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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cinco de Mayo
Batalla de Puebla.png
Observed byMexicans, Mexican Americans, and people of non-Mexican heritage
TypeHistorical, national, ethnic, and cultural
SignificanceCelebration of the Mexican victory over French forces at the Battle of Puebla, on May 5, 1862
CelebrationsParades, food, music, folkloric dancing, battle reenactments
DateMay 5
Frequencyyearly
Related toEl Día de la Batalla de Puebla

Cinco de Mayo (pronounced [ˈsiŋko ðe ˈmaʝo] in Latin America, Spanish for "Fifth of May") is an annual celebration held on May 5. The date is observed to commemorate the Mexican Army's victory over the French Empire at the Battle of Puebla, on May 5, 1862, under the leadership of General Ignacio Zaragoza.[1][2] The victory of the smaller Mexican force against a larger French force was a boost to morale for the Mexicans. A year after the battle, a larger French force defeated Zaragoza at the Second Battle of Puebla, and Mexico City soon fell to the invaders.

In the United States, Cinco de Mayo has taken on a significance beyond that in Mexico.[3][4][5][6] More popularly celebrated in the United States than Mexico,[7] the date has become associated with the celebration of Mexican-American culture. These celebrations began in California, where they have been observed annually since 1863. The day gained nationwide popularity in the 1980s thanks especially to advertising campaigns by beer and wine companies. Today, Cinco de Mayo generates beer sales on par with the Super Bowl.

In Mexico, the commemoration of the battle continues to be mostly ceremonial, such as through military parades or battle reenactments. The city of Puebla marks the event with an arts festival, a festival of local cuisine, and re-enactments of the battle.

Cinco de Mayo is sometimes mistaken for Mexico's Independence Day—the most important national holiday in Mexico—which is celebrated on September 16, commemorating the Cry of Dolores, which initiated the war of Mexican independence from Spain.[1][8]

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • ✪ The Origin of Cinco de Mayo - Second French Intervention in Mexico
  • ✪ Cinco de Mayo for Kids
  • ✪ What is Cinco de Mayo?
  • ✪ La batalla del 5 de mayo - Bully Magnets
  • ✪ Cinco de Mayo

Transcription

The year is 1861 and it has been 40 years since Mexico gained its independence from Spain. These 40 years have been tumultuous, to say the leas,t but nothing would come close to threaten their independence than the imperial ambitions of a new Napoleon. This is the story of how a young and unstable Republic fought off an empire. This is the story of the second French Intervention in Mexico. In the 1840s, to the detriment of Mexico and Native Americans, the US had a destiny to manifest. This led to the Mexican-American war which was a major defeat for Mexico and resulted in the loss of California during the Mexican Cession of 1848. Ironically, less than a year later, gold would be discovered, thus was starting the Californian Gold Rush. As a result, dictator Santa Anna was exiled from the country and tensions rose further and further between the Liberals, led by Benito Juárez, and the Conservatives leading to yet another Civil War a decade later. On the 17th of July 1861, after the capture of Mexico City by the Liberals, Juárez suspended any loan repayment to European powers for two years. He had good reasons to as the Mexican economy was devastated and its coffers emptied. But these loans amounted to 70M pesos for Britain, 9M for Spain and 3M for France. Understandably, the Europeans weren't thrilled to hear that. On October 31st 1861, France, Britain and Spain signed the convention of London which established a joint effort to extract repayment from Mexico and explicitly stated that no nation would seek out territorial gains nor interfere in Mexican politics. This was an affair of money. Or it should have been. You see while the 19th century was troubled for Mexico, France was no better off with yet another Revolution in 1848 which led to the overthrowing of the king and the election of Napoleon. No, this Napoleon. Napoleon III, the nephew of the first. And much like his uncle, Napoleon had delusions of grandeur but unlike his uncle, he didn't really have the genius to back those views. Three years after his election, he suspended the elected assembly to establish the second empire. And when most European monarchs felt that the Americas was now "has been" and the new hot thing was Africa, Napoleon III eyed the unstable but mineral-rich country of Mexico. Through the installation of a puppet government, he hoped to open the country to European trade and secure French access to Mexican silver as well as curb US expansionism. The convention of London as well as the start of the American Civil War, which meant that the US would be unable to impose its Monroe Doctrine, felt like the perfect time to do just that. In December, the fleets of the tripartite islands arrived at the port of Veracruz. The Spanish forces, under orders of general Juan Prim had captured the fortress of San Juan de Ulúa. After that, Veracruz quickly fell and then Cordoba and Orizaba. In February 1862, General prim signed the convention of La Soledad which stated that the alliance recognized the Republican government of Mexico and would not interfere with it. During that time, however, France kept sending more and more expeditionary forces to Mexico to the point that he became quite suspicious. This resulted in the collapse of the tripartite alliance and the withdrawal of Spanish and British forces in late April. Meanwhile, 6,500 men, under the orders of De Lorencez, marched towards Mexico City while the Mexicans, under the orders of general Ignacio Zaragoza, struggled to assembled an appropriate defense. And so it was with a smaller, inexperienced and ill-equipped army that Zaragoza marched his troops against an army that hadn't been defeated since Waterloo, nearly half a century ago. The first encounter between the French and Mexican troops occurred on April 28th and was a resounding defeat for the Mexican army. As a result, Zaragoza was forced to retreat with his 4,000 men to the heavily fortified city of Puebla. On the night of May 3rd, Zaragoza arrived at Puebla leaving him barely any time to fortify the city as the French troops arrived just two days later at 9AM. At 11:45, the French artillery started shelling the Guadeloupe port with little effect as the old stone held firm. Against all advice, De Lorecenz ordered his men to assault the fort. They went once and were pushed back. They went a second time and were pushed back again. Finally, De Lorencez sent his full reserve for the third assault. However, by that time, the artillery had used all its ammunition and so the assault was carried out unsupported. Predictably, the result was no different than the two other attempts and as a final blow, the retreating French troops were charged by Zaragoza's cavalry. Soon after, a torrential rain started which made the ground too muddy for any hope of another attack. Demoralized, the French camped another few days before they finally withdrew to Orizaba. That night the bells of Puebla rang and the Mexican troops celebrated by singing La Marseillaise, which have been banned by Napoleon III. In a telegram to President Juárez, Zaragoza praised troops and hoped that this victory would bring the conflict to an end. He finished by saying, "I wish that our dear homeland, now so despondent, is one day happy and respected by all nations." And while the battle was a resounding victory for Mexico, it wouldn't be enough. The country was already on his knees before France declare war and there was only so much one could do against a superpower. But that's a story for another day. Eventually, the Republicans would regain control of Mexico but Zaragoza won't live to see that day as he died of typhus only one month after his heroic victory at Puebla. In his memory, the town of Puebla was renamed, Puebla de Zaragoza. And when Juárez regained control of the country, he decided to commemorate the Battle of Puebla by declaring the 5th of May a national holiday, hence where Cinco de Mayo comes from. So no, unlike what an upsetting amount of Americans believe, Cinco de Mayo does not celebrate Mexican Independence. Mexico's independence is celebrated on the 16th of September, the day El Grito de Dolores started their independence war. Furthermore, Cinco de Mayo isn't really that much of a big deal in Mexico and is celebrated at best with military parades and battle reenactments, and not with endless sangrias at Chili's. But then one should expect much from a country who think this is Mexican food. Hello everyone, I hope you enjoyed this video. If you did, please consider leaving a like, sharing, commenting and if you haven't yet, subscribing. This was berries. I will see you next week but until then, Merde!

Contents

Background

"May 5, 1862 and the siege of Puebla", a 1901 image from the Biblioteca del Niño Mexicano, a series of booklets for children detailing the history of Mexico
"May 5, 1862 and the siege of Puebla", a 1901 image from the Biblioteca del Niño Mexicano, a series of booklets for children detailing the history of Mexico

Events leading to the Battle of Puebla

Cinco de Mayo has its roots in the Second French intervention in Mexico, which took place in the aftermath of the 1846–48 Mexican–American War and the 1858–61 Reform War. The Reform War was a civil war that pitted Liberals (who believed in separation of church and state, and freedom of religion) against Conservatives (who favored a tight bond between the Catholic Church and the Mexican state).[9] These wars nearly bankrupted the Mexican Treasury. On July 17, 1861, Mexican President Benito Juárez issued a moratorium in which all foreign debt payments would be suspended for two years.[3][10] In response, Britain, France, and Spain sent naval forces to Veracruz to demand reimbursement. Britain and Spain negotiated with Mexico and withdrew, but France, at the time ruled by Napoleon III, decided to use the opportunity to establish an empire in Mexico that would favor French interests, the Second Mexican Empire. The empire was part of an envisioned "Latin America" (term used to imply cultural kinship of the region with France) that would rebuild French influence in the American continent and exclude Anglophone American territories.

French invasion and Mexican victory

Late in 1861, a well-armed French fleet attacked Veracruz, landing a large French force and driving President Juárez and his government into retreat.[11] Moving on from Veracruz towards Mexico City, the French army encountered heavy resistance from the Mexicans close to Puebla, at the Mexican forts of Loreto and Guadalupe.[12] The French army of 8,000[13][14][note 1] attacked the poorly equipped Mexican army of 4,000.[15][note 2] On May 5, 1862,[16] the Mexicans decisively defeated the French army.[17][18][19] The victory represented a significant morale boost to the Mexican army and the Mexican people at large[20][21] and helped establish a sense of national unity and patriotism.[22]

Events after the battle

The Mexican victory, however, was short-lived. A year later, with 30,000 troops, the French were able to defeat the Mexican army, capture Mexico City, and install Emperor Maximilian I as ruler of Mexico.[23] The French victory was itself short-lived, lasting only three years, from 1864 to 1867.[23] By 1865, "with the American Civil War now over, the U.S. began to provide more political and military assistance to Mexico to expel the French".[23] Upon the conclusion of the American Civil War, Napoleon III, facing a persistent Mexican guerilla resistance, the threat of war with Prussia, and "the prospect of a serious scrap with the United States", retreated from Mexico starting in 1866.[24] The Mexicans recaptured Mexico City, and Maximilian I was apprehended and executed, along with his Mexican generals Miguel Miramón and Tomás Mejía Camacho in Cerro de las Campanas, Querétaro.[10][23] "On June 5, 1867, Benito Juárez finally entered Mexico City where he installed a new government and reorganized his administration."[10]

Significance

The Battle of Puebla was significant, both nationally and internationally, for several reasons. First, although considerably outnumbered, the Mexicans defeated a better-equipped French army. "This battle was significant in that the 4,000 Mexican soldiers were greatly outnumbered by the well-equipped French army of 8,000 that had not been defeated for almost 50 years."[25][26][note 3] Second, since the Battle of Puebla, some have argued that no country in the Americas has subsequently been invaded by any other European military force.[27][note 4] Historian Justo Sierra has written in his Political Evolution of the Mexican People that, had Mexico not defeated the French in Puebla on May 5, 1862, France would have gone to the aid of the Confederate States of America in the American Civil War and the United States' destiny would have been different.[28][29]

History of the holiday

United States

Cinco de Mayo performers at the White House
Cinco de Mayo performers at the White House

According to a paper published by the UCLA Center for the Study of Latino Health and Culture about the origin of the observance of Cinco de Mayo in the United States, the modern American focus on that day first started in California in 1863 in response to the resistance to French rule in Mexico.[30] "Far up in the gold country town of Columbia (now Columbia State Park) Mexican miners were so overjoyed at the news that they spontaneously fired off rifle shots and fireworks, sang patriotic songs and made impromptu speeches."[31]

A 2007 UCLA Newsroom article notes that "the holiday, which has been celebrated in California continuously since 1863, is virtually ignored in Mexico."[30] TIME magazine reports that "Cinco de Mayo started to come into vogue in 1940s America during the rise of the Chicano Movement."[21] The holiday crossed over from California into the rest of the United States in the 1950s and 1960s but did not gain popularity until the 1980s when marketers, especially beer companies, capitalized on the celebratory nature of the day and began to promote it.[32][33] It grew in popularity and evolved into a celebration of Mexican culture and heritage, first in areas with large Mexican-American populations, like Los Angeles, Chicago, Houston,  New York, followed by Cleveland, Boston, Indianapolis, Raleigh, Dallas, San Antonio, Washington, D.C., Atlanta, Miami, Orlando, Denver, Phoenix, Philadelphia, Tucson, San Francisco, San Jose, and San Diego.[34]

In a 1998 study in the Journal of American Culture it was reported that there were more than 120 official US celebrations of Cinco de Mayo in 21 different states. An update in 2006 found that the number of official Cinco de Mayo events was 150 or more, according to José Alamillo, a professor of ethnic studies at Washington State University in Pullman, who has studied the cultural impact of Cinco de Mayo north of the border.[35] Los Angeles' Fiesta Broadway has been billed as the largest Cinco de Mayo celebration in the world, which it most certainly was at its peak in the 1990s when it attracted crowds of 500,000 or more. In recent years attendance has seen a dramatic decrease.[36][37]

Cinco de Mayo celebration in Saint Paul, Minnesota
Cinco de Mayo celebration in Saint Paul, Minnesota

On June 7, 2005, the United States Congress issued a concurrent resolution calling on the President of the United States to issue a proclamation calling upon the people of the United States to observe Cinco de Mayo with appropriate ceremonies and activities.[38] To celebrate, many display Cinco de Mayo banners while school districts hold special events to educate students about its historical significance. Special events and celebrations highlight Mexican culture, especially in its music and regional dancing. Examples include baile folklórico and mariachi demonstrations held annually at the Plaza del Pueblo de Los Ángeles, near Olvera Street. Commercial interests in the United States have capitalized on the celebration, advertising Mexican products and services, with an emphasis on alcoholic beverages,[39][40] foods, and music.[41][42] According to Nielsen, in 2013 more than $600 million worth of beer was purchased in the United States for Cinco de Mayo, more than for the Super Bowl or St. Patrick's Day.[43]

Mexico

The former Forts of Guadalupe and Loreto now house a museum.
The former Forts of Guadalupe and Loreto now house a museum.

On May 9, 1862, President Juárez declared that the anniversary of the Battle of Puebla would be a national holiday regarded as "Battle of Puebla Day" or "Battle of Cinco de Mayo".[44][45][46][47][48]

Today, the commemoration of the battle is not observed as a national holiday in Mexico (i.e. not a statutory holiday).[49] However, all public schools are closed nationwide in Mexico on May 5.[50][51] The day is an official holiday in the State of Puebla, where the Battle took place, and also a full holiday (no work) in the neighboring State of Veracruz.[52][53]

In Puebla, historical reenactments, parades, and meals take place to commemorate the battle. Parade participants dress as French and Mexican soldiers to reenact the battle.[54] Every year the city also hosts the Festival Internacional de Puebla, which gathers national and international artists, traditional musicians and dancers.[54] As well as the Festival Internacional del Mole, with an emphasis on the city's iconic mole poblano.[54]

In Mexico City, military commemoration is occasionally held at the Campo Marte.[55] A street, Avenida Cinco de Mayo [es], in the Historic Center of Mexico City was named after the battle in 1862 by Benito Juárez.

Elsewhere

Events tied to Cinco de Mayo also occur outside Mexico and the United States. As in the United States, celebrations elsewhere also emphasize Mexican cuisine, culture and music. For example, some Canadian pubs play Mexican music and serve Mexican food and drink,[56] and a sky-diving club near Vancouver holds a Cinco de Mayo skydiving event.[57] In the Cayman Islands, in the Caribbean, there is an annual Cinco de Mayo air guitar competition,[58] and at Montego Bay, Jamaica, there is a Cinco de Mayo celebration.[59] The city of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, holds an annual Mexican Festival[60] to honor the day, and celebrations are held in London[61] and New Zealand.[62] Other celebrations of the day can also be found in Cape Town, South Africa,[63] Lagos, Nigeria,[64] and in Paris.[65] Cinco de Mayo is celebrated in Japan in Osaka and in Tokyo's Yoyogi Park Event Space as a celebration of Latin American culture.[66][67][68]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ Other sources give the size of the French force as 6,500."Cinco de Mayo". Mexico Online: The Oldest and most trusted online guide to Mexico. Retrieved November 13, 2012.
  2. ^ According to Mexico's National Institute of Historical Studies on the Mexican Revolution the Mexican force consisted of 4,802 soldiers.[1] Archived October 6, 2012, at the Wayback Machine And Peter Hicks of the French Fondation Napoléon and other French sources state the size of the Mexican force was 12,000 men. [2][3]. Hayes-Batista clarifies on page 60 of his El Cinco de Mayo: An American Tradition that after the smaller Mexican force had defeated the French on May 5, they received reinforcements on May 6 and 7 of approximately 12,000 additional Mexican soldiers.
  3. ^ It has been pointed out that, contrary to reports on PBS and in Philadelphia's The Bulletin, the French were in fact considered to have been defeated by the Russians at the Siege of Petropavlovsk in 1854.
  4. ^ The statement in The Bulletin is, "This was the last time any army from another continent invaded the Americas."[25] Note it says "invaded", and not "attacked." Thus, since Cinco de Mayo no army from another continent has invaded the Americas. The War of the Falklands War, for example, was fought in the Americas but the Islands were invaded by a military from the Americas (the Argentine military). They were subsequently attacked (not invaded) by the UK. Another example, Pearl Harbor, experienced an attack, not an invasion by the Japanese. The only possible exception to the Cinco de Mayo claim above might be the brief occupation/invasion of two of the Alaskan Aleutian Islands by the Japanese military during WWII. This event, however, was so insignificant as to be virtually negligible: the islands invaded had a total population of 12 Americans and some 45 natives, the invasion was short-lived, and the battle fought there had no notoriety other than the psychological effect on the Americans that the Japanese had invaded American territory again (Alaska was not yet a full-fledged state). In short, the military importance of these small pieces of land was nowhere comparable to the superior military significance of the Battle of Puebla.

Citations

  1. ^ a b Lovgren, Stefan (May 5, 2006). "Cinco de Mayo, From Mexican Fiesta to Popular U.S. Holiday". National Geographic News.
  2. ^ "Recognizing the Significance of Cinco de Mayo". Congress.gov. House of Representatives. May 4, 2009. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
  3. ^ a b "Cinco de Mayo". University of California at Los Angeles. Archived from the original on April 8, 2006. Retrieved May 5, 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  4. ^ "Cinco de Mayo celebrations run all weekend". Deseret News. Retrieved May 8, 2007.
  5. ^ "Cinco de Mayo has become a day for celebrating Mexican culture in the United States, and celebrations there easily outshine those in Mexico". About.com. Retrieved May 8, 2007.
  6. ^ Krogstad, Jens (May 5, 2003). "University community celebrates Cinco de Mayo". The Minnesota Daily. University of Minnesota. Archived from the original on November 18, 2007. Retrieved April 25, 2016. Today, the holiday is celebrated more in the United States than in Mexico Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  7. ^ "Why is Cinco de Mayo More Popular in America Than in Mexico?". US News & World Report. Retrieved May 5, 2018.
  8. ^ Lauren Effron (May 5, 2010). "Cinco de Mayo: NOT Mexico's Independence Day". Discovery Channel. Retrieved May 5, 2011.
  9. ^ Minster, Christopher (December 16, 2013). "Cinco De Mayo/The Battle of Puebla". About.com. Retrieved April 25, 2016.
  10. ^ a b c Herz, May. "Cinco de Mayo". Inside Mexico. Retrieved May 5, 2011.
  11. ^ "Cinco de Mayo". History.com. Retrieved May 5, 2011.
  12. ^ "Cinco de Mayo". Mexico Online. April 25, 2007. Retrieved May 5, 2011.
  13. ^ Goralka, Julia (May 2, 2012). "Cinco de Mayo: What's all the fuss about?". The Washington Times. Retrieved November 15, 2012.
  14. ^ Suarez, Ray (May 4, 2012). "Happy Cinco de Mayo – Sorta". PBS News Hour. Retrieved October 28, 2012.
  15. ^ "Cinco de Mayo". Mexico Online: The Oldest and most trusted online guide to Mexico. Retrieved November 13, 2012.
  16. ^ Cinco de Mayo. 2011. The History Channel website. Retrieved May 5, 2011.
  17. ^ The Significance of "Cinco de Mayo". Ignacio González. 1996. Retrieved November 15, 2012.
  18. ^ Cinco de Mayo -The Backstory. Archived May 13, 2013, at the Wayback Machine Tony Azios. 'Llero. Jaws Communications. 2010. Retrieved November 15, 2012.
  19. ^ Cheryl VanBuskirk (May 7, 2009). "Cinco De Mayo: Join In The Celebration On The Fifth Of May". The Bulletin: Philadelphia's Family Newspaper. Archived from the original on May 11, 2009. Retrieved May 10, 2010.
  20. ^ History Channel.com. Retrieved May 14, 2010.
  21. ^ a b Happy Cinco de Mayo: Top 10 Drunkest Holidays.. Time. By Frances Romero. Wednesday, May. 05, 2010.. Retrieved May 14, 2010.
  22. ^ "Cinco de Mayo". Mexico Online. April 25, 2007. Retrieved May 5, 2011.
  23. ^ a b c d "Cinco de Mayo". Mexico Online: The Oldest and most trusted online guide to Mexico.
  24. ^ Michael C. Meyer; William H. Beezley (2000). The Oxford History of Mexico. Oxford University Press. pp. 387–8.
  25. ^ a b Cinco De Mayo: Join In The Celebration On The Fifth Of May. Archived May 11, 2009, at the Wayback Machine Cheryl VanBuskirk. The Bulletin: Philadelphia's Family Newspaper. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, US. May 7, 2009. Retrieved June 5, 2009.
  26. ^ The Battle of Puebla and Cinco de Mayo. PBS. Retrieved February 6, 2009.
  27. ^ Cinco De Mayo: Join In The Celebration On The Fifth Of May. Archived May 11, 2009, at the Wayback Machine Cheryl VanBuskirk. The Bulletin: Philadelphia's Family Newspaper, May 7, 2009. Retrieved June 5, 2009.
  28. ^ "Mexico's Lasting European Influence. By Jose Antonio Burciaga. Free Lance-Star Publishing. May, 2007. (First released in The Hispanic News Link. 1981.)". Banderasnews.com. Retrieved May 5, 2011.
  29. ^ Robert L. Bidwell (April 1971). "The Political Evolution of the Mexican People. By Justo Sierra. Translated by Charles Ramsdell. Austin, TX: The University of Texas Press. 1969". Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs. Center for Latin American Studies at the University of Miami. 13 (2): 306–308. JSTOR 174689.
  30. ^ a b Southern California Quarterly "Cinco de Mayo's First Seventy-Five Years in Alta California: From Spontaneous Behavior to Sedimented Memory, 1862 to 1937" Spring 2007 (see American observation of Cinco de Mayo started in California) Retrieved October 30, 2007.
  31. ^ Hayes-Bautista, David E. (April 2009). "Cinco de Mayo: The Real Story". EGP News. Eastern Group Publications. Retrieved June 2, 2016. Far up in the gold country town of Columbia (now Columbia State Park) Mexican miners were so overjoyed at the news that they spontaneously fired off rifles shots and fireworks, sang patriotic songs and made impromptu speeches.
  32. ^ Cinco de Mayo minor holiday in Mexico. UPI. World News. May 5, 2010. Retrieved May 15, 2010. Verified March 20, 2013.
  33. ^ Cesares, Oscar (May 5, 2010). "Holiday of Cinco de Mayo is minor event in Mexico". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved May 15, 2010.
  34. ^ "Cinco de Mayo". History.com. Retrieved March 10, 2013.
  35. ^ Lovgren, Stefan. "Cinco de Mayo History: From Bloodshed to Beer Fest". National Geographic. Los Angeles. Retrieved May 5, 2011.
  36. ^ Canalis, John (April 26, 1992). L.A. hosts nation's biggest Cinco de Mayo party. UPI Archives. Retrieved August 22, 2016.
  37. ^ Jamison, Peter (April 24, 2016). With thinner crowds in a smaller space, Fiesta Broadway feels deeply diminished. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 22, 2016.
  38. ^ Library of Congress (U.S.A.) Declaration. Retrieved February 6, 2009.
  39. ^ Kane, Courtney (May 2, 2003). "Marketers extend their holiday efforts to a Mexican celebration and even to Lent". The New York Times. Retrieved April 25, 2016. [Cinco de Mayo] gives us an opportunity ... to really get a jump-start on the summer beer-selling season
  40. ^ "Constellation Brands and Crown Imports Ring in Cinco de Mayo at New York Stock Exchange". ACNNewswire.com. Victor, New York: Asian Corporate News Network. May 3, 2012. Retrieved May 8, 2012.
  41. ^ Salem, Nancy (May 4, 2007). "Cinco de Mayo's history neglected; it's an excuse to party". The Albuquerque Tribune. Archived from the original on September 14, 2007. Retrieved April 25, 2016. From my perspective as a marketing professional, Cinco de Mayo has morphed into a national holiday designed by Fifth Avenue to sell alcohol and excite consumership around a party-type theme Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  42. ^ Alamillo, José M. "Contesting Cinco de Mayo: Cultural Politics and Commercialization of Ethnic Festivals, 1930–1950". Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved May 8, 2007. Cinco de Mayo is not just a fiesta anymore, the gringos have taken it on as a good sales pitch
  43. ^ "What Is Cinco de Mayo?". The New York Times. May 5, 2018. Retrieved May 6, 2018.
  44. ^ Did You Know? Cinco de Mayo is more widely celebrated in USA than Mexico. Tony Burton. Mexconnect. Retrieved May 8, 2013.
  45. ^ Cultural adaptation: the Cinco de Mayo holiday is far more widely celebrated in the USA than in Mexico. Geo-Mexico. May 2, 2011. Retrieved May 8, 2013.
  46. ^ 25 Latino Craft Projects: Celebrating Culture in Your Library. Ana Elba Pabon. Diana Borrego. 2003. American Library Association. Page 14. Retrieved May 8, 2013.
  47. ^ 7 Things You May Not Know About Cinco de Mayo. Jesse Greenspan. May 3, 2012. Retrieved May 8, 2013.
  48. ^ Congressional Record – House. Page 7488. 9 May 2001. Retrieved May 8, 2013. Note that contrary to most other sources, this source states the date Juarez declared Cinco de Mayo to be a national holiday was September 8, 1862.
  49. ^ Holidays 2013. Archived May 13, 2013, at the Wayback Machine U.S. Consulate in Mexico. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  50. ^ Los días de 2013 que, por ley, debes descansar. January 9, 2013. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  51. ^ Calendario Escolar 2012–2013. Archived April 13, 2013, at the Wayback Machine Secretaria de Educacion Publica. Government of Mexico. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  52. ^ Calendario Puebla 2012.. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  53. ^ Circular 0077-13 Calendario Oficial de Días Festivos 2013.[permanent dead link] Adelante. Gobierno del Estado de Veracruz. January 16, 2013. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  54. ^ a b c "How people actually celebrate Cinco de Mayo in Mexico". Business Insider. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
  55. ^ "Peña Nieto no estará en Puebla para desfile del 5 de Mayo; conmemora Batalla en Campo Marte". SDPnoticias.com (in Spanish). May 5, 2015.
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Sources

  • Hayes-Bautista, David E. El Cinco de Mayo: An American Tradition (University of California Press; 2012) 293 pages

External links

This page was last edited on 11 September 2019, at 02:22
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