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City of Greater New York

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Map of New York City's current size and boroughs with labels
Map of New York City's current size and boroughs with labels

The City of Greater New York was the term used by many politicians and scholars for the expanded City of New York created on January 1, 1898, by consolidating the existing City of New York with the East Bronx, Brooklyn, western Queens County, and Staten Island.[1][2] The section of the Bronx west of the Bronx River had been annexed to the City and County of New York in 1874 and was known as the Annexed District.[3][4]

In the years leading up to consolidation, the City of Brooklyn had expanded by annexing all of the other towns and cities in Kings County. Only the western part of Queens County was part of the consolidation plan.[5] In 1899, its three eastern towns separated to form the new Nassau County.[6]

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Transcription

♪ [THEME MUSIC] ♪ >>> DUBLIN, BRONX, NEW YORK, SAINT VINCENT'S HOSPITAL. CONNECTICUT. WRESTLING? RUNNING? NYU, WAGNER SCHOOL? TEACH AMERICA. ESD. BROOKLYN PARTNERSHIP, YMCA, I GOT A VERY INTERESTING GUY. I GOT JOE CHAN TODAY. THANKS FOR BEING HERE. >> THANKS FOR HAVING ME. >> TELL ME ABOUT YOUR FATHER'S SIDE BECAUSE YOUR FATHER'S SIDE WAS PART OF, THE CHINESE SIDE, BEFORE MAO. >> MY GRANDFATHER WAS FAIRLY HIGH UP IN CHIANG KAI-SHEK'S WORLD. HE WAS MINISTER OF HEALTH IN THE PROVINCE FORMALLY KNOWN AS CANTON. SO WHEN MAO CAME TO POWER IN 1949 MY ENTIRE FAMILY HAD TO LEAVE. SO MY GRANDFATHER LEFT CHINA LATER WITH HIS FAMILY AND THEY MADE THEIR WAY TO THE UNITED STATES VIA HONG KONG. >> THEY CAME TO NEW YORK CITY? >> ULTIMATELY. >> AND WHAT DID GRANDPA DO AFTERWORDS? >> HE ACTUALLY WAS RETIRED BY THE TIME THAT HE GOT HERE. BUT HIS SONS ACTUALLY BECAME DOCTORS AND ENGINEERS AND REALLY MADE GREAT LIVES FOR THEMSELVES. >> TELL ME A LITTLE BIT ABOUT YOUR DAD. >> MY DAD WAS AN ENGINEER. HE WENT TO HIGH SCHOOL AT THE ORATORY IN NEW JERSEY AND ULTIMATELY WENT TO THE PRATT INSTITUTE. HE LIVED IN NEW YORK CITY. LIVED IN CHINATOWN. AND MET MY MOM WHILE HE LIVED IN CHINATOWN. >> YOUR MOTHER CAME FROM DUBLIN? SHE WAS AN AU PAIR RIGHT? >> EXACTLY. MY MOM CAME TO THE U.S. WHEN JFK WAS PRESIDENT. SHE SAW A GREAT OPPORTUNITY IN THE UNITED STATES. SHE FIRST BECAME AN AU PAIR IN D.C. WENT BACK TO DUBLIN FOR A LITTLE BIT AND CAME BACK TO THE STATES AND MADE HER WAY TO NEW YORK CITY. >> HOW DID SHE MEET YOUR DAD? >> AT A DANCE IN LOWER MANHATTAN. >> YOUR MOM AND DAD GET MARRIED AND YOU ARE LIVING IN THE BRONX AT THIS TIME? >> CORRECT. >> AS YOU SAID TO ME, YOU WERE BORN IN SAINT VINCENT'S HOSPITAL IN MANHATTAN AND YOUR TWO DAUGHTERS WERE ALSO BORN THERE. >> ALL ON THE NINTH FLOOR. >> WHAT HAPPENS NEXT? >> I LIVED IN THE BRONX UNTIL I WAS 7. WENT TO KINDERGARTEN AT P.S. 95 AND THEN FIRST AND SECOND GRADE AT A SCHOOL CALLED VISITATION. THEN MY DAD GOT A JOB OFFER IN NORWALK, CONNECTICUT. HE WAS AN ENGINEER. I WAS AN ONLY CHILD SO IT WAS ME, MY MOM AND MY DAD. WE ALL MOVED TO NORWALK CONNECTICUT. I WENT TO PUBLIC SCHOOL THERE. MY PARENTS HAD A VERY ROCKY MARRIAGE. MY DAD ENDED UP LEAVING MY MOM LESS THAN A YEAR AFTER MOVING TO NORWALK, CONNECTICUT. >> YOUR MOM IS THERE, A WORKING WOMAN WITH A SON. WHAT HAPPENS WHEN YOU ARE IN THE FIFTH GRADE? >> WHEN I WAS IN THE FIFTH GRADE I HAD REALLY BEEN A LATCH KEY KID BECAUSE MY MOM HAD TO WORK. MY MOM CAME HOME ONE PROBABLY MAY AFTERNOON AND SAID I HAVE GREAT NEWS FOR YOU. THIS SUMMER YOU'RE GOING TO GO TO A SUMMER ENRICHMENT PROGRAM ON THE GROUNDS OF THE NEW CANNAN COUNTRY SCHOOL. I SAID, WHAT'S A SUMMER ENRICHMENT PROGRAM? SHE SAID, IT'S LIKE CAMP EXCEPT THEY HAVE CLASSES IN THE MORNING. I SAID CLASSES? WHY WOULD I WANT TO HAVE CLASSES IN THE MORNING? I ENDED UP GOING THROUGH THIS PROGRAM. LONG STORY SHORT, IT WAS ONE OF THE MOST IMPACTFUL MOMENTS IN MY LIFE WHEN MY MOM CAME HOME AND TOLD ME SHE HAD DECIDED TO- >> SO LET'S TALK ABOUT THE PROGRAM. >> THE PROGRAM IS CALLED HORIZONS. IT TOOK ECONOMICALLY DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN FROM THE CITIES OF NORWALK AND STANFORD AND BROUGHT THEM TO THE CAMPUS OF THE NEW CANAAN COUNTRY SCHOOL WHICH IS A GREAT PRIVATE SCHOOL ON A BUCOLIC CAMPUS IN NEW CANAAN, CONNECTICUT. THE TARGET OF THE PROGRAM WAS REALLY TWO FOLD. THE FIRST TARGET WAS TO STOP WORKING CLASS KIDS FROM FALLING ACADEMICALLY BEHIND DURING THE SUMMER. THE SECOND WAS TO EXPOSE STUDENTS TO A WORLD THAT THEY NORMALLY WOULDN'T BE EXPOSED TO WHETHER LEARNING TO SWIM AT PRIVATE POOLS, GOING ON CAMPING TRIPS AND GOING TO BROADWAY SHOWS. ALL A BUNCH OF OPPORTUNITIES AND EXPERIENCES THAT I MIGHT NOT HAVE HAD IF NOT FOR HORIZONS. >> WHAT HAPPENS FROM THAT? ANOTHER GREAT OPPORTUNITY HAPPENS. >> FROM THERE I WAS ENROLLED IN THE HORIZONS PROGRAM. SOME OF THE STAFF AT HORIZONS SAID YOU SHOULD REALLY TEST FOR THE COUNTRY SCHOOL PROGRAM. I DID AND I ENDED UP GETTING A FULL RIDE TO THE NEW CANAAN COUNTRY SCHOOL WHICH PUT ME ON A DIFFERENT -- >> HOW MANY YEARS ARE YOU AT THE NEW CANAAN COUNTRY SCHOOL? >> THREE YEARS. FOR 7TH, 8TH AND 9TH GRADE. >> NOW IT'S TIME FOR HIGH SCHOOL AND WHAT HAPPENS THEN? >> SO FOR HIGH SCHOOL, MOST OF THE STUDENTS WOULD GO TO PRIVATE SCHOOLS. VAST MAJORITY TO BOARDING SCHOOLS. I WENT TO A BOARDING SCHOOL IN WINDSOR, CONNECTICUT. >> AND YOU ALSO RECEIVED A FULL SCHOLARSHIP FOR THAT. >> FULL RIDE AT LOOMIS. >> THERE YOU WERE 119 POUNDS LIGHTWEIGHT. >> I -- WRESTLING BECAME A MAJOR COMPONENT OF MY LIFE. AFTER THAT I WAS LUCKY ENOUGH TO WIN THE STATE CHAMPIONSHIP. >> GROWING UP, DID YOU HAVE ANY JOBS DURING THE SUMMER? >> I DID. I ACTUALLY WORKED AT HORIZONS BETWEEN NINTH GRADE AND MY FRESHMAN YEAR OF COLLEGE AS A TEACHERS ASSISTANT. >> IN THE NEW CANAAN? >> AT THE NEW CANAAN PROGRAM. >> WHICH IS IMPORTANT BECAUSE LATER ON HORIZON COMES BACK. NOW YOU'RE GRADUATING YOUR SCHOOL, LOOMIS. HOW DO YOU DECIDE YOU WANT TO GO TO NYU? >> FROM THE MOMENT I LEFT THE BRONX I KNEW I WANTED TO GET BACK TO NEW YORK CITY. THERE WAS SOMETHING I CAN'T EXPLAIN, AN ENERGY THAT DREW ME BACK TO THE CITY. WHEN IT CAME TIME FOR COLLEGE I DECIDED I WANTED TO GO TO NYU AND I WAS LUCKY ENOUGH TO GET IN. >> YOU START AT NYU AT THE STERN SCHOOL. BUSINESS SCHOOL. AND WHAT HAPPENS? YOU DECIDE THAT YOU WANTED TO BE CREATIVE LIKE YOUR FATHER. YOU WANT TO BE MORE INVOLVED WITH URBAN PLANNING. >> I LOVE CITIES AND I WANTED TO FIGURE OUT WHAT MADE CITIES TICK AND WHAT MADE NEW YORK CITY TICK. NYU HAS A PROGRAM CALLED METROPOLITAN STUDIES PROGRAM SO I SWITCHED FROM THE STERN SCHOOL TO THE COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCE AND ENROLLED IN THE METROPOLITAN STUDIES PROGRAM. >> DURING SCHOOL DID YOU HAVE JOBS WHEN YOU WERE WORKING AT NYU? >> I WORKED MY SUMMER OF MY FRESHMAN YEAR I WORKED AT THE GYM WHICH IS WHERE I SPENT A LOT OF TIME. >> YOU GRADUATE WHAT YEAR? >> 1993. >> SO IT IS 1993 AND YOU WANT TO GIVE BACK SO YOU GO TO TEACH AMERICA. TELL ME ABOUT THAT AND THE THREE YEARS IN THE BRONX. >> WHEN I WAS THINKING ABOUT WHAT I WANTED TO DO I WANTED TO GIVE BACK BECAUSE I HAD BENEFITTED SO GREATLY FROM THOSE WHO HAD PRIORITIZED EDUCATION FOR WORKING CLASS KIDS. TEACH FOR AMERICA IS A PROGRAM THAT TAKES STUDENTS WHO HAVEN'T MAJORED AND MINORED IN EDUCATION AND TRAINS THEM QUICKLY AND PUTS THEM IN THE POOREST URBAN AND RURAL DISTRICTS THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY. I TAUGHT SOUTH BRONX. 5TH AND 6TH GRADE. AND I HAVE TO TELL YOU IT WAS THE TOUGHEST AND MOST DEMANDING JOB THAT I EVER HAD AND HAD THE GREATEST AMOUNT OF HIGHS AND THE GREATEST AMOUNT OF LOWS. TURNS OUT I REALIZED I WOULD BE A GOOD TEACHER. >> AFTER THAT YOU WENT TO LONG ISLAND CITY. >> I TAUGHT THREE YEARS IN THE SOUTH BRONX. >> SO AT THAT TIME AS YOU WERE SAYING YOU SAID I'M A GOOD TEACHER BUT I'M NOT A GREAT TEACHER. SO THEN YOU DECIDED THAT IT WAS TIME TO GO TO THE WAGNER SCHOOL. TELL ME ABOUT THE WAGNER SCHOOL AT NYU. >> WAGNER SCHOOL OF PUBLIC SERVICE HAS A GREAT URBAN PLANNING PROGRAM. I HAD GOTTEN EXPOSED TO IT DURING MY UNDER GRADUATE YEARS WHERE PROFESSORS CAME AND TOLD US ABOUT WAGNER. I THOUGHT IT WAS A GREAT OPPORTUNITY TO FURTHER EXPAND MY UNDERSTANDING AND PAVE THE WAY FOR A CAREER IN HELPING TO BUILD NEW YORK CITY. >> SO NOW YOU HAVE YOUR UNDER GRADUATE, GRADUATE, TEACH AMERICA EXPERIENCE. YOU HAVE ALL OF THIS. IT'S TIME TO GET A JOB. WHAT IS THE OPPORTUNITY OUT THERE? >> WELL, I ACTUALLY STARTED WORKING WHILE I WAS IN GRADUATE SCHOOL AT THE HUNTS POINT ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION DOING ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE INDUSTRIAL AREA. >> THIS IS BEFORE THE FISH MARKET MOVED IN. >> AND THE PRODUCE MARKET WAS ALREADY THERE. THE FISH MARKET WAS A DISCUSSION AT THE TIME. >> TELL ME ABOUT YOUR RESPONSIBILITIES OVER THERE. >> IT WAS REALLY WORKING WITH INDUSTRIAL COMPANIES TO UNDERSTAND WHAT COULD BE DONE FROM A GOVERNMENT PERSPECTIVE TO HELP THEM GROW AND EXPAND, ACKNOWLEDGING THAT IT WAS NOT EASY TO BE AN INDUSTRIAL COMPANY IN NEW YORK CITY. THERE WERE CERTAIN PROGRAMS THAT THEY COULD ACCESS AT THE CITY LEVEL AND STATE LEVEL THROUGH THE UTILITIES TO HELP THEM REDUCE THEIR OPERATING COSTS AND THEREFORE OPERATE WITHIN AND ULTIMATELY CREATE JOBS WITH NEW YORK CITY. >> YOU WERE BORN AT THE BRONX. YOU WENT TO SCHOOL IN MANHATTAN. YOU WENT BACK TO THE BRONX. HOW DO YOU END UP IN EAST NEW YORK, BROOKLYN? >> WHEN IT CAME TIME TO GRADUATE FROM GRAD SCHOOL AND WORK FULL TIME I GOT AN OFFER AT THE LOCAL DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION OF EAST NEW YORK. INDUSTRIAL COMPANIES IN THE EAST NEW YORK AREA. AND I RAN THEIR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT FOR ABOUT A YEAR AND A HALF. >> WHAT DO YOU MEAN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT? WHAT ARE THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT? >> TO BASICALLY DO EVERYTHING POSSIBLE TO SPUR IN THIS CASE INDUSTRIAL COMPANIES TO INVEST IN A LOCALITY AND TO CREATE JOBS WITHIN THAT LOCALITY. >> WHAT COMPANIES GREW AT THAT TIME TO GO OPEN IN EAST NEW YORK? IT'S NOT THE EASIEST MARKET IN THE WORLD TO GET INTO. >> IT WAS AN AMAZING COLLECTION OF COMPANIES. THERE WAS COFFEE ROASTER THAT WE HELPED ATTRACT TO THE AREA CALLED HENNA COFFEE. THERE WAS ACTUALLY A COMPANY THAT MANUFACTURED CAROUSELS. THERE WERE COMPANIES THAT WERE FOOD MANUFACTURERS, DISPLAY MANUFACTURERS. >> THERE ARE ECONOMIC INCENTIVES THAT PEOPLE AREN'T AWARE OF. >> VERY TARGETED AREAS WHERE EMPLOYMENT TENDS TO BE A LITTLE BIT LOWER. >> WHAT HAPPENS NEXT? >> I WAS APPROACHED BY A GUY NAMED KENNETH ADAMS WHO AT THE TIME- >> WAS AT THE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. >> RAN THE BROOKLYN CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. >> THIS IS BEFORE BROOKLYN WAS CHIC. >> EXACTLY. IT WAS JUST STARTING TO GET A LITTLE CHIC. >> THERE WAS A LITTLE TECHNOLOGY. IT WASN'T REALLY THE BROOKLYN OF THE BROOKLYN. >> THIS IS 1999? >> KEN ADAMS WHO DID A GOOD JOB AT THE BROOKLYN CHAMBER OF COMMERCE AND LATER ON IN LIFE CONTINUES TO HELP YOU IN OTHER AREAS SAYS HERE IS AN OPPORTUNITY. >> AND THE OPPORTUNITY WAS TO HELP THE BROOKLYN CHAMBER START A REAL ESTATE DEPARTMENT ACKNOWLEDGING THAT BROOKLYN WAS BECOMING HIP AND THERE WAS MORE INVESTMENT TO BE MADE IN ALL AREAS OF BROOKLYN. SO MY CHARGE THERE WAS TO BASICALLY LEAD THE EFFORTS TOWARDS BUSINESS ATTRACTION AND BUSINESS RETENTION. IT RAN THE GAMUT OF BUSINESSES FROM INDUSTRIAL TO RETAIL TO MORE TRADITIONAL COMMERCIAL OFFICE. >> A GOOD PORTION OF IT WAS TECH COMPANIES. LARGE TECHNOLOGY BECAUSE THIS WAS -- THE INTERNET CRAZE OF 1999, 2000, 2001 AND THEN THE WORLD CHANGED ON THE INTERNET CRAZE. YOU ARE WORKING FOR THE BROOKLYN CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. WHAT IS THE NEXT OPPORTUNITY THAT HAPPENS? >> THE NEXT OPPORTUNITY THAT HAPPENS I WAS APPROACHED BY THE CHIEF OF STAFF TO DEPUTY MAYOR DAN DOCTOROFF ABOUT JOINING THE BLOOMBERG ADMINISTRATION IN JANUARY OF 2002. AND TALK ABOUT AN OFFER THAT YOU COULDN'T REFUSE. >> SO YOU WERE WITH THE BLOOMBERG ADMINISTRATION FOR HOW MANY YEARS? >> 4 1/2 YEARS. >> WITH ONE OF THE MOST DYNAMIC MAYORS WE HAVE EVER HAD. SO LET'S TALK ABOUT THE 4 1/2 YEARS. WHAT DID YOU SEE AND WHAT WAS ACCOMPLISHED? MIKE WAS VERY INSTRUMENTAL AND DAN WAS INVOLVED. >> I GOT SUCH A GREAT INSIGHT INTO NOT ONLY CITY GOVERNMENT BUT PLANNING ON A MASSIVE SCALE. THE MAYOR HAD A VERY AGGRESSIVE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AGENDA THAT WAS REALLY SPEAR HEADED BY DAN. EARLY ON IN JANUARY OF 2002 THEY SAID OUR APPROACH TO ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IS GOING TO BE FIVE BOROUGHS AND WILL TOUCH EVERY COMMUNITY IN NEW YORK CITY AND WE WILL USE ALL THE TOOLS THAT GOVERNMENT HAS, OBVIOUSLY THEY ARE LIMITED, BUT BETWEEN MONEY AND LAND USE POWER AND REGULATING AGENCIES, TO TRY TO GROW THE ECONOMY OF NEW YORK CITY DURING THIS VERY CHALLENGED TIME POST 9/11. >> THAT IS ONE OF THE PROJECTS? >> I WORKED ON DOWNTOWN BROOKLYN REZONING WHICH WAS SOMETHING I END UP WORKING ON LATER ON BUT WE WILL GET TO THAT. THE NEW YORK CITY'S BID FOR THE 2012 OLYMPICS AND ALSO I WORKED ON THE INITIAL MONTHS OF PLAN YC. THE MAYORS SUSTAINABILITY AND GROWTH PLAN. >> YOU WERE LIVING IN BROOKLYN. YOU ARE MARRIED. AND THERE IS AN OPPORTUNITY AGAIN IN BROOKLYN WITH SOME VISIONARIES. BOB CATELL, ALAN FISHMAN AND THE GUY FROM THE BROOKLYN ACADEMY OF MUSIC. AND THEY SAY YOU HAVE BEEN AROUND A GREAT DEAL. YOU HAVE BEEN INVOLVED WITH THE DEVELOPMENT PLAN FOR DOWNTOWN BROOKLYN WHEN YOU WERE WORKING FOR THE MAYOR. WE ARE THINKING OF CREATING SOMETHING CALLED THE DOWNTOWN BROOKLYN PARTNERSHIP. >> THAT WAS 2006. >> TELL ME WHAT THE DOWNTOWN BROOKLYN PARTNERSHIP WAS. I KNOW THERE WAS HARVEY OVER THERE FOR THE ARTS. I KNOW THERE WAS BOB AND ALAN FOR BUSINESS. THERE WERE OTHER LEADERS AND A NUMBER OF OTHER PEOPLE. >> SO THERE IS A COMMUNITY THAT WAS THE DOWNTOWN KIND OF CIVIC LEADERSHIP TO DOWNTOWN OF 2.5 MILLION PEOPLE. THERE WAS NOT THE INFRASTRUCTURE THERE IN TERMS OF ONE ORGANIZATION THAT WOULD WORK WITH THE MANY STAKEHOLDERS WHETHER BUSINESS LEADERS OR ARTS LEADERS OR ACADEMIC LEADERS TO COORDINATE A PLAN OF GROWTH. >> WHAT HAPPENED WAS AT THAT TIME THE REZONING HAD BEEN APPROVED AND ALL OF A SUDDEN YOU HAVE ALL OF THESE NEW APARTMENT HOUSES AND OFFICE BUILDINGS AND THERE WEREN'T PLANS FOR OFFICE BUILDINGS. WASN'T SOMETHING THEY SAID CITY POINT WE WILL BUILD THIS HUGE RETAIL WITH POTENTIAL OFFICE SPACE AND OFFICE TOWERS. PEOPLE DIDN'T REALIZE THERE WERE VERY FEW HOTELS AT THAT TIME. A COUPLE OF OTHER HOTELS WERE OPENING UP. THIS WAS A MASSIVE JOB FOR DOWNTOWN BROOKLYN. >> ABSOLUTELY. THERE WERE MANY PIONEERS LIKE JOSH MUSS WITH THE NEW YORK MARRIOTT AND BRUCE RATNER WITH METROTECH THAT HAD REALLY STARTED KIND OF SHOWING THE POTENTIAL OF WHAT DOWNTOWN BROOKLYN COULD BECOME. AND THE BLOOMBERG ADMINISTRATION REALIZED THERE WAS REAL POTENTIAL THERE PARTICULARLY WITH THE ARTS COMMUNITY AND ACADEMIC COMMUNITY AND WANTED TO WORK WITH THE PRIVATE SECTOR REALLY IN AN UNPRECEDENTED WAY TO CREATE A PARTNERSHIP TO MAKE SURE THAT DOWNTOWN BROOKLYN HAPPENED. >> WHAT WERE THE MAJOR PROGRAMS THAT YOU COULD FEEL THAT YOU ACCOMPLISHED DURING THAT PERIOD OF TIME IN DOWNTOWN BROOKLYN? >> THERE WERE A FEW. FIRST THERE WAS BASICALLY A SERIES OF PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS TO CREATE A SENSE AND PLACE IN DOWNTOWN BROOKLYN. THERE WERE STREET SCAPE IMPROVEMENTS. THEY WERE SMALLER OPEN SPACES THAT WOULD REALLY TRANSFORM THE LOOK AND FEEL OF DOWNTOWN BROOKLYN AND WELCOME IN NEW RESIDENTS AND EMPLOYEES. WE WORKED ON THE BUSINESS ATTRACTION FUND TO DRAW IN NEW COMPANIES BOTH KIND OF TRADITIONAL, FINANCIAL AND -- >> THERE WAS MAJOR WORK IN DUMBO. SIGNIFICANT AMOUNT OF WORK IN DUMBO. >> THERE WAS A TON OF WORK IN DUMBO AND BECAUSE OF THAT GREAT WORK THERE WERE COMPANIES THAT NEVER CONSIDERED BROOKLYN BEFORE. >> AND THERE WAS ALSO THE EMPIRE STORES. >> TECHNOLOGY COMPANIES AND ARCHITECTS STARTED TO COME TO BROOKLYN AND OUR JOB WAS TO CAPITALIZE ON THAT WAVE. >> THERE IS KEN ADAMS AGAIN. WHAT DOES KEN SAY TO YOU NOW IN. >> KENNETH ADAMS BECOMES HEAD OF EMPIRE STATE DEVELOPMENT AND ONCE AGAIN SAYS I WOULD LIKE YOU TO RUN THE REAL ESTATE DIVISION AND PUBLIC/PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS. >> THAT ROLE HAS CERTAIN MAJOR PROJECTS THAT YOU DID. LET'S TALK ABOUT SOME OF THEM. >> THE ONE THAT REALLY KEPT ME MOST BUSY WAS MOYNIHAN STATION WHICH WAS CONVERTING THE OLD POST OFFICE BUILDING BEHIND MADISON SQUARE GARDEN INTO A TRAIN HALL AND 700,000 SQUARE FEET OF OFFICE AND RETAIL SPACE. >> WHICH IS GOING TO COME TO FRUITION EVENTUALLY. >> IT IS GOING TO -- THE JOINT VENTURE WILL BREAK GROUND ON THAT PRETTY IMMINENTLY. >> THAT IS ONE PROJECT. ANOTHER PROJECT WHICH WAS MAJOR FOR YOU DURING THAT TIME WAS THE JAVITS CENTER. >> AND THE EXPANSION. THE JAVITS CENTER IS AN INCREDIBLY WELL UTILIZED CONVENTION CENTER. IT LACKS A NUMBER OF THINGS THAT WILL MAKE IT COMPETITIVE MOVING FORWARD. MEETING ROOM SPACE THAT WOULD ALLOW THEM TO ATTRACT PREMIUM SHOWS AND SHOWS THAT RESULT IN MORE HOTEL NIGHTS IN TERMS OF GUESTS. THERE IS ALSO NOT A MAJOR KIND OF GATHERING SPACE. YOU COULD CALL IT A BALLROOM. FOR NEW YORK CITY'S CONVENTION CENTER YOU NEED A BALLROOM. >> YOU NEED A BALLROOM. THAT IS ESPECIALLY RIGHT NOW WITH THE WALDORF CLOSING LOSS OF BALLROOM IS HAVING A MAJOR EFFECT ON MAJOR VENUES COMING BECAUSE IT IS THREE YOURS OR MORE FOR THE WALDORF. YOU NEED THAT TYPE OF FACILITY. YOU ARE OVER THERE. WE ARE GOING TO GET BACK TO HORIZONS. YOU ARE OVER THERE AND THEN SHARON WHO YOU HAD WORKED WITH BEFORE IN THE BLOOMBERG ADMINISTRATION HAD RECENTLY BECOME PRESIDENT OF THE YMCA. HAD YOU BEEN TO THE Y? >> I HAD BEEN TO THE Y. I SPENT SOME OF MY SUMMERS DURING MY HIGH SCHOOL YEARS FOR SUMMER WRESTLING TOURNAMENTS. I WOULDN'T SAY IT WAS THE MOST PLEASANT EXPERIENCE. >> YOU JOINED THE Y WHEN? >> IN OCTOBER OF 2016. >> AND YOUR ROLE TODAY IS WHAT? >> RUNNING REAL ESTATE AND PROPERTIES FOR THE Y. SO WE HAVE ACTUALLY -- >> GREATER NEW YORK. >> WHICH IS ALL THE YMCAs IN NEW YORK CITY. PORTFOLIO OF ABOUT 1.6 MILLION PROPERTIES, VERY DIVERSE PORTFOLIO WHICH INCLUDES EVERYTHING FROM HEALTH AND WELLNESS FACILITIES TO WHAT WE CALL GUEST ROOMS WHICH WE ESSENTIALLY RENT OUT AS HOSTEL TYPE SPACE. >> LET'S TALK ABOUT GIVING BACK. ANOTHER THING WAS HORIZONS. HORIZONS HAS BEEN IN YOUR LIFE SINCE YOU WERE IN THE FIFTH GRADE. TELL ME WHAT YOU DID IN BROOKLYN. >> THIS IS THE MOST EMPOWERING THING I'VE EVER DONE IN MY LIFE. I WAS SITTING ON THE BOARD OF A GROUP CALLED HORIZONS NATIONAL WHICH HELPS CREATE PROGRAMS THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY. THE ONE AT NEW CANAAN COUNTRY SCHOOL RAN AS AN INDEPENDENT ORGANIZATION FOR 30 YEARS AND THEN THEY SAID LET'S REPLICATE THIS. SO I JOINED THE BOARD. AND IN 2006 WE PARTNERED WITH BROOKLYN FRIENDS SCHOOL WHICH IS IN DOWNTOWN BROOKLYN, LITERALLY RIGHT NEXT TO THE HOTEL. THEY SAID WE WANT TO DO A HORIZONS PROGRAM. AT THE TIME I WAS AT THE DOWNTOWN BROOKLYN PARTNERSHIP. I WORKED TO CREATE A HORIZONS PROGRAM ON THE BROOKLYN FRIENDS CAMPUS. IT'S NOW CELEBRATING ITS TENTH YEAR ANNIVERSARY. >> SHOULD BE PROUD OF IT. I KNOW YOU ARE PROUD OF THAT. BESIDES THAT YOU ALSO PROUD OF YOUR DAUGHTERS. >> I AM PROUD OF THEM. I HAVE TWO DAUGHTERS, LIV AND ISELLA. LIV IS THIRTEEN AND IN 8TH GRADE AND ISELLA IS ELEVEN AND IN 6TH GRADE. AND TELL ME ABOUT THE MARATHON. HOW DID YOU GET INVOLVED IN RUNNING THE MARATHON. >> I STARTED RUNNING -- I HAVE ALWAYS RUN TO TRAIN FOR WRESTLING. GOT PRETTY SERIOUS ABOUT IT WHEN I TURNED 40. I THOUGHT I COULD BREAK A CERTAIN TIME FOR A HALF MARATHON. SO I STARTED TRAINING SERIOUSLY AND SINCE THEN HAVE KIND OF CHALLENGED MYSELF AT THE MARATHON DISTANCE AND SHORTER DISTANCES. I RUN ABOUT A MARATHON A YEAR. >> SINCE YOU WERE SUCH AN AVID WRESTLER, WHICH EVEN GAVE YOU A SCHOLARSHIP, DO YOU STILL KEEP INVOLVED WITH WRESTLING FOR TEACHING ANYONE? >> I DO. I KEEP IN TOUCH WITH MY FRIENDS FROM THE NYU WRESTLING TEAM AND ACTUALLY STILL ACTIVELY TRACK COLLEGE. >> WHAT ABOUT MENTORING YOUNG KIDS IN WRESTLING? >> NOT ANYMORE. I HAD DONE THAT WHEN I WAS AT TEACH FOR AMERICA. I HAVE KIND OF FALLEN OUT OF PRACTICE. >> IT'S FORTUITOUS AND INTERESTING THE CAREER. WHAT IS MORE INTERESTING IS FOR A YOUNG GUY TO REALLY TAKE THE RESPONSIBILITY OF GIVING BACK. YOU HAVE GIVEN BACK AND YOU HELPED THE CITY OF NEW YORK. THANKS FOR BEING HERE TODAY. >> THANK YOU VERY MUCH, MICHAEL. ♪ [THEME MUSIC] ♪

Contents

Background

While remaining a county in relation to the state, each county became a borough within the city, with the Bronx reunited to form a fifth borough that shared New York County with Manhattan. A separate Bronx County was established in 1914, making the present New York County co-extensive with the Borough of Manhattan.

The term City of Greater New York was never a legal or official designation as both the original charter of 1898 and the newer one of 1938 use the name of City of New York.[3] It is still used in modern-day books relating or including the time period when the consolidation took place.[7]

Since the late 1820s there had been some discussion of a unified city, with the New York State legislature voting in 1857 that the region surrounding New York City should become one more efficient body.[8] They attempted to do so by government vote, in order to improve harbor facilities and link the systems of trade, but distrust of large projects killed the plans.[9] The consolidation movement was the work of politicians both local, city, and state, most prominently the president of the "Greater New-York Commission"[10] and "The Father of Greater New York"[11] Andrew Haswell Green. He was a member of the Board of Commissioners of Central Park, which provided him a platform to push his views.[12]

"Up With the Flag! (of Brooklyn)", an 1895 anti-consolidation song.
"Up With the Flag! (of Brooklyn)", an 1895 anti-consolidation song.

The next challenge to the independence of the boroughs was a self-promoted and government-appointed commission. The commission led the “Vote for Greater New York" movement and was the force behind it coming to fruition.[10] Some opponents derided the effort as "Andy Green's hobby," but eventually they were proven wrong.[13] The center of the plan was the consolidation of the twin cities of New York and Brooklyn, whose fire departments had been merged into a Metropolitan Fire District in 1865.[14] The addition of Long Island City and various rural areas anticipated future development of those areas. With Republicans historically more powerful in Brooklyn and Democrats elsewhere, partisan politics played a role, each major political party hoping to dominate the consolidated city.

"Selfish Objections to a Good Match", Punch, 1893
"Selfish Objections to a Good Match", Punch, 1893

The plan required a referendum in all affected areas, though the organizers of the referendum clearly had a bias towards the consolidation. They even released a full page advertisement in the New York Times before the vote took place, urging them to vote "For Consolidation".[10]

Opposition, concentrated in Brooklyn and other outlying districts, focused on loss of local control and fears of ethnic and racial minorities. Independence-minded Brooklynites did not want their regional identity to be overtaken by New York.[15] Some newspapers such as the Brooklyn Daily Eagle argued that consolidation would destroy the mostly homogenous, Protestant character of the city.[3] Opposing newspapers were accused of seeking to retain the revenues of official advertising, while opposing politicians were accused of graft. Concerns over how Brooklyn's water supply would be maintained and how future financial backing would be possible were legitimate.[16] Considerations of finance and water supply prevailed, and the people of Brooklyn voted by a narrow margin to consolidate.[17][18][19]

Home rule

Since the enlarged city contained the majority of the state of New York's population, and the enlargement increased the city's already enormous power within the state, the state legislature established certain oversight powers within the city. For example, some issues of taxation and changes in governmental procedures require state approval or granting of specific home rule powers.

Conversely, the State Constitution was amended to provide that no city could elect the majority of the State Assembly, a provision later struck down by the U.S. Supreme Court as violating the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. The New York City Board of Estimate, created in the consolidation charter with equal votes for each borough, was struck down on similar grounds in 1989.

Staten Island secession

In 1993, Staten Island held a non-binding referendum on the issue of seceding from New York City to become an independent city, which was approved by the electorate.[20] The Staten Island secession movement was defused, or at least deferred, by the election on the same ballot of Rudy Giuliani as New York City mayor, who had campaigned on the promise that Staten Island's grievances would be addressed. Giuliani's narrow victory over David Dinkins was aided by overwhelming support from Staten Island. Two of the borough's biggest demands were closing the Fresh Kills Landfill and making the Staten Island Ferry free, both of which have since been fulfilled.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Of Interest To Politicians". The New York Times. September 13, 1894. p. 9. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
  2. ^ "Greater New-York In Doubt; The City Vote Is For It And Brooklyn Is Uncertain". The New York Times. November 8, 1894. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
  3. ^ a b c Jackson, Kenneth T. (1995). Encyclopedia of the City of New York. New Haven & New York: Yale University Press.
  4. ^ "The East City Line Fixed". The New York Times. February 12, 1899. p. 15. Retrieved December 28, 2007.
  5. ^ "New-York's Place In Danger; Consolidation Defeated, She Must Yield To Chicago". The New York Times. November 4, 1894. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
  6. ^ Geoffrey Mohan (Staff Writer) (2007). "Nassau's Difficult Birth; Eastern factions of Queens win the fight to separate after six decades of wrangling". Newsday. Archived from the original on October 16, 2008. Retrieved April 19, 2013. North Hempstead, Oyster Bay and the rest of Hempstead were excluded from the vote.
  7. ^ Kessner, Thomas (2004). Capital City: New York City and the Men Behind America's Rise to Dominance 1860-1900. New York City: Simon & Schuster. pp. 60, ibid. ISBN 978-0743257534.
  8. ^ Kessner, Capital City, p.319
  9. ^ Kessner, Capital City p.60
  10. ^ a b c "Vote For Greater New-York; Commissioners Offer Arguments For A Mighty City". October 16, 1894. Retrieved May 15, 2016.
  11. ^ Haberman, Clyde (May 14, 2004). "NYC; A.H. Green? You could sit on It". New York Times. Retrieved May 15, 2016.
  12. ^ Kessner, Capital City, pp.62-67
  13. ^ Kessner, Capital City, p.63
  14. ^ History of Fire Service
  15. ^ Samantha Sokol, "1898 Consolidation of NYC," Untappedcityies.com, http://untappedcities.com/tag/1898-consolidation-of-nyc/
  16. ^ “Brooklyn’s Thirst, Long Island’s Water: Consolidation, Local Control, and the Aquifer | Long Island History Journal”, Stony Brook University, Piublished 2011 Accessed March 25, 2016, https://lihj.cc.stonybrook.edu/2011/articles/brooklyn%e2%80%99s-thirst-long-island%e2%80%99s-water-;
  17. ^ Edwin G. Burrows and Mike Wallace, Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898 (The History of New York City)
  18. ^ "Vote for Greater New York". The New York Times. October 16, 1894. Retrieved December 28, 2007.
  19. ^ "Official Announcement of the Results of the Election" (PDF). The New York Times. December 15, 1894. Retrieved December 28, 2007. The area included a radius of twenty miles, with the city hall in New York as a center to circumscribe it
  20. ^ Article about Staten Island Secession at the City Journal web site

Further reading

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