc." suffix; formerly Clear Channel Media and Entertainment, Clear Channel Radio, et al.)
  • Broader Media, LLC
  • iHeartCommunications, Inc.
  • iHeartMedia and Entertainment, Inc.
  • iHeartMedia Capital I, LLC
  • Voxnest, Inc.

iHeartMedia, Inc., or CC Media Holdings, Inc., is an American mass media corporation headquartered in San Antonio, Texas.[5] It is the holding company of iHeartCommunications, Inc., formerly Clear Channel Communications, Inc., a company founded by Lowry Mays and Red McCombs in 1972, and later taken private by Bain Capital and Thomas H. Lee Partners in a leveraged buyout in 2008.

As a result of the 2008 buyout, Clear Channel Communications, Inc. became a wholly owned subsidiary of CC Media Holdings, Inc.[6][7] On September 16, 2014, CC Media Holdings, Inc. was rebranded iHeartMedia, Inc., and Clear Channel Communications, Inc., became iHeartCommunications, Inc.[8][9]

YouTube Encyclopedic

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iHeartMedia, Inc. specializes in radio broadcasting, podcasting, digital and live events through division iHeartMedia (sans "Inc." suffix; formerly Clear Channel Media and Entertainment, Clear Channel Radio, et al.) and subsidiary iHeartMedia and Entertainment, Inc. (formerly Clear Channel Broadcasting, Inc.); the company owns more than 850 full-power AM and FM radio stations in the U.S., making it the country's largest owner of radio stations. The company has also been involved in internet radio and podcasting via the digital platform iHeartRadio[10][11] (from which the company derives its current name).

In the past, the company was also involved in live events and out-of-home advertising. The company spun off these businesses in 2005 and 2019 respectively, as the present-day Live Nation Entertainment[12][13] and Clear Channel Outdoor.[14]


20th century

Clear Channel's logo

Clear Channel Communications purchased its first FM station in San Antonio in 1972.[15] The company purchased the second "clear channel" AM station WOAI in 1975. In 1976, the company purchased its first stations outside of San Antonio. KXXO (now KAKC) and KMOD-FM in Tulsa were acquired under the name "San Antonio Broadcasting" (same as KEEZ). Stations were also added in Port Arthur, Texas (KPAC-AM-FM, now KDEI and KTJM, from Port Arthur College), and El Paso, Texas (KELP, now KQBU) from John Walton Jr.

In 1992, the U.S. Congress relaxed radio ownership rules slightly, allowing the company to acquire more than 2 stations per market. By 1995, Clear Channel owned 43 radio stations and 16 television stations. When the Telecommunications Act of 1996 became law, the act deregulated media ownership, allowing a company to own more stations than previously allowed. Clear Channel went on a subsequent buying spree, purchasing more than 70 other media companies and individual stations.[citation needed]

In a few cases, following purchase of a competitor, Clear Channel was forced to divest some of its stations, as it was above the legal thresholds in some cities. In 2005, the courts ruled that Clear Channel must also divest itself of some "border blaster" radio stations in international border cities, such as the alternative rock radio station XETRA-FM ("91X") in Tijuana/San Diego.

In 1997, Clear Channel expanded and diversified its business, purchasing Eller Media, a billboard media company[16] led by Karl Eller.

In 1998, it made its first move outside of the United States when it acquired the leading UK outdoor advertising company More Group plc, which was led by Roger Parry; Clear Channel went on to buy many other outdoor advertising, radio broadcasting, and live events companies around the world, which were then re-branded Clear Channel International. These included a 51% stake in Clear Media Ltd. in China.[17] R. Steven Hicks and Hicks, Muse, Tate & Furst began Capstar Broadcasting in 1996, and a year later had become the largest owner of radio stations in the country, with 243 stations in total. In August 1997, Capstar and Hicks, Muse, Tate & Furst announced plans to acquire SFX Broadcasting, with the resulting company owning 314 stations in 79 markets and ranking as the third-largest radio group by income.[18] A year later, Chancellor Media Corporation and Capstar Broadcasting Corporation announced a merger that would result in Chancellor Media owning 463 stations in 105 markets when the deal was completed in second quarter 1999. Hicks, Muse, Tate & Furst owned 59 percent of Capstar, with 355 stations in 83 markets, and was the largest single owner of Chancellor (which had 108 stations in 22 markets), with 15 percent of the stock.[19] Chancellor Media later became AMFM Inc., which was acquired by Clear Channel in a deal announced October 3, 1999, and valued at $17.4 billion. The resulting company would own 830 radio stations, 19 television stations, and over 425,000 outdoor displays in 32 countries.[20][21][22]

In 1999, the company acquired Jacor Communications, a radio corporation based in Cincinnati.[23] The company also made an investment in the new satellite radio service XM Satellite Radio, giving it the rights to program a selection of stations on the service (which would be drawn from some of its stations and syndicated output).[24]

21st century

In 2000, Clear Channel acquired Robert F. X. Sillerman's SFX Entertainment, a concert promoter that had focused on consolidation of regional promoters under a national operation.[25] In 2005, Clear Channel spun off its entertainment and live events business as Live Nation.[26]

On November 16, 2006, Clear Channel announced plans to go private, being bought out by two private-equity firms, Thomas H. Lee Partners and Bain Capital Partners for $26.7 billion, which included their assumption of $8 billion in Clear Channel debt.[27] This was just under a 10 percent premium above its closing price of $35.36 a share on November 16: the deal valued Clear Channel at $37.60 per share.[28][27]

In a separate transaction also announced on November 16, 2006, Clear Channel said it would seek buyers for all of its television stations and 539 of its smaller radio stations, because the private-equity buyers were not interested in owning television or small-market radio. Over a hundred stations were assigned to Aloha Station Trust, LLC upon the consummation of the merger. The television stations were sold to Newport Television, a broadcaster owned by Providence Equity Partners, on April 23, 2007.[29][30][31]

Due to the credit market crunch of 2007, Clear Channel encountered difficulty selling some of its radio stations. Clear Channel's attempt to sell off over 100 stations to GoodRadio.TV, LLC was rejected by the equity firm backing the deal.[32] The deal then shifted to Frequency License LLC, but took longer to resolve itself as the two parties were engaged in lawsuits. On top of that, the sale of Clear Channel's television portfolio to Newport Television had also turned uncertain, as Providence considered other options, although this transaction was ultimately completed.[33]

On December 4, 2007, Clear Channel announced that they had extended the termination date of the buyout from December 12, 2007, to June 12, 2008.[34] On July 24, 2008, Clear Channel held a special shareholder meeting, during which the majority of shareholders accepted a revised $36-per-share offer from Bain Capital and Thomas H. Lee Partners, revaluing the deal at $17.9 billion plus debt.[35][36] Shareholders received either $36 in cash, or one share of CC Media Class A common stock for each share of Clear Channel common stock held.[37] The company announced that it would move to more centralized programming and lay off 1,500 employees, or approximately 7% of its workforce, on January 20, 2009. The reasoning was bleak economic conditions and debt from its transition to a private company.[38] By the completion of the restructuring in May 2009, a total of 2,440 positions were eliminated.[39]

In early 2010, it was announced that the company was facing the possibility of bankruptcy due to its "crippling debt".[40] After 21 years, Mark Mays stepped down as president and CEO of Clear Channel on June 23, 2010.[41] Mays remained as chairman of the board.[42] On October 2, 2011, Robert W. "Bob" Pittman, who was then the company's Chairman of Media and Entertainment Platforms, was named CEO of CC Media Holdings.[43][44][45]

In August 2013, Clear Channel sold its minority stake in Sirius XM for $135.5 million. This also resulted in the removal of most Clear Channel-programmed stations on the service, besides simulcasts of WHTZ and KIIS-FM.[24]

On January 6, 2014, Clear Channel announced a marketing partnership with Robert F. X. Sillerman's SFX Entertainment (a second incarnation of a live events company that had been sold to Clear Channel, which spun off to form Live Nation), to collaborate on electronic dance music content for its digital and terrestrial radio outlets, including a Beatport top 20 countdown show.[46] The partnership expanded upon the company's existing EDM-oriented outlets, including Evolution. Staff, including John Sykes, believed that the deal would help provide a higher level of national exposure to current and up and coming EDM artists.[47][48]

In September 2014, it was announced that the company would be renamed from Clear Channel Communications to iHeartMedia, alluding to its iHeartRadio platform to reflect the company's growing emphasis on digital media and internet radio.[49] The previous name "Clear Channel" came from AM broadcasting, referring to a channel (frequency) on which only one station transmits. In the U.S., clear-channel stations have exclusive rights to their frequencies throughout most of the continent at night, when AM signals travel far due to skywave. CEO Bob Pittman said that the company had been "doing progressive stuff", yet were still "named after AM radio stations".[50]

Beginning in 2008, iHeartMedia struggled to pay down more than $20 billion in debt the company assumed from its leveraged buyout. Various media outlets, including Bloomberg News, Reuters, Radio Ink, and iHeartMedia's hometown newspaper the San Antonio Express-News, claimed that either bankruptcy or a major restructuring was likely.[51][52][53][54] On April 20, 2017, the company warned investors that it might not survive over the following 10 months.[55]

In 2016, one of the company's directors, Julia B. Donnelly, left the board of iHeartCommunications and was replaced by Laura A. Grattan, a director at Thomas H. Lee. Grattan was named to the board of managers of iHeartMedia Capital I, LLC, the direct parent of iHeartCommunications, as well as the board of directors of iHeartMedia, Inc., the indirect parent of iHeartCommunications.[56]

On November 30, 2017, it was reported that a group of creditors had rejected iHeartMedia's latest debt restructuring proposal, instead bringing out a deal where the company might file for bankruptcy.[57] On March 15, 2018, the company filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy, and claimed that it reached an agreement to restructure $10 billion of its over $20 billion in debt.[58]

In September 2018, iHeartMedia acquired HowStuffWorks' podcast network Stuff Media for $55 million.[59] On November 19, 2018, iHeartMedia announced its intent to acquire Jelli, the provider of a programmatic advertising platform for radio stations.[60]

In January 2019, the U.S. Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of Texas approved a creditor-supported plan for iHeartMedia to exit bankruptcy, which would reduce the company's debt from $16.1 billion to $5.75 billion. The plan included the spin-out of iHeartMedia's 89.1% stake in its out-of-home advertising division Clear Channel Outdoor.[61][62] In April 2019, the company also filed a proposed initial public offering.[63]

iHeartMedia emerged from Chapter 11 bankruptcy in May 2019, with a new board of directors and the spin-out of Clear Channel Outdoor, but maintaining its existing leadership of CEO Bob Pittman and president Rich Bressler.[63] Rather than pursue its IPO (which was estimated to potentially be valued at $1.1 billion), iHeartMedia instead received approval for a direct listing on the Nasdaq.[64]

On January 14, 2020, iHeartMedia announced a major restructuring, as part of an effort to "modernize our company to take advantage of the significant investments we have made in new technology and aligning our operating structure to match the technology-powered businesses we are now in." This included the restructuring of its Markets Group into three divisions: the Regions division for its largest markets, the Metropolitan division for other major cities, and the Communities division for smaller markets and added a multi-market partnerships unit, and announced the development of centers of excellence that would use technology investments to "provide a better experience for listeners and business partners and a more efficient process for all of its employees".

The restructuring was accompanied by a major round of layoffs and displacements, with a large number of staff members and on-air personalities impacted.[65][66]


iHeartMedia has purchased interest in, or outright acquired, companies in a number of media or advertising related industries. This is not an exhaustive list.


iHeartRadio's offices and studios in Denver, which houses KTCL, KDHT, KBCO, KRFX, KOA, KBPI, KHOW, KDFD, and KWBL

With 855 stations, iHeartMedia is the largest radio station group owner in the United States,[67] both by number of stations and by revenue. The 855 stations reach more than 110 million listeners every week, and 276 million every month. According to BIA Financial Network, iHeartMedia recorded more than $3.5 billion in revenues as of 2021, $1 billion more than the number-two group owner, Audacy.[68]

In June 2012, the company announced that it would become the first U.S. radio group to partner with record labels to pay performance royalties directly to labels and musicians (in addition to songwriters and producers). The royalties are paid via revenue sharing for advertising across platforms (including digital), rather than a flat payment each time a song is played. Big Machine Label Group was announced as the first partner in this scheme. Pittman stated that the arrangement would let "labels and artists participate in the revenue of broadcast radio immediately and in digital radio as it builds".[69][70][71][72]

Radio acquisitions

iHeartMedia has purchased stations from or acquired the following radio companies:

Outdoor advertising

Billboards at Yonge-Dundas Square in Toronto, owned by Clear Channel, in 2005

Clear Channel Outdoor (CCO) is an advertising company that was previously owned by iHeartMedia. In May 2019, it was spun out from iHeartMedia as part of its exit from bankruptcy.[63]


Clear Channel Television is a defunct television broadcaster and a former subsidiary of the group that was in operation, for nearly 20 years, from 1988 to 2008. It owned more than 40 stations, most of them were from the Big Six networks, a few of which are independent (non-network affiliates). It was initially headed by J. Daniel Sullivan, who set up as president of Clear Channel's television division.[117]

The group made its beginnings when the first television station iHeartMedia purchased as Clear Channel was WPMI in Mobile, Alabama in 1988.[118] Later that year, Clear Channel Communications bought out KDTU-TV in Tucson, Arizona, which became Clear Channel's second television station.[119] On March 13, 1989, Clear Channel Television bought out KOKI-TV for $6.5 million.[120] This was followed on July 3 of that year with the purchase of Fox affiliate WAWS-TV in Jacksonville, Florida, from Malrite Communications Group, for $8.1 million.[121][122]

Eventually over time, Clear Channel Television became the second-largest independent television group, behind Sinclair Broadcast Group.[123] In 1990, Clear Channel bought out its fifth television station, KSAS-TV in Wichita, Kansas, for $7.9 million.[124] In 1991, Clear Channel bought out KLRT-TV in Little Rock, Arkansas for $6.6 million.[125] In 1992, Clear Channel bought out WPTY-TV in Memphis from Chase Communications for $21 million.[126][127] Later on in 1993, the company bought out KITN-TV in Minneapolis/St. Paul from Nationwide Communications,[128] followed in 1994 by the purchase of WXXA-TV in Albany from Heritage Communications, for $25.5 million.[129]

In 1991, Clear Channel Television jumped into the foray of local marketing agreements, starting in 1991 with WJTC, which Clear Channel operated through a LMA with WPMI, and subsequently later on in 1992, when KASN entered into a LMA with Clear Channel's KLRT-TV. Clear Channel also entered into a deal with Providence Journal Company, who owns Fox affiliate KMSB in Tucson to operate KTTU through a local marketing agreement.[130] Memphis also jumped onto the board when WLMT entered into a LMA with Clear Channel's WPTY.[131] Also in 1993, Clear Channel entered into a local marketing agreement with RDS Communications to operate KTFO-TV in Tulsa, which most of the inventory will be supplied by KOKI.[132] Later on, in 1994, in Jacksonville, WTEV-TV entered into a local marketing agreement with WAWS, the Clear Channel television station.[133]

In 1994, Fox shockingly announced its intentions to purchase WHBQ-TV, which displaced Clear Channel's WPTY-TV as its Fox Memphis affiliate.[134] Also that year, as part of a group deal involving stations acquired by SF Broadcasting, Clear Channel's WPMI-TV in Mobile was set to be displaced as Mobile's Fox affiliate by WALA-TV as part of a three-station deal with the other Burnham stations.[135] These moves didn't sit well for Clear Channel Television, whose president Dan Sullivan thought they wanted to affiliate it with the ousted networks, including NBC in Mobile, and ABC in Memphis.[136]

In 1995, Clear Channel purchased its first Big Three network affiliate, WHP-TV in Harrisburg, for $30 million.[137] It was subsequently followed it up when Gateway Communications, owners of WLYH-TV entered into a LMA with Clear Channel's WHP-TV.[138] Later on that year, J. Dan Sullivan left Clear Channel Television to start out Sullivan Broadcasting to acquire the Act III Broadcasting stations.[139] He was then succeeded by Rip Rioridan as president.[140] In 1996, it bought out WPRI-TV in Providence from CBS, which CBS did not keep due to slight signal overlap with WBZ-TV in Boston.[141] Also that year, Argyle Television Holdings II, who owned WNAC-TV entered into a LMA with Clear Channel's WPRI.[142]

As part of the radio-TV strategy, Clear Channel acquired Jacor Communications, which incorporated WKRC-TV in Cincinnati into the Clear Channel Television branch.[143] Once FCC relaxed its duopoly rules, Clear Channel acquired stations that were originally LMA markets outright, including WLMT in Memphis, KTFO in Tulsa, WTEV in Jacksonville, KASN in Little Rock and WJTC in Mobile.[144] Also in 2000, Clear Channel sold WPRI to Sunrise Television for $50 million.[145] Later on in 2001, William Moll become the president of Clear Channel Television, replacing Rioridan.[146]

In 2001, after acquiring the stations of Chris-Craft Industries, Fox Television Stations traded WFTC to Clear Channel Television for Fox's own TV stations KMOL-TV in San Antonio and KTVX in Salt Lake City.[147] In 2002, Clear Channel acquired Ackerley Group, which incorporated its television holdings into the Clear Channel Television portfolio.[148] Also that year, Clear Channel sold KTTU in Tucson to Belo outright.[149] In 2003, Clear Channel announced that they would sell WUTR to Mission Broadcasting.[150] In 2004, Clear Channel bought WETM outright after the death of Robert Smith, the founder of Smith Broadcasting.[151] In 2005, Clear Channel acquired another Salt Lake City television station KUWB from Acme Communications for $18.5 million in cash.[152] In 2006, Don Perry was then named president and CEO of Clear Channel Television.[153]

Ever that, in the 2000s, Clear Channel began the trend of using legacy callsigns for former radio sisters as new call designated signs for existing Clear Channel TV properties, since it already owned radio stations, although WKRC-TV already used the moniker when it was under Clear Channel ownership. In 2002, San Antonio's Clear Channel station KMOL-TV was rebranded to WOAI-TV, the original call letters that station is using from 1948 to 1974, matching up with radio sister WOAI-AM.[154] In 2005, WOKR, the Rochester Clear Channel affiliate was rebranded to WHAM-TV, the original call letters for an unrelated Rochester station WROC-TV from 1948 to 1956, matching up for radio sister WHAM-AM.[155] Also that year, sister station in Syracuse, WIXT was rebranded to WSYR-TV, the original call letters for WSTM-TV from 1950 to 1980, matching up for radio sister WSYR-AM.[156]

In 2007, the company entered into an agreement to sell all its television stations to Providence Equity Partners for $1.2 billion,[30] a deal that eventually closed in March 2008.[29] Earlier that year, Don Perry left as president and CEO of Clear Channel Television.[157] All former Clear Channel television stations were owned by Newport Television, while the other six were flipped to other buyers by Newport. In 2012 to mid-2013, Newport sold off all of its holdings to several other television groups, including Cox Media Group, Nexstar Media Group, and Sinclair Broadcast Group.

Former Clear Channel-owned stations

Stations are arranged alphabetically by state and by city of license.

City of license / Market Station Channel Years owned Current status
Mobile, ALPensacola, FL WPMI-TV 15 1988–2008 NBC affiliate owned by Deerfield Media[a]
WJTC 44 2001–2008 Independent station owned by Deerfield Media[a]
Fairbanks, AK KTVF 11 2002–2008 NBC affiliate owned by Gray Television
Tucson, AZ KTTU 18 1989–2002 MyNetworkTV affiliate owned by Tegna Inc.[b]
Little Rock, AR KLRT-TV 16 1991–2008 Fox affiliate owned by Mission Broadcasting[c]
KASN 38 2000–2008 The CW affiliate owned by Mission Broadcasting[c]
Bakersfield, CA KGET-TV 17 2002–2008 NBC affiliate owned by Nexstar Media Group
KKEY-LP 11 2003–2008 Telemundo affiliate owned by Nexstar Media Group
Eureka, CA KVIQ 6 2002–2005 Defunct, went dark in 2018,[158][159] license cancelled in 2020[160][d]
Fresno, CA KGPE 47 2002–2008 CBS affiliate owned by Nexstar Media Group
MontereySalinas, CA KION-TV 46 2002–2008 CBS/Fox affiliate owned by News-Press & Gazette Company
KCBA 35 2002–2008 CW+ affiliate owned by Seal Rock Broadcasters, LLC[e]
KMUV-LP 23 2005–2008 Telemundo affiliate owned by News-Press & Gazette Company
Santa Maria, CA KCOY-TV 12 2002–2008 Telemundo affiliate owned by VistaWest Media, LLC[f]
KKFX-CA 24 2002–2008 Fox affiliate owned by News-Press & Gazette Company
Santa RosaSan Francisco, CA KFTY 50 2002–2008 Estrella TV affiliate KEMO-TV, owned by Innovate Corp.
Jacksonville, FL WAWS 30 1989–2008 Fox affiliate WFOX-TV, owned by Cox Media Group
WTEV-TV 47 2001–2008 CBS affiliate WJAX-TV, owned by Hoffman Communications, Inc.[g]
Wichita, KS KSAS-TV 24 1990–2008 Fox/MyNetworkTV affiliate owned by Sinclair Broadcast Group
KMTW 36 [h] Dabl affiliate owned by Mercury Broadcasting Company[a]
Hoisington, KS KOCW[A] 14 2001–2008 Fox/MyNetworkTV affiliate owned by Sinclair Broadcast Group
Salina, KS KAAS[A] 18 1990–2008 Fox/MyNetworkTV affiliate owned by Sinclair Broadcast Group
Minneapolis - St. Paul, MN
29 1993–2001 MyNetworkTV affiliate owned by Fox Television Stations
AlbanySchenectadyTroy, NY WXXA-TV 23 1994–2008 Fox affiliate owned by Mission Broadcasting[c]
Binghamton, NY WIVT 34 2002–2008 ABC affiliate owned by Nexstar Media Group
WBGH-CA 20 2002–2008 NBC affiliate owned by Nexstar Media Group
Elmira, NY WETM-TV 18 2004–2008 NBC affiliate owned by Nexstar Media Group
Rochester, NY
13 2002–2008 ABC affiliate owned by Deerfield Media[a]
Syracuse, NY
9 2002–2008 ABC affiliate owned by Nexstar Media Group
Utica, NY WUTR 20 2002–2004 ABC affiliate owned by Mission Broadcasting[c]
Watertown, NY WWTI 50 2002–2008 ABC affiliate owned by Nexstar Media Group
Cincinnati, OH WKRC-TV 12 1999–2008 CBS affiliate owned by Sinclair Broadcast Group
Defiance, OH WDFM-LP 19 1998–2018 Independent WNHO-LD, owned by American Christian Television Services
Tulsa, OK KOKI-TV 23 1990–2008 Fox affiliate owned by Imagicomm Communications
KMYT-TV 41 2000–2008 MyNetworkTV affiliate owned by Imagicomm Communications
Eugene, OR KMTR 16 2002–2008 NBC affiliate owned by Roberts Media, LLC[a]
Coos Bay, OR KMCB[B] 23 2002–2008 NBC affiliate owned by Roberts Media, LLC[a]
Roseburg, OR KTCW[B] 46 2002–2008 NBC affiliate owned by Roberts Media, LLC[a]
Harrisburg, PA WHP-TV 21 1995–2008 CBS affiliate owned by Sinclair Broadcast Group
WLYH-TV 15 [i] Comet TV affiliate WXBU, owned by Howard Stirk Holdings
Providence, RI WPRI-TV 12 1996–2001 CBS affiliate owned by Nexstar Media Group
WNAC-TV 64 [j] Fox/CW affiliate owned by Mission Broadcasting[c]
Jackson, TN WJKT 16 2000–2008 Fox affiliate owned by Nexstar Media Group
Memphis, TN WPTY-TV 24 1992–2008 ABC affiliate WATN-TV, owned by Tegna Inc.
WLMT 30 2000–2008 The CW affiliate owned by Tegna Inc.
San Antonio, TX
4 2001–2008[k] NBC/CW affiliate owned by Sinclair Broadcast Group
Salt Lake City, UT KTVX 4 2001–2008[k] ABC affiliate owned by Nexstar Media Group
KUCW 30 2006–2008 The CW affiliate owned by Nexstar Media Group
Bellingham, WAVancouver, BC[l] KVOS-TV 12 2002–2008 Univision affiliate owned by Weigel Broadcasting
  1. ^ a b Satellite of KSAS-TV.
  2. ^ a b Satellite of KMTR.
  1. ^ a b c d e f g Operated through an SSA by Sinclair Broadcast Group.
  2. ^ Operated through an SSA by Gray Television.
  3. ^ a b c d e Operated through an SSA by Nexstar Media Group.
  4. ^ Callsign changed to KJRW prior to the shutdown; intellectual unit and CBS programming transferred to a Northwest Broadcasting-owned license and renamed KVIQ-LD.[161]
  5. ^ Operated through an SSA by Entravision Communications.
  6. ^ Operated through an SSA by News-Press & Gazette Company.
  7. ^ Operated through an SSA by Cox Media Group.
  8. ^ Owned by Paramount Stations Group and Mercury Broadcasting Company, Clear Channel operated KMTW under a local marketing agreement with KSAS.
  9. ^ Owned by Gateway Communications, SJL Broadcasting and Nexstar Broadcasting Group, Clear Channel operated WLYH under a local marketing agreement with WHP.
  10. ^ Owned by Argyle Television Holdings II, Hearst-Argyle Television and Sunrise Television, Clear Channel operated WNAC under a local marketing agreement with WPRI.
  11. ^ a b Acquired as divestitures from Fox Television Stations' acquisition of BHC Communications.
  12. ^ Bellingham is nominally in the Seattle market.

Music charts

iHeartMedia owns Mediabase, which provide music charts based on songs and tracks receiving the most spins played on radio stations in the United States and Canada. A majority of stations that report to Mediabase are iHeartMedia outlets but other companies also report to the Mediabase charts. In addition, countdown shows produced by Premiere will utilize Mediabase charts for the basis of their programs.

News and information


Bicing, a community bicycle program in Barcelona, Spain.
  • Owns part of radio groups in New Zealand, Mexico, Norway, and Australia.
  • Owns outdoor advertising companies in Brazil, Chile, Finland, France, Italy, Latvia, Norway, Poland, Romania, Singapore, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Belgium and Mauritius.
  • Owns L & C Outdoor Comunicação Visual Ltda., of Brazil
  • United Kingdom

Bicycle rental systems

Operates urban bicycle sharing systems in several European cities:

City Country Launch date System
Stations Bikes
Caen[164]  France 40 350
Dijon[165]  France 33 350
Perpignan[166]  France 15 150
Rennes[167]  France 1998 25 200
Oslo  Norway Oslo Bysykkel
Drammen  Norway Drammen Bysykkel
Trondheim  Norway Trondheim Bysykkel[168]
Barcelona  Spain Bicing[169] 400 6,000
Zaragoza  Spain Bizi
Stockholm  Sweden City bikes[170] 140 1,000
Malmö  Sweden Malmö by bike[171]
Milan  Italy bikeMi[172] 103 1,300
Antwerp  Belgium 9 juin 2011 Velo Antwerpen 297 4 200

Vertical Real Estate

In 2003, Clear Channel created the Vertical Real Estate division and hired Scott Quitadamo to promote its tower portfolio. iHeartMedia owns and operates approximately 1,500 broadcast transmission towers across the U.S., many of which are available for co-location by third parties such as cellular and PCS companies, wireless internet, fixed wireless, and other broadcasters.


iHeartMedia operates the country's largest syndication service, Premiere Networks. In addition, iHeartMedia syndicates a number of its homegrown talk and music shows without the aid of Premiere. While Premiere actively sells its shows to stations, the non-Premiere syndicated shows are often used as a cost-cutting measure and do not have a large sales staff. Those shows also do not carry network-wide advertising (unless distributed by a third party), and allow the affiliates to keep all local spots, which increases their appeal. These networks carry many program hosts of various political ideologies and distribute a variety of programs to both iHeartMedia-owned and non-iHeartMedia-owned stations.

In addition to its own syndication network, iHeartMedia offers studio space and other services to the WestStar TalkRadio Network, which is based at iHeartMedia's studios in Phoenix, Arizona. As a result, many WestStar programs are heard on iHeartMedia stations.

Not all programming heard on iHeartMedia's radio stations are produced in house; however, most of iHeartMedia's stations share many similarities to each other in branding and programming.

Format Lab and HD2 Formats

The Format Lab, was a new product and service development think tank conceived, built and managed by Michael Albl for Clear Channel (now known as iHeartMedia) starting in the year 2000 that initially produced 84 formats for use on AM/FM/HD/XM/Stream/Mobile. The formats ranged from mainstream to music genre niches, lifestyle, and highly experimental. These formats were heard on most of Clear Channel's HD Radio subchannels, on SiriusXM, Sprint MSpot and used as the original music streaming service for Clear Channel Online Music and Radio (CCOMR). In 2002, The Format Lab launched nationwide The New Music Network, a free service providing unsigned artists and bands, in 26 different music genres, online streaming of their music and promotion to record labels. In 2009, the Format Lab split into two divisions (1) Premium Choice which produced and distributed both customized and centralized radio programming to over 800 AM/FM/HD terrestrial stations plus XM Radio; and (2) iHeartRadio (formerly CCOMR). The Format Lab also spawned: National Contesting, StormAID (national disaster relief); Spanish Radio division; Pride Radio; Centralized commercial production and distribution; Knowledge management system; Procurement system; Numerous patents. The Format Lab was succeeded in 2010 by another internal company think tank conceived by Michael Albl called Leap Frog.


iHeartRadio is a free broadcast, podcast and streaming radio platform. It is also the national umbrella brand for iHeartMedia's radio network aggregating its over 850 local iHeartMedia radio stations across the United States, as well as hundreds of other stations from various other media.

Alternative stations

iHeartMedia Alternative Stations usually are branded as "Radio" (such as Radio 94.5 (KMYT) in Temecula, CA) or "ALT" (Alt 98.7 (KYSR) in Los Angeles). Others include: The Edge, The Buzz, The Project, Star, or X. The Woody Show, which originates from KYSR, serves as the anchor morning show for the iHeartMedia Alternative outlets.

Hip-hop, Rap, R&B and rhythmic stations

Stations that carry programming catering to black Americans are a big part of many iHeartMedia clusters, particularly Philadelphia, Chicago, and Detroit.[173] In many clusters iHeartMedia has two or more such stations. About half of these stations focus on Rap and Hip Hop along with younger rhythm and blues sounds. The other half blend some younger rhythm and blues along with some Soul from the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s along with some current product. In a cluster with multiple hip-hop, rap, R&B, and rhythmic stations owned by iHeartMedia, one is focused on Rap while the other is focused on Soul. Examples include Philadelphia, with WUSL's focus on hip hop while WDAS-FM focuses on Soul (in addition, the company also owns WGCI-FM in Chicago, which focuses on rap, while WVAZ is focused on Soul. iHeartMedia hip hop, rap, R&B, and rhythmic stations are branded as "Real" (KRRL Los Angeles), "Beat" (KQBT/Houston, WBTP Tampa) or "Power" (WWPR-FM New York City, WUSL Philadelphia and WHEN Syracuse). In San Francisco, iHeartMedia owned more hip hop, rap, R&B, and rhythmic stations such as Rhythmic Top 40 KYLD, rhythmic oldies KISQ, and rhythmic contemporary KMEL in that area (KYLD shifted to Top 40/CHR in 2015, KISQ flipped to AC in 2016), and the same happened in Detroit, where the company also owns rhythmic AC WMXD, rhythmic contemporary WJLB and former Rhythmic AC WDTW-FM (now WLLZ). iHeart also have hip hop, rap, R&B, and rhythmic outlets with heritage and familiarity based on the markets they serve, like WHRK and WDIA in Memphis, and WKKV-FM in Milwaukee.

Another growing format, Classic Hip-Hop/Throwback/Old School (consisting of R&B/Hip-Hop, Rap, and Rhythmic songs from the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s), can be heard full-time on iHeartRadio, as well as KATZ-FM/St. Louis and KUBT-HD2 in Honolulu. Previously, this format was originated as Rhythmic Oldies, which was launched at KCMG/Los Angeles and later spread to more markets before the former Clear Channel flipped several stations out of the format by the mid-2000s.

For the Rhythmic Top 40 format, similar brandings include "The Beat" (KUBT/Honolulu and WBTT/Ft. Myers), Power 102/El Paso, 104.5 Kiss FM/Beaumont, Texas, "Jam'n" (KXJM/Portland Oregon, KSSX/San Diego, and WJMN/Boston; a similar "Jammin'" is used at WSTV/Roanoke & WJJX/Lynchburg). A "B" has been used at KBOS-FM/Fresno since the 1980s. Other Rhythmics, such as KUBE/Seattle, KDON-FM/Salinas-Monterey and KGGI/Riverside-San Bernardino, simply use the call letters and/or frequency. Most of these stations target a multicultural audience and play Rhythmic Pop, R&B/Hip-Hop, and Dance tracks.

For rhythmic AC stations, they used to have the "Party" branding (particularly during the time when most used Wake Up with Whoopi out of WKTU as their morning show), but the two "Party" stations in Denver (KDHT) and Las Vegas (KYMT, the former KPLV) have since exited the Rhythmic AC format. KDHT and KYMT moved to top 40, but continue to use the "Party" branding (KYMT is currently mainstream rock). The Breakfast Club Morning Show out of WWPR-FM in New York and "Big Boy's Neighborhood" out of KRRL in Los Angeles are iHeartMedia's syndicated urban morning shows. In 2017, for IHM's 3rd season they produced rhythmic AC programming.

Smooth jazz

IHeartMedia syndicates the Smooth Jazz Network (aka Your Smooth Jazz), which is programmed by Broadcast Architecture. Unless otherwise noted, all Smooth Jazz Network stations will carry the following schedule: Kenny G and Sandy Kovach in morning drive time, Miranda Wilson in midday, Allen Kepler in afternoon drive time, and Maria Lopez in evenings, with no disc jockeys overnight. Weekend programming consists of the Smooth Jazz Top 20 with Allen Kepler, as well as the Dave Koz Radio Show.

Dance and EDM

The first radio programs included Electric Sound Stage, Club Phusion, Trancid, Pride Radio, PrototypeRadio, The Spin*Cycle and Classic Dance. Although they have no full-powered stations programming a Dance or EDM (Electronic Dance Music) format, iHeartMedia has FM translators and HD2 platforms broadcasting the EDM-intensive Evolution platform (KZZP/Phoenix is the flagship station, serving as a reporter on Billboard’s Dance/Mix Show Airplay panel), while the LGBT community is served by the more broader-based Pride Radio (with WFLZ/Tampa serving as the flagship station as well as a Dance/Mix Show Airplay reporter). However, iHeartMedia's Top 40/CHR and Rhythmic Top 40 outlets incorporate a majority of Dance songs onto its playlist and set aside airtime blocks for mix shows. A weekly countdown program, America’s Dance 30, airs on Evolution and selected iHeart Top 40 and Rhythmic stations.

News talk stations

News talk stations owned by iHeartMedia usually have a standard slate of hosts. The morning show is usually local, with other timeslots filled by local and syndicated hosts. Programs that appear or have appeared on many iHeartMedia talk stations include the Glenn Beck Radio Program (Beck having gotten his talk show start at iHeartMedia-owned WFLA in Tampa, which serves as its home station), The Clay Travis and Buck Sexton Show (does not having a home station but is based out of Nashville), The Sean Hannity Show (out of WOR in New York), The Jesse Kelly Show and Coast to Coast AM with George Noory, all of which are affiliated with Premiere Networks in some fashion. The Mark Levin Show (out of WABC in New York and WMAL-FM in Washington, D.C.; syndicated from Westwood One) and The Dave Ramsey Show (out of WLAC in Nashville; independently syndicated) are non-Premiere shows who air on many (if not most) iHeartMedia stations, as did The Savage Nation prior to its ending in September 2012, whose home station at the time was KSTE in Sacramento. Limbaugh is almost universally carried on iHeartMedia stations in markets where the company has a news talk station, including recently New York City: WOR was acquired in 2013 by Clear Channel and began carrying Limbaugh's program in 2014 following a long relationship with now-Red Apple Media-owned WABC. In markets where iHeartMedia-owned news talk stations have not been profitable (such as Boston and Atlanta), iHeartMedia has chosen to sell shows such as Limbaugh and Coast to Coast AM to their rivals and change the stations to other formats. Syndicated morning news programs like America in The Morning (from Westwood One) and This Morning, America's First News with Gordon Deal (from Compass Media Networks) are also heard on a few iHeartMedia-owned stations.

While most of iHeartMedia's news/talk stations carry some combination of Beck, Limbaugh, Hannity and Noory (of Coast to Coast AM), this is not always the case. Many stations (particularly in the larger markets) like KFI, KFYI, KOA, WZZR and WLW broadcast a lineup with significant local programming.

Weekend syndicated programs featured on many (but not all) iHeart-owned stations include At Home with Gary Sullivan, Handel on the Law, The Ben Ferguson Show, and Sunday Nights with Bill Cunningham (all are part of Premiere Networks).

Liberal talk radio is heard on a few of iHeartMedia's stations, primarily secondary to its main news talk stations, and usually feature at least one local host with Westwood One programming; Air America Radio also aired on these stations. iHeartMedia has shown a tendency to drop liberal talk affiliations due to lack of ratings or advertiser support and replace it with sports talk or other formats (see, for instance, WCKY, WARF, KLSD, WXKS, and WINZ); in one case this had caused a protest when iHeartMedia (then Clear Channel) wanted to change WXXM in Madison, Wisconsin to a sports format. WXXM was eventually allowed to keep its liberal format, though they eventually retired it in November 2016 due to a general lack of syndicated programming for that format.

On June 30, 2020, iHeartMedia announced a new all-news radio brand known as Black Information Network, which is catered towards African Americans.[174][175]

iHeartMedia has been active in the national trend of simulcasting its AM news/talk stations on full-power FM stations, hoping to preserve their long-term viability while AM radio declines. Examples include San Diego, California, on KUSS 95.7 (which became KOGO-FM after simulcasting KOGO (AM), replacing country music), Sacramento, California on KGBY 92.5 (which became KFBK-FM after simulcasting KFBK, replacing Hot adult contemporary), in Tucson, Arizona, on KTZR-FM (which became KNST-FM after simulcasting KNST, replacing Spanish Top 40), in Schenectady, New York (WGY-FM/103.1, simulcasting WGY/810, replacing rock WHRL) and Syracuse, New York (WSYR-FM/106.9 simulcasting WSYR/570, displacing urban AC "Power" to WHEN/620). After failing to see any significant ratings gains from these moves, Clear Channel showed signs of abandoning this strategy when it changed KNST-FM to country music in February 2013 as KYWD.

Sports talk stations

Most sports talk stations owned by iHeartMedia are affiliated with Fox Sports Radio. Other sports talk stations are affiliated with rival ESPN Radio (in this case, WUCS in Hartford, Connecticut, which is nearby ESPN's headquarters in Bristol). In 2020, iHeartMedia launched the iHeartSports Network.[176]

Adult standards

Most of iHeartMedia's adult standards stations are turnkey operations, running a direct feed of a satellite format such as Westwood One's America's Best Music or Music of Your Life. Most of these stations have no local jocks or Web sites. The network has few remaining stations in that category and has sold off many of them.

Adult contemporary

iHeartMedia's Adult contemporary stations are often branded as "Lite FM" (e.g. WLIT-FM in Chicago or WLTW in New York) or "Sunny", although some stations use "Magic", "B" or something else similar as their identifiers, As of 2018, "The Breeze" has bought a new resurgence in Soft AC, targeted towards millennial listeners. Evenings are usually filled with Delilah, unless that show is already aired by another station, in which case The John Tesh Radio Show is often substituted. Automated programming is the next option for the 7PM- 12 AM timeslot. Your Weekend with Jim Brickman and the Ellen K Weekend Show are popular weekend syndicated programs on iHeartMedia adult contemporary stations. Most AC stations air Christmas music from the last week of November to Christmas Day. Some AC iHeartMedia stations are known for playing Christmas music as early as November 1 such as KOSY-FM in Salt Lake City before they flipped to mainstream rock or WLKO (now adult hits) playing its first Christmas song of the season 2–3 weeks before Thanksgiving. 2/3 of iHeartMedia stations that play Adult contemporary air Christmas formats.

Hot adult contemporary stations are usually branded as "Mix", "Star" or "MYfm" (i.e. KBIG in Los Angeles). Some Hot AC stations lean modern rock while others lean toward adult rock. Other Hot AC stations have other brandings such as "Wild 105.7 and 96.7" on WRDA (now WBZY) a Spanish CHR station in Atlanta.

Contemporary hit radio

iHeartMedia's CHR stations share a number of common brands, including "KISS-FM" (e.g., KIIS-FM Los Angeles, WKSC-FM Chicago, WAKS Cleveland, WFKS Melbourne, WXKS-FM Boston), "Z" (e.g., WHTZ New York, KKRZ Portland Oregon WZFT Baltimore, KSLZ St. Louis), "Wild" (e.g., WLDI West Palm Beach, KYLD San Francisco), "Power" (WWPW Atlanta, WGEX Albany, Georgia), Channel (e.g., WKQI Detroit, WHQC now called Hits 96.1 in Charlotte, KHTS-FM San Diego, WCHD Dayton-Springfield), or "Hot" (e.g., WIHT in Washington, D.C., WWHT in Syracuse, NY). Other brands, less commonly used, includes "Radio Now" (previously used at WNRW Louisville, now rebranded as "98.9 Kiss FM"), "Q" (WIOQ Philadelphia-102.1 FM-Q102, WQGA Waycross-Brunswick, Georgia-103.3 FM-103Q), "B" (WAEB-FM B 104 Allentown-Reading PA 104.1 FM), "FM" (WLAN-FM FM 97 96.9 FM Lancaster-Reading), "V" (WVRT & WVRZ V-97 Williamsport-Lock Haven, Pennsylvania), "Max" (WHCY Max 106.3 Sussex), "K.C." (WKCI-FM KC 101, 101.3 FM, Hamden-New Haven, Connecticut/Long Island, New York) and "X" (WJMX-FM 103X, 103.3 FM Cheraw-Florence, South Carolina/The Pee Dee). Still other branding can be heard, however, when a preferred format name is already in use by another station in the market.

Although a majority of these stations features a broad-based, mass appeal music presentation, several stations like WSNX-FM/Grand Rapids and WKTU/New York City tend to lean towards Rhythmic material due to having a sister station in the same format (WKTU's sister is WHTZ) or a lack of a Rhythmic or R&B/Hip-Hop outlet (a void which WSNX also tries to fill).

Country music

Country music stations owned by iHeartMedia have begun transitioning to "The Bull" like KSD (FM) in St. Louis and "Big" like WEBG in Chicago (which flipped to mainstream rock as WCHI-FM in 2020) as national brandings as of 2014. They almost universally carry After Midnite, the syndicated overnight program currently hosted by Granger Smith, and often carry The Bobby Bones Show based out of WSIX-FM in Nashville in the morning as well.

In 2015, iHeartMedia launched the iHeartCountry franchise. It also launched an annual country event franchise, the iHeartRadio Country Festival.[177]

Oldies and classic hits

iHeartMedia's Oldies stations consists largely of FM stations with some AM stations. iHeartMedia uses brands such as "Big" and "Kool" on many of its stations. Nearly all of the FM stations play oldies spanning from 1964 to 1975, with a 500-song active playlist split nearly half 1960s and half 1970s. The playlist also includes approximately a dozen pre 1964 tracks and around 50 songs from the late 1970s and early 1980s. These stations generally have a few local live announcers; much of the time these stations are voicetracked either locally or from another market. Most run syndicated programming on weekends, such as Dick Bartley or Mike Harvey on Saturday nights, Steve Goddard's programs (Goddard's Gold and/or The 70s), and recently, Casey Kasem's American Top 40: The 70s. A handful of iHeartMedia's outlets have picked up syndicated weeknight fare, such as Mike Harvey, Marty Thompson or Tom Kent.

The AM oldies stations' playlists skew somewhat older and span from 1955 to about 1975. About 60 percent of the time they play 1964 to 1969 oldies, 20 percent pre 1964 oldies, and 20 percent music from the 1970s. Some of these also run Dick Bartley or Mike Harvey on Saturday nights. Some of the AM stations also run adult standards several hours on the weekend as well as limited specialized programming focusing on the pre 1964 era. Most of the AM stations are in smaller markets.


iHeartMedia stations programming a rock format tend to play a blend of new rock and harder classic rock. Some carry Nights with Alice Cooper (out of KSLX-FM in Phoenix) in the evenings while some others aired Sixx Sense with Nikki Sixx until the show ended at the end of 2015. These stations tend to be live during the day and voicetracked at night. Some stations run Rockline with Bob Coburn and/or Little Steven's Underground Garage as well.

While iHeartMedia classic rock stations operate under a wide variety of monikers, many are branded as "The Fox" or "The Brew". Often, these stations will carry Bob and Tom (out of WFBQ in Indianapolis) in morning drive. In the Southern United States, John Boy and Billy (out of WRFX in Charlotte) is carried instead in most cases. (Both of the aforementioned shows are syndicated by Premiere.) Other shows include Rover's Morning Glory out of WMMS in Cleveland. Starting with WQBW Milwaukee (now the sports formatted WRNW) and WBWR Columbus (now WXZX), several iHeartMedia stations have adopted a 1980s-centered classic rock approach called "The Brew".

The company's alternative rock stations use a standardized branding under the brand "Alt".


In a few markets, iHeartMedia has an FM station carrying Hispanic programming full-time. In some markets the format is a Contemporary Tropical format while in others the format carried is more of a Mexican format. In a few markets an iHeartMedia FM station carries a rap based Spanish format known as Hurban, which blends Spanish dance music with rhythm and blues hits as well as some Hip Hop. The division was run by Spanish radio executive Alfredo Alonso, who joined the company in September 2004 as senior vice president of Hispanic Radio.[178] In September 2016, iHeartMedia brought hired Enrique Santos as chairman and chief creative officer of the newly formed iHeartLatino division.[179]

iHeartMedia launched an annual event franchise called iHeartRadio Fiesta Latina.[180]


In a few markets, iHeartMedia has a religious station on the AM band. Some of these sell blocks of time to outside organizations and have no local shows at all except where local churches buy time. These are formatted similarly to Salem Media stations.

The other type of religious format iHeartMedia uses in a few markets is a Gospel music based format. On these stations, Gospel Music appealing to black Americans airs most of the time, along with some block programming sold to religious groups. These stations are often programmed as urban stations that happen to be religious.


IHeartMedia has one station in Hawaii, KDNN/Honolulu, programming a Contemporary Hawaiian Hits/Reggae format, along with an accompanying HD2 sub channel that features traditional Hawaiian music. Multicultural programming can also be heard on AM stations that iHeartMedia owns or has LMAs with. In March 2019, its Allentown, Pennsylvania outlet, WSAN, launched an all-podcast format. In November 2019, K256AS/KUCD-HD2 in Honolulu launched a variant Top 40 format with a focus on K-pop and other international pop hits.


Market share

In the late 1990s and early 2000s, the company became an object of persistent criticism.[181][182] FCC regulations were relaxed following the Telecommunications Act of 1996, allowing companies to own far more radio stations than before. After spending about $30 billion, Clear Channel owned over 1,200 stations nationwide, including as many as eight stations in certain markets. Although "media reform" social movement organizations like Future of Music Coalition mobilized against Clear Channel, so far the company has been able to hold on to all of its stations after divesting a few following the acquisition of AMFM, although over 500 stations have since been sold or are in the process of being sold since the company announced plans to become privately held.

September 11, 2001

Following the September 11 attacks on New York and The Pentagon, radio stations circulated a list of songs that were deemed inappropriate for broadcast during the time of national mourning following the attacks. A small list was initially generated by the Clear Channel office on Thursday, September 13, 2001,[183] though individual program directors added many of their own songs. A list containing about 150 songs was soon published on the Internet. Some critics suggested that Clear Channel's political preferences played a part in the list.[184] A number of songs were apparently placed on the list because they had specific words such as "plane", "fly", "burn", and "falling" in their titles. Clear Channel denies that this was a list of banned songs, claiming it was a list of titles that should be played only after great thought. Also WOFX, Cincinnati, owned by Clear Channel at the time continued to play songs that were on the alleged list, even though radio headquarters was in Cincinnati at the time.[185] Songs on the list included Tom Petty's "Free Fallin'", Louis Armstrong's "What a Wonderful World" and the entire Rage Against the Machine discography.

Live music recordings

In 2004, Clear Channel acquired a key patent in the process of producing Instant Live recordings, in which a live performance is recorded directly from the sound engineer's console during the show, and then rapidly burned on CD so that audience members can buy copies of the show as they are leaving the venue. This had been intended to provide additional revenue to the artist, venue, and promoter, as well as stifle the demand for unauthorized bootleg concert recordings made by audience members. However, some media critics, as well as smaller business rivals, believed that Clear Channel was using the patent (on the process of adding cues to the beginning and ending of tracks during recording, so that the concert is not burned as a single enormous track) to drive competitors out of business or force them to pay licensing fees, even if they do not use precisely the same process. The patent was transferred to Live Nation when Clear Channel Entertainment was spun off, but the patent was revoked on March 13, 2007,[186] after it was found that this patent infringed on a prior patent granted for Telex.

Indecency zero tolerance

During the nationwide crackdown on indecent material following the Super Bowl XXXVIII halftime show in 2004, Clear Channel launched a "self-policing" effort, and declared that there would be no "indecent" material allowed on the air.[182] This led to the company's dismissal of several of their own employees, including popular and high-profile hosts in a number of cities. There were protests from free-speech advocates. During the same period, Howard Stern was dropped from six Clear Channel-owned stations in Florida, California, Pennsylvania, New York and Kentucky. By mid-year, rival Viacom (through radio division Infinity Broadcasting, and the original Viacom, not the current one) brought Stern's show back to those six markets. In June 2004, Viacom/Infinity Broadcasting Inc./One Twelve Inc. filed a $10 million lawsuit against Clear Channel for breaking of contracts and non-payment of licensing fees due to the dropping of Stern's show. (Viacom was Howard Stern's employer at the time, though he has since moved to Sirius XM Satellite Radio.) The following July, Clear Channel filed a countersuit of $3 million.[187]


In the early 2000s, Clear Channel settled a lawsuit with a Denver, Colorado concert promoter, Nobody In Particular Presents (NIPP).[182] In the lawsuit, NIPP alleged that Clear Channel halted airplay on its local stations for (NIPP) clients, and that Clear Channel would not allow NIPP to publicize its concerts on the air. The lawsuit was settled in 2004 when Clear Channel agreed to pay NIPP a confidential sum. However, a systematic analysis of concert ticket prices found no evidence that Clear Channel was cross-leveraging its radio interests with its (now divested) concert promotion interests.[188]

Production of local programming

iHeartMedia uses the RCS Nex-Gen automation system throughout their properties. Like most contemporary automation systems, Nex-Gen allows a DJ from anywhere in the country to sound as if he or she is broadcasting from anywhere else in the country, on any other station.[189] A technological outgrowth of earlier, tape-based automation systems dating back to the 1960s, this method—known as voice-tracking—allows for smaller market stations to be partially or completely staffed by "cyber-jocks" who may never have visited the town from which they are broadcasting. This practice may also result in local on-air positions being reduced or eliminated. It has been stated that iHeartMedia maintains a majority of its staff in hourly-paid, part-time positions. Beginning in the early 2020s, many of its stations have added a disclaimer with their station identification sequence noting that the voicetracked content is pre-recorded.

Lack of local staff during emergency

Clear Channel was criticized for a situation that occurred in Minot, North Dakota, on the morning of January 18, 2002. At around 2:30 a.m., a Canadian Pacific Railway train derailed and leaked 240,000 US gallons (910,000 L) of toxic anhydrous ammonia, releasing a cloud of caustic, poisonous gas over the city.[190] At the time, Clear Channel owned six commercial radio stations out of nine in the Minot area. City officials attempted to contact the local Clear Channel office by telephone to spread warnings of the danger using its radio stations, but it was several critical hours before the station manager was finally reached at his home. In the meantime, 9-1-1 operators were advising panicked callers to tune to KCJB for emergency instructions, but the station was not broadcasting any such information.[191]

The ammonia spill was the largest of its kind in the United States, with one person killed, and over 1,000 seeking medical attention. Clear Channel claimed no responsibility for its failure to warn residents, maintaining that the city should have used the Emergency Alert System to trigger automatic equipment in place at all U.S. radio stations. The EAS equipment was later found to be functional at the time, but had not been activated by city, state or regional authorities.[192] Other critical systems throughout Minot were either inoperable or had failed, including the public siren system, electricity in parts of the town, and the 9-1-1 telephone system, which became overloaded.[193]

Rejection of advertising images

Clear Channel Outdoor rejected the two images on the left

In June 2010, Clear Channel Outdoor rejected without comment two digital billboard images submitted by St. Pete Pride,[194] an LGBT organization that sponsors gay pride events in the St. Petersburg, Florida area, leading the group to cancel its contract with Clear Channel. St. Pete Pride has stated that throughout its eight-year history, Clear Channel has edited the organization's advertising material, and questioned whether the rejection of these images were because they displayed same-sex couples in affectionate poses. A Clear Channel spokesperson declined to comment on the specific reasons why the images were rejected but denied that the affection being shown was an issue, saying that such images had been included in previous St. Pete Pride campaigns.[195][196][197][198]


iHeartMedia and its subsidiaries have been associated with censorship of state and federal candidates for public office, elected officials and various political viewpoints.

iHeartMedia has been criticized in the past for censoring opinions critical of the Republican Party. Magic, the 2007 release from Bruce Springsteen which contained songs that were subtly critical of then-president George W. Bush, a Republican, and his administration, was censored from air play on Clear Channel. After Natalie Maines, the singer of the country band Dixie Chicks, told a London audience that they were "ashamed [of the fact that] the president of the United States is from Texas", the band's radio airplay dropped precipitously. Afterwards, some iHeartMedia (then Clear Channel) stations removed The Dixie Chicks from their playlists without any noted repercussions from the company. Gail Austin, Clear Channel's director of programming said, "Out of respect for our troops, our city and our listeners, [we] have taken the Dixie Chicks off our playlists."[199] Clear Channel was accused of orchestrating the radio blacklist by such critics as Paul Krugman; however, others claim some Clear Channel stations continued to play the band longer than some other companies.[200]

In 2005, Clear Channel-owned KTVX was the only local television station in Salt Lake City that refused to air a paid political message of Cindy Sheehan against the war in Iraq during a visit by President Bush.[201]

On May 8, 2014, the FCC was asked to respond to a political programming complaint made against an iHeartMedia owned broadcast licensee, Capstar TX LLC by supporters of Milwaukee mayor Tom Barrett, that year's Democratic candidate for Governor of Wisconsin. Capstar would not offer free airtime on WISN radio (a station which only features local and national conservative talk shows) to respond to statements supporting Republican Governor Scott Walker. Walker's supporters had received free airtime from WISN for political purposes. Barrett supporters based their complaint on WISN's violation of the Zapple doctrine. The FCC responded by rescinding the Zapple doctrine as a no longer enforceable component of the Fairness Doctrine.

Use of paid actors posing as callers

iHeartMedia, through its subsidiary, Premiere Radio Networks, auditions and hires actors to call in to talk radio shows and pose as listeners in order to provide shows, carried by iHeartMedia and other broadcasters, with planned content in the form of stories and opinions. The custom caller service provided by Premiere Radio assures its clients they won't hear the same actor's voice for at least two months in order to appear authentic to listeners who might otherwise catch on.[202]

iHeartMedia and rock radio

iHeartMedia had ended several long-running rock formats in several markets due to the decline of the format and shifts in overall market demographics, to negative listener reception, including:

  • KSJO San Jose (formerly an iHeart station) – flipped to Spanish-language oldies on October 28, 2004, after 35 years as a rock station[203]
  • KLOL Houston – flipped to Spanish-language pop on November 12, 2004, after 34 years as a rock station[204] (the station was sold to CBS Radio a few years later)
  • WFNX Boston – flipped to adult hits on July 24, 2012, after 29 years as an alternative rock station[205]
  • WKLS Atlanta – flipped to mainstream top 40 on August 29, 2012, after 38 years as a rock station[206]
  • KZEP-FM San Antonio – flipped to rhythmic hot AC on August 8, 2014, after 25 years as a classic rock station and 45 years of some form of rock music on the frequency (the classic rock format was moved to low-powered translator K227BH)[207]
  • KDGE DallasFort Worth – flipped to Christmas music on November 16, 2016, then Mainstream AC on December 26 after 27 years (11 years on 94.5 before moving to 102.1 in 2000, and 16 years on 102.1) as an alternative rock station.[208]

See also


  1. ^ "Clear Channel's John Hogan Retires, Bob Pittman's Contract Extended". January 13, 2014. Archived from the original on August 19, 2014. Retrieved July 29, 2014. ... Bob Pittman, chairman and CEO of CC Media Holdings...
  2. ^ "iHeartMedia Announces New Operational Structure". February 26, 2021. Retrieved July 23, 2021.
  3. ^ "iHeart Podcast Chief Conal Byrne Takes Bigger Digital Role Under New Company Structure". February 26, 2021.
  4. ^ a b c d e "iHeart Media 10K 2019" (PDF). iHeartMedia. Retrieved January 16, 2021.
  5. ^ a b "iHeartMedia". Fortune. Archived from the original on December 31, 2018. Retrieved July 26, 2021.
  6. ^ "CLEAR CHANNEL COMMUNICATIONS INC (Form Type: 8-K, Filing Date: 07/22/2008)". Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved January 12, 2016.
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Further reading

  1. Eric Boehlert, "Radio's big bully",, April 30, 2001
  2. Eric Boehlert, "Tough company",, May 30, 2001
  3. "Group sues over anti-war billboard", CNN, July 12, 2004
  4. article on Clear Channel

External links

  • Official website
  • Business data for iHeartMedia Class A Common Stock:
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