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Cinematic techniques

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article contains a list of cinematic techniques that are divided into categories and briefly described.

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1. Camera shot A camera shot is the amount of space that is seen in one shot or frame. A close-up contains just one character's face. This enables viewers to understand the actor's emotions and also allows them to feel empathy for the character. This is also known as a personal shot. An extreme long shot contains a large amount of landscape. It is often used at the beginning of a scene or a film to establish general location like the setting. This is also known as an establishing shot. 2. Camera angles: high angle Camera angles are used to position the viewer so that they can understand the relationships between the characters. A high angle is a camera angle that looks down upon a subject. A character shot with a high angle will look vulnerable or small. 3. Camera angles: low angle This is the opposite of a high angle and makes a character look more powerful. This can make the audience feel vulnerable and small by looking up at the character. We feel sorry for LAZA here because she seems to have gotten in trouble with something! 4. Lighting Lighting creates atmosphere. What kind of atmosphere is created in a room lit by candles? Feels more calm and serene, even more romantic. A dark or shadowy room might be eerie or scary. 5. Mise en Scene “Mise en scene” literally translates from french to 'put in scene' and refers to all the objects and characters in a particular frame. More specifically, it refers to the composition of the frame. When you use the term mise en scene, you are discussing where the composer or director has placed all the elements of the scene within the frame. In this scene we can see how frazzled LAZA is - the watch, the great number books, and the hair shows that she's probably in a rush or stressed! 6. Sound: Diegetic sound is sound that occurs in film that is natural. These sounds include doors opening and closing, and footsteps. Basically anything that is a naturally occuring sound INSIDE the film is diegetic sound. Imagine that the film is real. If you could hear that sound in real life, it is diegetic. 7. Sound: Non-Diegetic sound is sound that is added to the film during editing. These music that sets mood for films Any sound that would not occur if the film were real is non-diegetic sound. For example, when you are sad, violins do not suddenly start playing! Sound again, adds further meaning. 8. Editing Dissolve This occurs when one scene slowly fades into another. This is often done to show the link between two scenes or the passing of time. For example, we have Laza prancing around in the park here and the dissolve shows that she's now sleeping so some time has probably passed and we've taken out the boring stuff like when she walks home. Wipes There are a variety of wipes. Wipes are used as transitional techniques between scenes. The following are examples of wipes. Pay close attention to how these wipes link scenes and therefore help to shape meaning. You can see here that Laza is on the couch Laza is brushing her teeth Laza's studying, which gives you a better idea of what her days are like. 9. Camera movement Panning is used to give the viewer a panoramic view of a set or setting. This can be used to establish a scene. For example, it's quite clear here that this is some sort of park that Laza has been prancing in. 10. Special Effects Special effects are used when a sequence or scene in a film cannot be achieved through the usual techniques. Here we have kaleidoscope. Kaleidoscope is often used for confusion, or, a different mental state than normal And these are just a few of the essential film techniques you need to know in order to start studying a film! Good luck! Hey everyone! I hope you enjoyed this video and if you did, you can check out my first video in this studying film series on 10 HACKS FOR STUDYING FILMS and, just below that I've got my winter workshops coming up for VCE Study Guides If you're in year 11 or year 12 studying English AND English Language, then these workshops are perfect for you! I'm going to be at every single one of them! We've got a few sign ups already so I'm sooo excited! So hopefully get to see more of you there definitely go ahead and check it out! If don't want to wait until the next video, you can receive extra special subscriber's videos only via VCE Study Guides newsletter through our website, so jump over there and sign up to receive VIP access to information :) I'm OUT!! Cya guys!

Contents

Basic definitions of terms

Aerial shot
A shot taken from an airborne device, generally while moving.
Backlighting (lighting design)
The main source of light is behind the subject, silhouetting it, and directed toward the camera.
Bridging shot
A shot used to cover a jump in time or place or other discontinuity. Examples are falling calendar pages, railroad wheels, newspaper headlines and seasonal changes.
Camera angle
The point of view or viewing position adopted by the camera with respect to its subject. Most common types are
Close-up
a framing depicting the human head or an object of similar size
Cut
An editorial transition signified by the immediate replacement of one shot with another.
Cross-cutting
Cutting between different events occurring simultaneously in different locations. Especially in narrative filmmaking, cross-cutting is traditionally used to build suspense or to suggest a thematic relationship between two sets of actions.
Continuity editing
An editorial style that preserves the illusion of undisrupted time and space across editorial transitions (especially cuts).
Deep focus
A technique in which objects in the extreme foreground and objects in the extreme background are kept equally in focus.
Dissolve
An editorial transition overlapping a fade in and a fade out in such a way that one image gradually disappears while another simultaneously emerges. This transition generally suggest a longer period of narrative elapses than is suggested by cuts.
Camera Dolly
A wheeled cart or similar device upon which a movie camera is mounted to give it smooth, horizontal mobility.
Dollying or Dolly shot
A shot in which the camera moves toward or away from its subject while filming. Traditionally dolly shots are filmed from a camera dolly but the same motion may also be performed with a Steadicam, gimbal, etc. A dolly shot is generally described in terms of "dollying in" or "dollying out". Trucking in and out is also a common synonym.
Editing
The selection and organization of shots into a series, usually in the interest of creating larger cinematic units. Adding music is also a great way to make it more cinematic
Ellipsis (linguistics)
A term referring to "chunks" of time left out of a narrative, signaled in filmmaking by editorial transitions
Establishing shot
A shot, often a long shot, usually placed at the beginning of a scene to establish the general location of the action to follow. This shot is also known as an Extreme Long Shot.
Eyeline match
A type of editorial match involving two, subsequent shots in which shot 1 contains an agent (a person, animal, etc.) gazing in the direction of some unseen, off-screen vision, and shot 2 contains an image presumed by the spectator to be the object of the agent's gaze.
Extreme close-up
A shot framed so closely as to show only a portion of the face or of some object.
Extreme long shot
A shot in which the human figure would be extremely insignificant compared to its surroundings.
A panoramic view photographed from a considerable distance and made up essentially of landscape or distant background.
Fade in/out
An editorial transition in which the image either gradually appears out of ("fade in") or gradually fades into ("fade out") a black screen.
Fill light
An auxiliary light placed to the side of the subject that softens shadows and illuminates areas not lit by the key light (see "key light").
Flashback
A scene or sequence inserted into a scene set in the narrative present that images some event set in the past.
Flash forward
A scene or sequence inserted into a scene set in the narrative present that images some event set in the future.
Focus
The optical clarity or precision of an image relative to normal human vision. Focus in photographic images is usually expressed in terms of depth.
Framing
The organization of visible phenomena with respect to the boundaries of the image.
Inter-title
A piece of filmed, printed text edited into the midst of (i.e. inter-) the photographed action at various points. Most commonly used in silent movies to convey elements of dialogue and other commentary.
Iris in/out
An editorial transition popular during the silent period utilizing a diaphragm placed in front of the lens and which, when opened (iris in) or closed (iris out), functions like a fade in or fade out. A partially opened iris can also be used to focus attention on a detail of the scene in the manner of vignetting.
Jump cut
An editorial transition between two shots in which the illusion of temporal continuity is radically disrupted.
Key light
The main light on a subject, usually placed at a 45 degree angle to the camera-subject axis. In high-key lighting, the key light provides all or most of the light in the scene. In low-key lighting, the key light provides much less of the total illumination.
Long shot
A shot in which the human figure would be relatively insignificant compared to its surroundings.
Master shot
A shot, often a medium shot or longer, which shows all the important action in a scene. In editing, the master can be used to a greater or lesser extent as the 'skeleton' of the edit, which is fleshed out by replacing parts of the master with tighter coverage such as closeups and cutaways.
Match cut
One of various editorial devices used to preserve a sense of spatio-temporal integrity or continuity between cuts.
Medium close-up
A shot depicting the human figure from approximately the chest up.
Medium shot
A shot depicting the human figure from approximately the waist up.
Mise en scène
Everything that has been placed in front of or is revealed by the camera while shooting.
Pan
A shot in which the camera is made to pivot horizontally left or right (about its vertical axis) while filming. Pans are always described in terms of "panning left" or "panning right". It is incorrect to discuss pans in terms of vertical, "up"/"down" movement, which is properly called tilting.
Point of view shot
(Often abbreviated as 'POV'). A shot which shows an image from the specific point of view of a character in the film.
Racking focus
A shot employing shallow focus in which the focal distance changes so that the background is gradually brought into focus while the foreground is gradually taken out of focus or visa versa.
Reverse angle
In a dialogue scene, a shot of the second participant understood as the opposing or "reverse" view of the shot showing the first participant.
Scene
A unit of narration generally composed of a series of shots that takes place in a single location and concerns a central action.
Shot
  • 1.) The image produced by a motion picture camera from the time it begins shooting until the time is stops shooting
  • 2.) (in an edited film) the uninterrupted record of time and space depicted between editorial transitions.
Steadicam
A lightweight, highly-mobile camera transportation and stabilization device developed by inventor / cinematographer Garrett Brown which permits hand-held filming with an image steadiness comparable to tracking or dolly shots. The device involves 1.) a vest redistributing the weight of the camera to the hips of the cameraman and, 2.) a spring-loaded arm working to minimize the effects of camera movement. A video tap simultaneously frees the camera operator from the eyepiece, who is then free to travel through any walkable terrain while filming.
Story board
A series of drawings and captions (sometimes resembling a comic strip) that shows the planned shot divisions and camera movements of the film.
Tilt
A shot in which the camera is made to pivot vertically up or down (about its horizontal transverse axis) while filming.
Tracking shot/traveling shot
A shot in which the camera moves alongside or parallel to its subject while filming. Traditionally tracking shots are filmed while the camera is mounted on a track dolly and rolled on dedicated tracks comparable to railroad tracks, In recent years, however, parallel camera moves performed with a Steadicam, gimbal, etc. may also be called a tracking shot. Tracking shots often "follow" a subject while it is in motion: for instance, a person walking on a sidewalk seen from the perspective of somebody walking on a parallel path several feet away. Shots taken from moving vehicles that run parallel to another moving object are also referred to as tracking or traveling shots. A tracking shot may also be curved, moving around its subject in a semi-circular rotation.
Two shot
A shot in which the frame encompasses two people, typically but not exclusively a medium shot.
Whip pan
A type of pan shot in which the camera pans so quickly that the resulting image is badly blurred. It is sometimes used as an editorial transition and is also known as a swish pan or "flash pan."
Wipe
An optical editorial transition in which an image appears to be pushed or "wiped" to one aside of the screen to make way for the next.
Zoom
A shot taken from a stationary position using a special zoom lens that magnifies or de-magnifies the center of the image. This creates an illusion that the camera is moving toward or away from its subject by making the subject more or less prominent in the frame. Not to be confused with dollying in which the camera itself actually physically moves closer to or further away from its subject.

Cinematography

Movement and expression

Movement can be used extensively by film makers to make meaning. It is how a scene is put together to produce an image. A famous example of this, which uses "dance" extensively to communicate meaning and emotion, is the film, West Side Story.

Provided in this alphabetised list of film techniques used in motion picture filmmaking. There are a variety of expressions:

Lighting technique and aesthetics

To achieve the results mentioned above, a Lighting Director may use a number or combination of Video Lights. These may include the Redhead or Open-face unit, The Fresnel Light, which gives you a little more control over the spill, or The Dedolight, which provides a more efficient light output and a beam which is easier to control.[1]

Editing and transitional devices

Special effects (FX)

Sound

Sound is used extensively in filmmaking to enhance presentation, and is distinguished into diegetic and non-diegetic sound:

  • Diegetic sound: It is sound that the characters can hear as well as the audience, and usually implies a reaction from the character. Also called "literal sound" or "actual sound":
    • Voices of characters;
    • Sounds made by objects in the story, e.g. heart beats of a person
    • Source music, represented as coming from instruments in the story space.
    • Basic sound effects, e.g. dog barking, car passing; as it is in the scene
    • Music coming from reproduction devices such as record players, radios, tape players etc.
  • Non-diegetic sound: It is sound which is represented as coming from a source outside the story space, i.e. its source is neither visible on the screen, nor has been implied to be present in the action. Also called "non-literal sound" or "commentary sound":
    • Narrator's commentary;
    • Voice of God;
    • Sound effect which is added for dramatic effect;
    • Mood music; and
    • Film score
    • Non-diegetic sound plays a significant role in creating the atmosphere and mood within a film.
    • Very commonly diegetic shift occurs from one to the other, for example when characters are listening to music, then start dancing and the music becomes non-diegetic to indicate being 'lost in the moment'.

Sound effects

In motion picture and television production, a sound effect is a sound recorded and presented to make a specific storytelling or creative point, without the use of dialogue or music. The term often refers to a process, applied to a recording, without necessarily referring to the recording itself. In professional motion picture and television production, the segregations between recordings of dialogue, music, and sound effects can be quite distinct, and it is important to understand that in such contexts, dialogue, and music recordings are never referred to as sound effects, though the processes applied to them, such as reverberation or flanging, often are.

Techniques in interactive movies

New techniques currently being developed in interactive movies, introduce an extra dimension into the experience of viewing movies, by allowing the viewer to change the course of the movie.

In traditional linear movies, the author can carefully construct the plot, roles, and characters to achieve a specific effect on the audience. Interactivity, however, introduces non-linearity into the movie, such that the author no longer has complete control over the story, but must now share control with the viewer. There is an inevitable trade-off between the desire of the viewer for freedom to experience the movie in different ways, and the desire of the author to employ specialized techniques to control the presentation of the story. Computer technology is required to create the illusion of freedom for the viewer, while providing familiar, as well as, new cinematic techniques to the author.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Video Lighting – The Pro Way". Video Lighting – The Pro Way. New Wave TV. Retrieved 22 April 2011.

External links

This page was last edited on 30 July 2018, at 16:05
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