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Claude Rains
William Claude Rains

(1889-11-10)10 November 1889
Clapham, London, England
Died30 May 1967(1967-05-30) (aged 77)
CitizenshipUnited Kingdom - United States
Alma materRoyal Academy of Dramatic Art
Years active1900–1965
(m. 1913; div. 1915)
Marie Hemingway
(m. 1920; div. 1920)
(m. 1924; div. 1935)
Frances Propper
(m. 1935; div. 1956)
(m. 1959; div. 1960)
Rosemary Clark Schrode
(m. 1960; died 1964)

William Claude Rains (10 November 1889 – 30 May 1967) was a British actor whose career spanned almost seven decades. After his American film debut as Dr. Jack Griffin in The Invisible Man (1933), he appeared in The Adventures of Robin Hood (1938), Mr. Smith Goes to Washington (1939), The Wolf Man (1941), Casablanca (1942), Kings Row (1942), Notorious (1946), Lawrence of Arabia (1962), and The Greatest Story Ever Told (1965).

He was a Tony Award-winning actor and a four-time nominee for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. Rains was one of the screen's great character stars who played cultured villains.[1][2]

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • The Life and Tragic Ending of Claude Rains
  • Claude Rains - Top 30 Highest Rated Movies
  • 10 Things You Should Know About Claude Rains
  • Bette Davis talks about Gladys Cooper & Claude Raines
  • Moontide 1942-Crime/Drama/Film-Noir/Thriller- Claude Rains, Ida Lupino, Jean Gabin & Thomas Mitchell


Early life

William Claude Rains was born on 10 November 1889 at 26 Tregothnan Road in Clapham, London.[3] His parents were Emily Eliza (née Cox) and stage actor Frederick William Rains.[4] He lived in the slums of London.[5] Rains was one of 12 children, all but three dying of malnutrition when still infants. His mother took in boarders in order to support the family. Rains grew up with a Cockney accent and a speech impediment.[6]

Rains in his captain's uniform during the First World War

Because his father was an actor, the young Rains would spend time in theatres and was surrounded by actors and stagehands. There he observed actors as well as the day-to-day running of a theatre. Rains made his stage debut at age 10 in the play Sweet Nell of Old Drury at the Haymarket Theatre, so that he could run around onstage as part of the production. He slowly worked his way up in the theatre, becoming a call boy (telling actors when they were due on stage) at His Majesty's Theatre and later a prompter, stage manager, understudy, and then moving on from smaller parts with good reviews to larger, better parts.

A 23-year-old Rains in one of his early theatre roles, 1912

Early career and military service

Rains moved to the United States in 1912 owing to the opportunities that were being offered in the New York theatres. However, at the outbreak of World War I in 1914, he returned to England to serve in the London Scottish Regiment,[7] alongside fellow actors Basil Rathbone, Ronald Colman, Herbert Marshall and Cedric Hardwicke.[8] In November 1916, Rains was involved in a gas attack at Vimy, which resulted in his permanently losing 90 percent of the vision in his right eye as well as suffering vocal cord damage.[9] He never returned to combat but continued to serve with the Bedfordshire Regiment. By the end of the war, he had risen to the rank of captain.[9]

After the war ended, Rains remained in England and continued to develop his acting talents. These talents were recognised by Sir Herbert Beerbohm Tree, the founder of the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art. Tree told Rains that in order to succeed as an actor, he would have to get rid of his Cockney accent and speech impediment. With this in mind, Tree paid for the elocution books and lessons that Rains needed to help him change his voice. Rains eventually shed his accent and speech impediment after practising every day. His daughter Jessica, when describing her father's voice, said, "The interesting thing to me was that he became a different person. He became a very elegant man, with a really extraordinary Mid-Atlantic accent. It was 'his' voice, nobody else spoke like that, half American, half English and a little Cockney thrown in."[10] Soon after changing his accent, he became recognised as one of the leading stage actors in London. At age 29, he played the role of Clarkis in his only silent film, the British film Build Thy House (1920).

During his early years, Rains taught at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Arts (RADA). John Gielgud and Charles Laughton were among his students. In an interview for Turner Classic Movies, Gielgud fondly remembered Rains:

I learnt a great deal about acting from this gentleman. Claude Rains was one of my teachers at RADA. In fact he was one of the best and most popular teachers there. He was extremely attractive and needless to say, all the girls in my class were hopelessly in love with him. He had piercing dark eyes and a beautifully throaty voice, although he had, like Marlene Dietrich, some trouble with the letter 'R'. He lacked inches and wore lifts to his shoes to increase his height. Stocky but handsome, Rains had broad shoulders and a mop of thick brown hair which he brushed over one eye. But by the time I first met him in the 1920s he was already much in demand as a character actor in London. I found him enormously helpful and encouraging to work with. I was always trying to copy him in my first years as an actor, until I decided to imitate Noël Coward instead.


In London theatre, he achieved success in the title role of John Drinkwater's play Ulysses S. Grant, the follow-up to the same playwright's Abraham Lincoln. Rains portrayed Faulkland in Richard Brinsley Sheridan's The Rivals, presented at London's Lyric Theatre in 1925. He returned to New York City in 1927 and appeared in nearly 20 Broadway roles, in plays which included George Bernard Shaw's The Apple Cart and dramatisations of The Constant Nymph and Pearl S. Buck's novel The Good Earth (as a Chinese farmer).

Rains with Mary Kennedy in Camel Through the Needle's Eye on Broadway, New York City, 1929

Although he had played the single supporting role in the silent, Build Thy House (1920),[2] Rains came relatively late to film acting. While working for the Theatre Guild, he was offered a screen test with Universal Pictures in 1932. His screen test for A Bill of Divorcement (1932) for a New York representative of RKO was a failure but, according to some accounts, led to his being cast in the title role of James Whale's The Invisible Man (1933) after his screen test and unique voice were inadvertently overheard from the next room.[6][11] His agent, Harold Freedman, was a family friend of Carl Laemmle, who controlled Universal Pictures at the time, and had been acquainted with Rains in London and was keen to cast him in the role.[12][13] According to Rains' daughter, this was the only film of his he ever saw. He also did not go to see the rushes of the day's filming "because he told me, every time he went he was horrified by his huge face on the huge screen, that he just never went back again."

Rains signed a long-term contract with Warner Bros. on 27 November 1935 with Warner able to exercise the right to loan him to other studios and Rains having a potential income of up to $750,000 over seven years.[14] He played the villainous role of Prince John in The Adventures of Robin Hood (1938). Roddy McDowall once asked Rains if he had intentionally lampooned Bette Davis in his performance as Prince John, and Rains' only smiled "an enigmatic smile." Rains later revealed to his daughter that he'd enjoyed playing the prince as a homosexual, by using subtle mannerisms. Rains later credited the film's co-director Michael Curtiz with teaching him the more understated requirements of film acting, or "what not to do in front of a camera."[15] On loan to Columbia Pictures, he portrayed a corrupt U.S. senator in Mr. Smith Goes to Washington (1939), for which he received his first Academy Award nomination as Best Supporting Actor. For Warner Bros., he played Dr. Alexander Tower, who commits murder-suicide to spare his daughter a life of insanity in Kings Row (1942) and the cynical police chief Captain Renault in Casablanca (also 1942). On loan again, Rains played the title character in Universal's remake of Phantom of the Opera (1943).

In her 1987 memoir, This 'N That, Bette Davis revealed that Rains (with whom she shared the screen four times in Juarez; Now, Voyager; Mr. Skeffington; and Deception) was her favorite co-star.[16] Rains became the first actor to receive a million-dollar salary when he portrayed Julius Caesar in a large-budget but unsuccessful version of Shaw's Caesar and Cleopatra (1945), filmed in Britain. Shaw apparently chose him for the part, although Rains intensely disliked Gabriel Pascal, the film's director and producer.[17] Rains followed it with Alfred Hitchcock's Notorious (1946) as a refugee Nazi agent opposite Cary Grant and Ingrid Bergman. Back in Britain, he appeared in David Lean's The Passionate Friends (1949).

Rains in Notorious (1946)

His only singing and dancing role was in a 1957 television musical version of Robert Browning's The Pied Piper of Hamelin, with Van Johnson as the Piper. The NBC colour special, broadcast as a film rather than a live or videotaped programme, was highly successful with the public. Sold into syndication after its first telecast, it was repeated annually by many local US TV stations.

Rains remained active as a character actor in the 1950s and 1960s, appearing in films and as a guest in television series. He played the ventriloquist Fabian on Alfred Hitchcock Presents Season 1 Episode 20 "And So Died Riabouchinska" which aired 2/10/1956. He ventured into science fiction for Irwin Allen's The Lost World (1960) and Antonio Margheriti's Battle of the Worlds (1961). Two of his late screen roles were as Dryden, a cynical British diplomat in Lawrence of Arabia (1962) and King Herod in The Greatest Story Ever Told (1965), his last film. In CBS's Rawhide, he portrayed Alexander Langford, an attorney in a ghost town, in the episode "Incident of Judgement Day" (1963).

He additionally made several audio recordings, narrating some Bible stories for children on Capitol Records, and reciting Richard Strauss's setting for narrator and piano of Tennyson's poem Enoch Arden, with the piano solos performed by Glenn Gould. He starred in The Jeffersonian Heritage, a 1952 series of 13 half-hour radio programmes recorded by the National Association of Educational Broadcasters and syndicated for commercial broadcast on a sustaining (i.e., commercial-free) basis.[18]


Jessica Rains remembered her father's work ethic:

He was interested in the process (of film). He loved acting. When he came to California to do a film, I had to "hear him his lines" as he drove me to school every morning, 10 miles [16 km]. He knew everybody's part. He knew the whole script before he came out (to film). I don't think many people did that.

Bette Davis in an interview with Dick Cavett said about Rains:

Well, of course he petrified me. The first time I played with him was in Carlotta (Juarez), and I had to make an entrance [into] the King of France's domain for a rehearsal, and he's playing the King of France (N.B. The character is actually the Emperor of the French Napoleon III) in rehearsal. As all of us "other era people," we don't just run through lines and say "turn the camera", we rehearse beforehand...Anyway Claude and I couldn't, and he was the King of France who loathed Carlotta, and I was a kid and petrified of Mr. Rains, so I thought he hated me. I didn't know he was playing the character. I thought, he thinks I just stink! What am I going to do? Eventually we worked together quite a lot and became really great friends, really great friends.

Davis later went on to describe him: "Claude was witty, amusing and beautiful, really beautiful, thoroughly enchanting to be with and brilliant." She also praised his performances: "He was marvelous in Deception and was worth the whole thing as the picture wasn't terribly good, but he was so marvelous and the restaurant scene where he's talking about all the food...brilliant, and of course in Mr. Skeffington he was absolutely brilliant as the husband, just brilliant."

Richard Chamberlain worked with Rains in what would be his second-to-last film, Twilight of Honor. In 2009, Chamberlain recorded a tribute to the actor when Rains was featured as Turner Classic Movies' Star of the Month: [19]

Claude Rains has to be considered one of the finest actors of the 20th century. As soon as you hear that marvelous, unmistakable voice of honey mixed with gravel, he becomes instantly recognizable. And that scornful right eyebrow which could freeze an adversary faster than and more effectively than any physical threat. He stood at a mere 5′6″, yet his enormous talent and immense stage presence made him a giant among his colleagues. During a stage and film career that spanned six decades, Rains encompassed some of the most memorable and exciting characters ever created by an actor. Villains were a Rains specialty, particularly those of a suave and sarcastic nature; and yet when the role called for it, Rains could be remarkably moving and even add a touch of pathos without losing any of his effectiveness.

In Twilight of Honor Rains played a retired lawyer acting as a mentor to Chamberlain's character. Reminiscing about his work with Rains, Chamberlain said:

He was in his seventies then and in failing health, yet he was charming and totally professional on the set. It was clear to us that he loved practicing his craft; he dazzled us all. Claude was an extremely private man—he never discussed his humble beginnings, his six marriages. But get him into a conversation about acting, and he opened up with delightful anecdotes and fascinating stories about his long life as a thespian.

One day on the set I mentioned to him that Notorious was one of my favorite films, and Claude related with amusement the filming of a particular scene with Ingrid Bergman. Rains was a very small man and Bergman was quite tall, so in order to shoot them in close-up together (in the key scene) the resourceful Alfred Hitchcock had a ramp installed, so as Rains approaches Bergman on camera he appears taller than his co-star. Claude found this ramp business a bit embarrassing and very funny.

I got another taste of Claude's witty nature shooting a scene in his [next-to-last] film, in which he had a long piece of dialogue. Generally he had no problem remembering his lines despite getting along in years. However, there was one particularly long scene shot late at night where he was having a lot of trouble with the dialogue, and kept making excuses. And finally he paused and said with a sheepish look "Alibi Ike, good old Alibi Ike" ("Alibi Ike" being an expression based on a 1935 film of the same name, in which the lead character has a penchant for making up excuses). Of course in the finished film he played the scene flawlessly, as he always did. Claude Rains: truly a class act, on and off screen.

Many years after Rains had gone to Hollywood and become a well-known film actor, John Gielgud commented, tongue-in-cheek, "There was somebody who taught me a very great deal at drama school, and I am certainly grateful to him for his kindness and consideration. His name was Claude Rains. I don't know whatever happened to him. I think he failed, and had to go to America."[20] Gielgud later went on to recollect a time when he was in New York and in the audience during an event that included a focus on Bette Davis.

A number of clips from many of her most successful films were shown and I was particularly delighted, when, as soon as Claude Rains appeared in the close-up of one of the clips, the whole audience burst into a great wave of applause.

Bette Davis often cited Rains as one of her favorite actors and colleagues. Gielgud said that he once wrote that "The London stage suffered a great loss when Claude Rains deserted it for motion pictures," and that he later added, "but when I see him now on the screen and remember him, I must admit that the London stage's loss was the cinema's gain. And the striking virtuosity that I witnessed as a young actor is now there for audiences everywhere to see for all time. I'm so glad of that."

Personal life and death

The ivory military uniform Rains wore in Casablanca was sold at auction in 2011 for $55,000.[21]

Rains became a naturalized citizen of the United States in 1939. He married six times and was divorced from the first five of his wives: Isabel Jeans (married 1913–1915); Marie Hemingway (to whom Rains was married for less than a year in 1920); Beatrix Thomson (1924–8 April 1935); Frances Propper (9 April 1935 – 1956); and the classical pianist Agi Jambor (4 November 1959 – 1960). In 1960, he married Rosemary Clark Schrode, to whom he was married until her death on 31 December 1964. His only child, Jennifer, was the daughter of Frances Propper. As an actress, she is known as Jessica Rains.[22]

He acquired the 380-acre (1.5 km2) Stock Grange Farm, built in 1747 in West Bradford Township, Pennsylvania (just outside Coatesville), in 1941. The farm became one of the "great prides" of his life.[23] Here, he became a "gentleman farmer" and could relax and enjoy farming life with his then wife (Frances) churning the butter, their daughter collecting the eggs, with Rains himself ploughing the fields and cultivating the vegetable garden. He spent much of his time between film takes reading up on agricultural techniques to try when he got home. He sold the farm when his marriage to Propper ended in 1956; the building now, as then, is still referred to by locals as "Rains' Place".[24] Rains spent his final years in Sandwich, New Hampshire.[25]

In his final years, he decided to write his memoirs and engaged the help of journalist Jonathan Root to assist him. Rains' declining health delayed their completion and with Root's death in March 1967 the project was never completed. A chronic alcoholic, Rains died from cirrhosis of the liver, having an abdominal hemorrhage in Laconia on 30 May 1967, aged 77.[26] His daughter said, "And, just like most actors, he died waiting for his agent to call."[27] He was buried at the Red Hill Cemetery in Moultonborough, New Hampshire. He designed his own tombstone which reads "All things once, Are things forever, Soul, once living, lives forever".

In 2010, many of Rains' personal effects were put into an auction at Heritage Auctions, including his 1951 Tony award, rare posters, letters and photographs. Also included in the auction were many volumes of his private leather-bound scrapbooks which contained many of his press cuttings and reviews from the beginning of his career. The majority of the items were used to help David J. Skal write his book on Rains, An Actor's Voice. In 2011, the ivory military uniform (complete with medals) he wore as Captain Renault in Casablanca was put up for auction when noted actress and film historian Debbie Reynolds sold her collection of Hollywood costumes and memorabilia which she had amassed as a result of the 1970 MGM auction.[21]

Acting credits


Year Title Role Director Notes
1920 Build Thy House Clarkis Fred Goodwins Film debut
1933 The Invisible Man Dr. Jack Griffin/The Invisible Man James Whale
1934 Crime Without Passion Lee Gentry Ben Hecht, Charles MacArthur
The Man Who Reclaimed His Head Paul Verin Edward Ludwig
1935 The Mystery of Edwin Drood John Jasper Stuart Walker
The Clairvoyant Maximus Maurice Elvey
The Last Outpost John Stevenson Louis Gasnier, Charles Barton
Scrooge Jacob Marley Henry Edwards Uncredited
1936 Hearts Divided Napoleon Bonaparte Frank Borzage
Anthony Adverse Marquis Don Luis Mervyn LeRoy
1937 Stolen Holiday Stefan Orloff Michael Curtiz
The Prince and the Pauper Earl of Hertford William Keighley
They Won't Forget Dist. Atty. Andrew J. "Andy" Griffin Mervyn LeRoy
1938 White Banners Paul Ward Edmund Goulding
Gold is Where You Find It Colonel Christopher "Chris" Ferris Michael Curtiz Technicolor
The Adventures of Robin Hood Prince John Michael Curtiz Technicolor
Four Daughters Adam Lemp Michael Curtiz
1939 They Made Me a Criminal Det. Monty Phelan Busby Berkeley
Juarez Emperor Louis Napoleon III William Dieterle
Sons of Liberty Haym Salomon Michael Curtiz Technicolor; two-reel short
Daughters Courageous Jim Masters Michael Curtiz
Mr. Smith Goes to Washington Sen. Joseph Harrison Paine Frank Capra
Four Wives Adam Lemp Michael Curtiz
1940 Saturday's Children Mr. Henry Halevy Vincent Sherman
The Sea Hawk Don José Álvarez de Córdoba Michael Curtiz Sepia tone (sequence)
Lady with Red Hair David Belasco Curtis Bernhardt
1941 Four Mothers Adam Lemp William Keighley
Here Comes Mr. Jordan Mr. Jordan Alexander Hall
The Wolf Man Sir. John Talbot George Waggner
1942 Kings Row Dr. Alexander Tower Sam Wood
Moontide Nutsy Archie Mayo
Now, Voyager Dr. Jaquith Irving Rapper
Casablanca Capt. Louis Renault Michael Curtiz
1943 Forever and a Day Ambrose Pomfret Herbert Wilcox
(sequence with Rains)
Phantom of the Opera Erique Claudin/The Phantom of the Opera Arthur Lubin Technicolor
1944 Passage to Marseille Captain Freycinet Michael Curtiz
Mr. Skeffington Job Skeffington Vincent Sherman
1945 Strange Holiday John Stevenson Arch Oboler
This Love of Ours Joseph Targel William Dieterle
Caesar and Cleopatra Julius Caesar Gabriel Pascal Technicolor
1946 Notorious Alexander Sebastian Alfred Hitchcock
Angel on My Shoulder Nick Archie Mayo
Deception Alexander Hollenius Irving Rapper
1947 The Unsuspected Victor Grandison Michael Curtiz
1949 The Passionate Friends Howard Justin David Lean
Rope of Sand Arthur "Fred" Martingale William Dieterle
Song of Surrender Elisha Hunt Mitchell Leisen
1950 The White Tower Paul DeLambre Ted Tetzlaff Technicolor
Where Danger Lives Frederick Lannington John Farrow
1951 Sealed Cargo Captain Skalder Alfred L. Werker
1952 The Man Who Watched the Trains Go By Kees Popinga Harold French Technicolor
1956 Alfred Hitchcock Presents John Fabian Robert Stevenson Season 1 Episode 20: "And So Died Riabouchinska"
Lisbon Aristides Mavros Ray Milland Trucolor; Naturama
1957 Alfred Hitchcock Presents Charles Gresham Herschel Daugherty Season 2 Episode 24: "The Cream of the Jest"
The Pied Piper of Hamelin The Mayor of Hamelin Bretaigne Windust Technicolor
1959 Alfred Hitchcock Presents Andrew Thurgood Herschel Daugherty Season 4 Episode 20: "The Diamond Necklace"
This Earth Is Mine Philippe Rambeau Henry King Technicolor; CinemaScope
Judgment at Nuremberg Judge Haywood George Roy Hill Playhouse 90
1960 The Lost World Professor George Edward Challenger Irwin Allen Deluxe color; CinemaScope
1961 Alfred Hitchcock Presents Father Amion Alfred Hitchcock Season 6 Episode 22: "The Horseplayer"
Battle of the Worlds Professor Benson Antonio Margheriti Colour
1962 Alfred Hitchcock Presents Sergeant Shaw Herschel Daugherty Season 7 Episode 15: "The Door Without a Key"
Lawrence of Arabia Mr. Dryden David Lean Technicolor; Super Panavision 70
1963 Twilight of Honor Art Harper Boris Sagal
1965 The Greatest Story Ever Told Herod the Great George Stevens Final film


Rains starred in multiple plays and productions over the course of his career, playing a variety of leading and supporting parts. As his film career began to flourish, he found less time to perform in the theatre in both England and America.

Year Play title Role Theatre Notes
1900 Sweet Nell of Old Drury Child Haymarket Theatre Stage debut, aged 10 as an "unbilled child extra "running around a fountain."
1901 Herod Child His Majesty's Theatre Unbilled
1904 Last of the Dandies Winkles Rains' debut speaking role in the theatre
1911 The Gods of the Mountain Thahn Haymarket Theatre Shared role with Reginald Owen
1913 The Green Cockatoo Grasset Aldwych Theatre Stage Manager as well
Typhoon Omayi Haymarket Theatre First heavy character role
1919 Reparation Ivan Petrovitch St. James's Theatre Stage Manager as well
Uncle Ned Mears Lyceum Theatre Marked Rains' return to the stage after being wounded in WWI
1920 Julius Caesar Casca St. James's Theatre Ernest Milton played Brutus
1925 The Rivals Faulkland Lyric Hammersmith
1926 The Government Inspector The Inspector Gaiety Theatre Professional debut of his RADA student, Charles Laughton
1926 Made in Heaven Martin Walmer Everyman Theatre, London This was Rains' last appearance on the London Stage.
1951 Darkness at Noon Rubashov Alvin Theatre/Royale Theatre
1954 The Confidential Clerk Sir Claude Mulhammer Morosco Theatre
1956 Night of the Auk Doctor Bruner Playhouse Theatre Featuring Christopher Plummer


Year Programme Episode/source
1952 Cavalcade of America Three Words[28]
1959 Playhouse 90 Judgement At Nuremberg


Year Title Recording Company
1946 The Christmas Tree Mercury Childcraft Records
1948 Bible Stories for Children Capitol Records
1950 Builders of America Columbia Masterworks
1952[29] David and Goliath Capitol Records
1957[30] The Song of Songs and Heloise and Abelard Caedmon Records
1960 Remember The Alamo Noble Records
1962 Enoch Arden Columbia Masterworks

Awards and nominations

Academy Awards

Year Category Nominated work Result Ref.
1939 Best Supporting Actor Mr. Smith Goes to Washington Nominated [31]
1943 Casablanca Nominated [32]
1944 Mr. Skeffington Nominated [33]
1946 Notorious Nominated [34]

Drama League Awards

Year Category Nominated work Result Ref.
1951 Distinguished Performance Award Darkness at Noon Won [35]

Grammy Awards

Year Category Nominated work Result Ref.
1962 Best Documentary or Spoken Word Recording (Other Than Comedy) Enoch Arden Nominated [36]

Online Film & Television Association Awards

Year Honor Result Ref.
2023 Film Hall of Fame: Actors Inducted [37]

Tony Awards

Year Category Nominated work Result Ref.
1951 Best Actor in a Play Darkness at Noon Won [38]

See also


  1. ^ Erickson, Hal (5 March 2016). "Claude Rains". Movies & TV Dept. The New York Times. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
  2. ^ a b McFarlane, Brian. "Rains, Claude (1889-1967)". British Film Institute. Retrieved 30 December 2015. From McFarlane's Encyclopedia of British Film. London: Methuen/BFI, 2003, p.545
  3. ^ "Rains, (William) Claude (1889–1967)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/55624. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  4. ^ Wise, James E.; Baron, Scott (2002). International Stars at War. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-5575-0965-9.
  5. ^ Soister p. 1.
  6. ^ a b Harmetz p. 147.
  7. ^ "Welcome to The London Scottish Regiment Website". London Scottish Regt. Archived from the original on 12 April 2007.
  8. ^ Hastings, Max (2013). Catastrophe: Europe Goes to War 1914. William Collins. p. 486. ISBN 978-0-007-51974-3.
  9. ^ a b Parkinson, David (7 November 2018). "Roll of honour: 15 movie legends who served in the First World War". British Film Institute. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
  10. ^ Rains, Jessica (2000). "Extras". Phantom of the Opera (Interview) (2004 DVD ed.). Universal Pictures.
  11. ^ Weaver, Tom; Brunas, Michael; Brunas, John (2007). Universal Horrors: The Studio's Classic Films, 1931-1946. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland. p. 102].
  12. ^ Skal and Rains Claude Rains: An Actor's Voice, p.48-9
  13. ^ Weaver, Brunas & Brunas 2007, p. 79.
  14. ^ David J. Skal, with Jessica Rains Claude Rains: An Actor's Voice, Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2008, p.61-62.
  15. ^ Harmetz p. 190.
  16. ^ Davis and Herskowitz 1987, p. 26.
  17. ^ Shipman, David (1989). The Great Movie Stars: 1, The Golden Years. London: Macdonald. p. 487. ISBN 978-0600338178.
  18. ^ "The Jeffersonian Heritage," Broadcasting-Telecasting, 8 September 1952, 36 (trade advertisement).
  19. ^ "Richard Chamberlain on Claude Rains -- (TCM Original) September, 2009". Retrieved 22 June 2022.
  20. ^ Morley, Sheridan (11 May 2010). John Gielgud: The Authorized Biography. Simon & Schuster. p. 50. ISBN 978-1-4391-1617-3.
  21. ^ a b "Claude Rains "Captain Louis Renault" ivory military suit from Casablanca". Online Auctions. Archived from the original on 12 August 2018. Retrieved 6 March 2017.
  22. ^ Skal and Rains, p.104
  23. ^ "Claude Rains' Scrapbook Devoted to His Farm, Stock - Lot #49362 - Heritage Auctions". Heritage Auctions.
  24. ^ "Thinking about Claude Rains and the pastoral Stock Grange Farm". 8 March 2020.
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  27. ^ Soister, John T. (19 July 2017). Claude Rains: A Comprehensive Illustrated to His Work in Film, Stage, Radio, Television and Recordings. McFarland. ISBN 978-1-4766-1278-2.
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  34. ^ "The 19th Academy Awards (1947) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
  35. ^ "Awards History – The Drama League". Drama League Awards. Retrieved 29 July 2023.
  36. ^ "Claude Rains". Grammy Awards. Retrieved 29 July 2023.
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General sources

Further reading

External links

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