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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Cimbri (Greek κίμβροι, Latin Cimbri) were an ancient tribe. They are generally believed to have been a Germanic tribe originating in Jutland, but Celtic influences have also been suggested.

Together with the Teutones and the Ambrones, they fought the Roman Republic between 113 and 101 BC. The Cimbri were initially successful, particularly at the Battle of Arausio, in which a large Roman army was routed, after which they raided large areas in Gaul and Hispania. In 101 BC, during an attempted invasion of Italy, the Cimbri were decisively defeated by Gaius Marius, and their king, Boiorix, was killed. Some of the surviving captives are reported to have been among the rebelling gladiators in the Third Servile War.

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  • ✪ Cimbrian War 113–101 BC - Roman - Germanic Wars DOCUMENTARY
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Transcription

This video is sponsored by Skillshare. Learn more about Skillshare and the exclusive offer they have for our viewers at the end of the video. Throughout its history Roman civilization had many enemies, but none of them were as fierce as the Germanic peoples, and no other ethnic group fought the Romans for so long. The Romans and Germanic tribes started their bitter fight on first contact and the conflicts between these two peoples decided the fate of Rome. The Cimbrian War of 113-101 BC was the first engagement and its results influenced the history of Rome for the next 6 centuries. By the mid-2nd century BC the Roman Republic was in control of most of the Mediterranean directly or via its allies. Rome won the conflicts against the Seleucids, Macedon and the Greek leagues and that allowed the Republic to take control of Greece. To the west the Romans defeated a number of Gallic tribes in the 120s BC and created the province of Gallia Narbonensis. However, new enemies were already on their way. Between 120-115 BC the Jutland peninsula suffered some kind of catastrophe. The peninsula was either flooded or extreme colds made it virtually unlivable. In any case, the proto-German tribe populating modern day Denmark called the Cimbri had to leave these lands. By 115 BC they began migrating to the South. They were joined by their neighbors and relatives Teutones in Northern Germany. The tribes, now 200 thousand warriors strong moved into the modern day Czech Republic but were defeated there by the Celtic Boii and were forced to change their route. In 113 BC the Cimbri and Teutones crossed the Danube into Pannonia and then moved to Noricum. The region was populated by the Celtic Taurisci, who weren’t able to repel the invaders and asks their ally Rome for help invaders and asked their ally - Rome for help. At the time the Roman society was showing the first signs of the crisis that will end the republic in the next century: their conquests made the elites richer, while the poor lost their lands. The landless were not allowed to join the legions. This was weakening the army in terms of leadership, morale, and numbers, and that became the central theme of this war. Roman consul Gnaeus Papirius Carbo answered the call and moved his legions to block the North-Eastern Alpine passes into Italy. The Cimbri send emissaries promising that they were not going to attack Taurisci anymore. Carbo seemingly agreed to peace and gave the tribes guides to show the route away from Roman territory, but at the same time he laid an ambush for them. The tribes learned of this and attacked Roman ambush near Norei, crushing the legions. The Romans lost more than 20 thousand soldiers in this battle. For reasons unknown, the Cimbri and their allies did not attack Italy immediately and moved to the west through Noricum to Raetia. Celtic tribes called Tigurini and Tougeni joined them here and all these tribes moved into Gallia. We don’t know much about their time in modern day France, but we know that they raided and looted Gallia and the Gauls were not able to stop the invaders. Rome was content not to have to deal with the invaders anymore, as they had been fighting the Jugurthine war of 112-106 BC in Numidia. This war underlined the problems in Roman society: military and civilian leaders were bribed by the Numidian leader Jugurtha multiple times and the Roman army became so disorganized it failed to win against a much weaker enemy. In 109 BC the Cimbri and their allies decided to move into Roman controlled Gallia Narbonensis. Roman consul Marcus Junius Silanus attempted to negotiate with them. The tribal alliance demanded lands in the Rhone valley and promised to defend the Roman borders, but Silanus declined. In the ensuing battle, the Romans were defeated yet again. Most of the tribes returned to Gallia Transalpina, while the Tigurini stayed to roam Narbonensis and in 107 BC they ambushed a newly formed Roman army near Burdigala, modern day Bordeaux. The Roman leaders were killed and there were almost 10 thousand casualties. The Romans now understood that the Germanic threat was real. An 80 thousand strong army was formed to be sent to Gallia Narbonensis. As their most talented general Gaius Marius was leading the African army at that moment, a commoner Gnaeus Mallius Maximus was to lead the army and Quintus Servilius Caepio was his second-in-command. Caepio, a patrician from one of the oldest families of Rome, was not happy that Novo Homus – new man with no aristocratic blood, will be the one in charge. In 105 BC Mallius arrived to Gallia Narbonensis and positioned his troops on the west bank of the Rodan river near the city of Arausio, while Caepio stayed with his troops on the eastern side despite orders to cross the river. He forced the river only after the direct order from the Senate, but even then insisted on a different camp and ignored order from Mallius. The king of Cimbri Boiorix decided to negotiate with Mallius and asked him to let tribes pass into Hispania. Caepio did not want a commoner to get the credit for stopping the Germanic threat and ordered his troops to attack the Cimbri. His smaller force was easily stopped by the Germans and was slaughtered after being surrounded. Mallius was not prepared for the swift counter-attack of the enemy, his legionaries were basically encircled. 80 thousand legionaries died on this day – the biggest Roman defeat since Hannibal crushed them at Cannae. But as Hannibal before them, the tribal alliance didn’t attack Rome after this battle. Most of the tribes moved into northern Hispania and pillaged it, so the Romans got one more chance to catch their breath and prepare for the inevitable invasion. In 106 BC Marius finally finished the Jugurthine war and despite the law prohibiting it, was elected consul for the second time in 104 BC. Marius recognized the problems of the Roman army. His reform is one of the focal points of the Roman military and political history and we will cover it in our Armies and Tactics series. In short, the landless were allowed to join the legions. The army became professional, training and equipment were standardized and those serving were promised lands. The legionaries started carrying all of their supplies, weapons, and rations themselves, which improved the mobility of the army, and the stamina of the soldiers. The traditional manipular organization of the legion was scrapped, for a more agile formation based on the cohort, a group of 400 soldiers. All these allowed the organization of the strongest Roman army in history, with the best-trained legionaries. By the time Cimbri and their allies decided to turn their attention to Italy in 102 BC Marius was ready to stop them. The tribal army was divided into two halves: The Teutones led by the king Teutobud moved via the Mediterranean coast in order to attack western part of Italy, while the Cimbri moved from Gallia into Noricum to move into North-Eastern Italy. In the summer of 102 BC Marius was waiting for the Teutones in his well-fortified camp close to the Rhone river. The Germans tried to assault this camp, but their 3-day long attack failed and they lost thousands. That strengthened the morale of the legionaries. The Teutones decided to bypass the Romans to the north, but Marius moved parallel to them and forced them to fight in the location called Aquae Sextiae. Marius had 40,000 soldiers and his opponents outnumbered him 2-to-1. The Romans positioned themselves on the hill, with 4 thousand legionaries as an ambush in the nearby forests. To provoke the Teutones Marius led his cavalry in an attack, but retreated on contact behind the line of the legionaries. The Germans run swiftly uphill and were met by the Roman pilae and then the shield wall. The Romans had a clear advantage in training and equipment and soon the Teutones had to start a retreat to the base of the hill but were followed by the legionaries. By this point in the battle, Teutobud’s forces were tired and battered. They tried to create a shield wall of their own but the combined attack of main Roman forces from the front and ambushing group from the rear broke their lines. More than 50 thousand Teutones were killed, while the Romans lost few thousand soldiers and continued the massacre in the Germanic camp, where tens of thousands were killed and enslaved. But the Cimbri were still strong and Marius’ co-consul Quintus Lutatius Catulus was tasked with the defense of the Alpine passages. Under the Cimbri pressure he had to abandon Brenner Pass. His second attempt to mount a defense on Adige river also failed, when Cimbri tried to encircle his positions and forced him to retreat beyond the Po river, which was more defensible. That allowed Cimbri to loot rich territory between the Alpes and Po river. By that point, they had been traveling for almost a year from Spain to Italy and were exhausted, so they were not so eager to attack Roman positions in winter. Marius used that opportunity to move back into Italy. He was elected the consul yet again. In the spring of 101 BC Marius moved into Po valley, where his 32 thousand legionaries were joined by 20 thousand of Catulus. Modern historians believe that Cimbri led by Boiorix had up to 60 thousand warriors, while Roman historians claim that the Germanics were 200 thousand strong. The Cimbri continuously avoided Marius throughout spring and early summer. Marius was pushing Boiorix to the North-West in an attempt to entrap them along the Alpes. The Cimbri were not able to avoid Romans anymore. By the end of July, both armies reached the place called Vercellae. The Romans led by Marius and Catulus had more than 50 thousand legionaries, while Cimbri were able to field between 60 and 80 thousand warriors. Marius’s army had an advantage in cavalry, as most Cimbri fought on foot. As soon as the battle started the Roman cavalry on both flanks of the legions moved swiftly to attack their counterparts. The Cimbri line moved to attack the legionaries. While the infantry lines clashed, with Romans on the defensive and being pushed back, Marius’s cavalry was able to win their engagement against Boiorix’s horsemen in short order. The Roman cavalry then turned and attacked the rear of the Cimbri line. The Germanic forces were surrounded and almost all of their army was killed. The battle took few hours and all of the Cimbri were either killed or enslaved. That was the end of the Cimbrian war. The Romans were able to defeat this threat, the biggest since Hannibal. But new cracks formed in the Roman society and they would eventually lead to a series of civil wars that we are planning to cover in future. The sponsor of this video – Skillshare is the premier online learning community with more than 19,000 classes that teach videography, productivity, photography, and more. The modern life is fast paced and demands constant self-improving, so Skillshare is great for people who want to learn a new skill or make their passion a full-time job. If you are planning to create a youtube channel – Skillshare is the place to start. It has more than 500 courses teacher After Effects ranging from the basics to the courses that can surprise even the advanced users. Premium Membership begins around $10 a month - but for the first 250 people to sign up with the link in the description, you can get 2 months of Skillshare for FREE! These spots typically go quite quickly so make sure to get in there Thank you for watching our documentary on the Cimbrian War. We are planning to release more videos on the Roman history, so subscribe and press the alarm bell to get notified – we release videos every Thursday and Sunday - there is more to come. We try to answer every comment and appreciate each like and share. These videos are made possibly by our brilliant Patrons over at Patreon and Youtube sponsors. You can join the ranks of our supporters via the links in the description and get many perks, like early access to the videos, info on our schedule, ability to vote on the upcoming series and so much more. This is the Kings and Generals channel, and we will catch you on the next one.

Contents

Name

The origin of the name Cimbri is unknown. One etymology[1] is PIE *tḱim-ro- "inhabitant", from tḱoi-m- "home" (> English home), itself a derivation from tḱei- "live" (> Greek κτίζω, Latin sinō); then, the Germanic *himbra- finds an exact cognate in Slavic sębrъ "farmer" (> Croatian, Serbian sebar, Russian сябёр syabyor).

The name has also been related to the word kimme meaning “rim”, i.e., "the people of the coast".[2] Finally, since Antiquity, the name has been related to that of the Cimmerians.[3]

Himmerland (Old Danish Himbersysel) is generally thought to preserve their name;[4] Cimbri with a c would be an older form without Grimm's law (PIE k > Germ. h). Alternatively, Latin c- represents an attempt to render the unfamiliar Proto-Germanic h = [x] (Latin h was [h] but was becoming silent in common speech at the time), perhaps due to Celtic-speaking interpreters (a Celtic intermediary would also explain why Germanic *Þeuðanōz became Latin Teutones).

Because of the similarity of the names, the Cimbri have been at times associated with Cymry, the Welsh name for themselves.[5] However, Cymry is derived from Brittonic *Kombrogi, meaning “compatriots”, and is linguistically unrelated to Cimbri.[6]

History

Origins

The Cimbri are generally believed to have been a Germanic tribe originating in Jutland.[7][8][9][10][11] Though Celtic origins have been suggested, this is controversial.[7][12]

Archaeologists have not found any clear indications of a mass migration from Jutland in the early Iron Age. The Gundestrup Cauldron, which was deposited in a bog in Himmerland in the 2nd or 1st century BC, shows that there was some sort of contact with southeastern Europe, but it is uncertain if this contact can be associated with the Cimbrian expedition.[13]

Advocates for a northern homeland point to Greek and Roman sources that associate the Cimbri with the Jutland peninsula. According to the Res gestae (ch. 26) of Augustus, the Cimbri were still found in the area around the turn of the 1st century AD:

My fleet sailed from the mouth of the Rhine eastward as far as the lands of the Cimbri, to which, up to that time, no Roman had ever penetrated either by land or by sea, and the Cimbri and Charydes and Semnones and other peoples of the Germans of that same region through their envoys sought my friendship and that of the Roman people.

The contemporary Greek geographer Strabo testified that the Cimbri still existed as a Germanic tribe, presumably in the "Cimbric peninsula" (since they are said to live by the North Sea and to have paid tribute to Augustus):

As for the Cimbri, some things that are told about them are incorrect and others are extremely improbable. For instance, one could not accept such a reason for their having become a wandering and piratical folk as this that while they were dwelling on a Peninsula they were driven out of their habitations by a great flood-tide; for in fact they still hold the country which they held in earlier times; and they sent as a present to Augustus the most sacred kettle in their country, with a plea for his friendship and for an amnesty of their earlier offences, and when their petition was granted they set sail for home; and it is ridiculous to suppose that they departed from their homes because they were incensed on account of a phenomenon that is natural and eternal, occurring twice every day. And the assertion that an excessive flood-tide once occurred looks like a fabrication, for when the ocean is affected in this way it is subject to increases and diminutions, but these are regulated and periodical.

— Strabo, Geographica 7.2.1, trans. H.L. Jones[14]

On the map of Ptolemy, the "Kimbroi" are placed on the northernmost part of the peninsula of Jutland.,[15] i.e., in the modern landscape of Himmerland south of Limfjorden (since Vendsyssel-Thy north of the fjord was at that time a group of islands).

Migration

Journey of Cimbri and TeutonesL Cimbri and Teuton defeatsW Cimbri and Teuton victories
Journey of Cimbri and Teutones
BattleL Cimbri and Teuton defeats
BattleW Cimbri and Teuton victories

Some time before 100 BC many of the Cimbri, as well as the Teutons and Ambrones migrated south-east. After several unsuccessful battles with the Boii and other Celtic tribes, they appeared ca 113 BC in Noricum, where they invaded the lands of one of Rome's allies, the Taurisci.

On the request of the Roman consul Gnaeus Papirius Carbo, sent to defend the Taurisci, they retreated, only to find themselves deceived and attacked at the Battle of Noreia, where they defeated the Romans.[16] Only a storm, which separated the combatants, saved the Roman forces from complete annihilation.

Invading Gaul

Now the road to Italy was open, but they turned west towards Gaul. They came into frequent conflict with the Romans, who usually came out the losers. In Commentarii de Bello Gallico the Aduaticii—Belgians of Cimbrian origin—repeatedly sided with Rome's enemies. In 109 BC, they defeated a Roman army under the consul Marcus Junius Silanus, who was the commander of Gallia Narbonensis. In 107 BC they defeated another Roman army under the consul Gaius Cassius Longinus, who was killed at the Battle of Burdigala (modern day Bordeaux) against the Tigurini, who were allies of the Cimbri.

Attacking the Roman Republic

It was not until 105 BC that they planned an attack on the Roman Republic itself. At the Rhône, the Cimbri clashed with the Roman armies. Discord between the Roman commanders, the proconsul Quintus Servilius Caepio and the consul Gnaeus Mallius Maximus, hindered Roman coordination and so the Cimbri succeeded in first defeating the legate Marcus Aurelius Scaurus and later inflicted a devastating defeat on Caepio and Maximus at the Battle of Arausio. The Romans lost as many as 80,000 men, according to Livy; Mommsen (in his History of Rome) thought that excluded auxiliary cavalry and non-combatants who brought the total loss closer to 112,000. Other estimates are much smaller, but by any account a large Roman army was routed.

Rome was in panic, and the terror cimbricus became proverbial. Everyone expected to soon see the new Gauls outside of the gates of Rome. Desperate measures were taken: contrary to the Roman constitution, Gaius Marius, who had defeated Jugurtha, was elected consul and supreme commander for five years in a row (104–100 BC).

Defeat

The Defeat of the Cimbri by Alexandre-Gabriel Décamps
The Defeat of the Cimbri by Alexandre-Gabriel Décamps

In 104–103 BC, the Cimbri had turned to the Iberian Peninsula where they pillaged far and wide, until they were confronted by a coalition of Celtiberians.[17] Defeated, the Cimbri returned to Gaul, where they joined their allies, the Teutons. During this time C. Marius had the time to prepare and, in 102 BC, he was ready to meet the Teutons and the Ambrones at the Rhône. These two tribes intended to pass into Italy through the western passes, while the Cimbri and the Tigurines were to take the northern route across the Rhine and later across the Central Eastern Alps.

At the estuary of the Isère, the Teutons and the Ambrones met Marius, whose well-defended camp they did not manage to overrun. Instead, they pursued their route, and Marius followed them. At Aquae Sextiae, the Romans won two battles and took the Teuton king Teutobod prisoner.

The Cimbri had penetrated through the Alps into northern Italy. The consul Quintus Lutatius Catulus had not dared to fortify the passes, but instead he had retreated behind the river Po, and so the land was open to the invaders. The Cimbri did not hurry, and the victors of Aquae Sextiae had the time to arrive with reinforcements. At the Battle of Vercellae, at the confluence of the river Sesia with the Po, in 101 BC, the long voyage of the Cimbri also came to an end.

It was a devastating defeat, two chieftains, Lugius and Boiorix, died on the field, while the other chieftains Caesorix and Claodicus were captured.[18] The women killed both themselves and their children in order to avoid slavery. The Cimbri were annihilated, although some may have survived to return to the homeland where a population with this name was residing in northern Jutland in the 1st century AD, according to the sources quoted above. Some of the surviving captives are reported to have been among the rebelling gladiators in the Third Servile War.[19]

However, Justin's epitome of Trogus, 38.4, has Mithridates the Great state that the Cimbri are ravaging Italy while the Social War is going on, i.e. at some time in 90–88 BCE, thus more than a decade later,[20] after having sent ambassadors to the Cimbri to request military aid;[21] judging from the context they must then have been living in North Eastern Europe at the time.

Descendants

According to Julius Caesar, the Belgian tribe of the Atuatuci "was descended from the Cimbri and Teutoni, who, upon their march into our province and Italy, set down such of their stock and stuff as they could not drive or carry with them on the near (i.e. west) side of the Rhine, and left six thousand men of their company there as guard and garrison" (Gall. 2.29, trans. Edwards). They founded the city of Atuatuca in the land of the Belgic Eburones, whom they dominated. Thus Ambiorix king of the Eburones paid tribute and gave his son and nephew as hostages to the Atuatuci (Gall. 6.27). In the first century AD, the Eburones were replaced or absorbed by the Germanic Tungri, and the city was known as Atuatuca Tungrorum, i.e. the modern city of Tongeren.

The population of modern-day Himmerland claims to be the heirs of the ancient Cimbri.[citation needed] The adventures of the Cimbri are described by the Danish Nobel Prize–winning author Johannes V. Jensen, himself born in Himmerland, in the novel Cimbrernes Tog (1922), included in the epic cycle Den lange Rejse (English The Long Journey, 1923). The so-called Cimbrian bull ("Cimbrertyren"), a sculpture by Anders Bundgaard, was erected on 14 April 1937 in a central town square in Aalborg, the capital of the region of North Jutland.

A German ethnic minority speaking the Cimbrian language, having settled in the mountains between Vicenza, Verona, and Trento in Italy (also known as Seven Communities), is also called the Cimbri. For hundreds of years this isolated population and its present 4,400 inhabitants have claimed to be the direct descendants of the Cimbri retreating to this area after the Roman victory over their tribe. However, it is more likely that Bavarians settled here in the Middle Ages. Most linguists remain committed to the hypothesis of a medieval (11th to 12th century AD) immigration to explain the presence of small German-speaking communities in the north of Italy.[22] Some genetic studies seem to prove a Celtic, not Germanic, descent for most inhabitants in the region[23] that is reinforced by Gaulish toponyms such as those ending with the suffix -ago < Celtic -*ako(n) (e.g. Asiago is clearly the same place name as the numerous variants – Azay, Aisy, Azé, Ezy – in France, all of which derive from *Asiacum < Gaulish *Asiāko(n)). On the other hand, the original place names in the region, from the specifically localized language known as 'Cimbro' are still in use alongside the more modern names today. These indicate a different origin (e.g., Asiago is known also by its original Cimbro name of Sleghe). The Cimbrian origin myth was popularized by humanists in the 14th century.[citation needed]

Despite these connections to southern Germany, belief in a Himmerland origin persisted well into modern times. On one occasion in 1709, for instance, Frederick IV of Denmark paid the region's inhabitants a visit and was greeted as their king. The population, which kept its independence during the time of the Venice Republic, was later severely devastated by World War I. As a result, many Cimbri have left this mountainous region of Italy, effectively forming a worldwide diaspora.[24]

Culture

Religion

Three carnyx players are depicted at right on plate E of the Gundestrup cauldron.
Three carnyx players are depicted at right on plate E of the Gundestrup cauldron.

The Cimbri are depicted as ferocious warriors who did not fear death. The host was followed by women and children on carts. Aged women, priestesses, dressed in white sacrificed the prisoners of war and sprinkled their blood, the nature of which allowed them to see what was to come.

Strabo gives this vivid description of the Cimbric folklore:

Their wives, who would accompany them on their expeditions, were attended by priestesses who were seers; these were grey-haired, clad in white, with flaxen cloaks fastened on with clasps, girt with girdles of bronze, and bare-footed; now sword in hand these priestesses would meet with the prisoners of war throughout the camp, and having first crowned them with wreaths would lead them to a brazen vessel of about twenty amphorae; and they had a raised platform which the priestess would mount, and then, bending over the kettle, would cut the throat of each prisoner after he had been lifted up; and from the blood that poured forth into the vessel some of the priestesses would draw a prophecy, while still others would split open the body and from an inspection of the entrails would utter a prophecy of victory for their own people; and during the battles they would beat on the hides that were stretched over the wicker-bodies of the wagons and in this way produce an unearthly noise.

— Strabo, Geographica 7.2.3, trans. H.L. Jones

If the Cimbri did in fact come from Jutland, evidence that they practiced ritualistic sacrifice may be found in the Haraldskær Woman discovered in Jutland in the year 1835. Noosemarks and skin piercing were evident and she had been thrown into a bog rather than buried or cremated. Furthermore, the Gundestrup cauldron, found in Himmerland, may be a sacrificial vessel like the one described in Strabo's text. In style, the work looks like Thracian silver work, while many of the engravings are Celtic objects.[25]

Language

A major problem in determining whether the Cimbri were speaking a Celtic language or a Germanic language is that at this time the Greeks and Romans tended to refer to all groups to the north of their sphere of influence as Gauls, Celts, or Germani rather indiscriminately. Caesar seems to be one of the first authors to distinguish the two groups, and he had a political motive for doing so (it was an argument in favour of the Rhine border).[26] Yet, one cannot always trust Caesar and Tacitus when they ascribe individuals and tribes to one or the other category, although Caesar made clear distinctions between the two cultures. Most ancient sources categorize the Cimbri as a Germanic tribe,[27] but some ancient authors include the Cimbri among the Celts.[28]

There are few direct testimonies to the language of the Cimbri: Referring to the Northern Ocean (the Baltic or the North Sea), Pliny the Elder states:[29] "Philemon says that it is called Morimarusa, i.e. the Dead Sea, by the Cimbri, until the promontory of Rubea, and after that Cronium." The contemporary Gaulish terms for “sea” and “dead” appear to have been mori and *maruo-; compare their well-attested modern Insular Celtic cognates muir and marbh (Irish), môr and marw (Welsh), and mor and marv (Breton).[30] The same word for “sea” is also known from Germanic, but with an a (*mari-), whereas a cognate of marbh is unknown in all dialects of Germanic.[31] Yet, given that Pliny had not heard the word directly from a Cimbric informant, it cannot be ruled out that the word is in fact Gaulish instead.[32]

The known Cimbri chiefs have Celtic names, including Boiorix (which may mean "King of the Boii" or, more literally, "King of Strikers"), Gaesorix (which means "Spear King"), and Lugius (which may be named after the Celtic god Lugus).[33] Other evidence to the language of the Cimbri is circumstantial: thus, we are told that the Romans enlisted Gaulish Celts to act as spies in the Cimbri camp before the final showdown with the Roman army in 101 BC.[34]

Jean Markale[35] wrote that the Cimbri were associated with the Helvetii, and more especially with the indisputably Celtic Tigurini. These associations may link to a common ancestry, recalled from two hundred years previous, though they may not. Henri Hubert[36] states "All these names are Celtic, and they cannot be anything else". Some authors take a different perspective.[37]

Countering the argument of a Celtic origin is the literary evidence that the Cimbri originally came from northern Jutland,[37] an area with no Celtic placenames, instead only Germanic ones.[38][39] This does not rule out Cimbric Gallicization during the period when they lived in Gaul.[37] Boiorix, who may have a Celtic name if not a Celticized Germanic name, was king of the Cimbri after they moved away for their ancestral home of northern Jutland; Boiorix and his tribe lived around Celtic peoples during his era as J. B. Rives points out in his introduction to Tacitus's Germania and moreover that the name "Boiorix" can work in Proto-Germanic as well as Celtic.[33]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Vasmer, Russisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, 1958, vol. 3, p. 62; Z. Gołąb, "About the connection between kinship terms and some ethnica in Slavic", International Journal of Slavic Linguistics and Poetics 25-26 (1982) 166-7.
  2. ^ Nordisk familjebok, Projekt Runeborg
  3. ^ Posidonius in Strabo, Geography 7.2.2; Diodorus Siculus, Bibl. 5.32.4; Plutarch, Vit.Mar. 11.11.
  4. ^ Jan Katlev, Politikens etymologisk ordbog, Copenhagen 2000:294; Kenneth W. Harl, Rome and the Barbarians, The Teaching Company, 2004
  5. ^ C. Rawlinson, "On the Ethnography of the Cimbri", Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 6 (1877) 150-158.
  6. ^ C.T. Onions and R.W. Burchfield, eds. The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology, 1966, s.v. Cymry; Webster's Third New International Dictionary. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, 2002: 321
  7. ^ a b Hussey, J. M. (1985). The Cambridge Medieval History. CUP Archive. pp. 191–193. It was the Cimbri, along with their allies the Teutones and Ambrones, who for half a score of years kept the world in suspense. All three peoples were doubtless of Germanic stock. We may take it as established that the original home of the Cimbri was on the Jutish peninsula, that of the Teutones somewhere between the Ems and the Weser, and that of the Ambrones in the same neighborhood, also on the North Sea coast.
  8. ^ "Celt". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 26 June 2018. The Germanic onslaught was first felt in Bohemia, the land of the Boii, and in Noricum, a Celtic kingdom in the eastern Alps. The German assailants were known as the Cimbri, a people generally thought to have originated in Jutland (Denmark).
  9. ^ Waldman, Carl; Mason, Catherine (2006). Encyclopedia of European Peoples. Infobase Publishing. pp. 172–174. ISBN 1438129181. The Cimbri are generally believed to have been a tribe of GERMANICS
  10. ^ "Cimbri". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 26 June 2018. Cimbri, a Germanic tribe whose military incursion into Roman Italy was thrust back in 101 bc
  11. ^ "Germanic peoples". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 26 June 2018. By the time of Julius Caesar, Germans were established west of the Rhine River and toward the south had reached the Danube River. Their first great clash with Romans came at the end of the 2nd century bc, when the Cimbri and Teutoni (Teutones) invaded southern Gaul and northern Italy and were annihilated by Gaius Marius in 102 and 101.
  12. ^ Celtic Culture: A-Celti. ABC-CLIO. 2006. p. 437. ISBN 1851094407.
  13. ^ Kaul, F.; Martens, J. (1995). "Southeast European Influences in the Early Iron Age of Southern Scandinavia. Gundestrup and the Cimbri". Acta Archaeologica. 66: 111–161.
  14. ^ As a geologist, Strabo reveals himself as a gradualist; in 1998, however, the archaeologist B.J. Coles identified as "Doggerland" the now-drowned habitable and huntable lands in the coastal plain that had formed in the North Sea when sea level dropped, and that was re-flooded following the withdrawal of the ice sheets.
  15. ^ Ptolemy, Geography 2.11.7: πάντων δ᾽ ἀρκτικώτεροι Κίμβροι "the Cimbri are more northern than all (of these tribes)"
  16. ^ Wikisource Beck, Frederick George Meeson (1911). "Cimbri" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 368.
  17. ^ Livy: Periochae 67
  18. ^ Sampson, Gareth S. (2010). The crisis of Rome: the Jugurthine and Northern Wars and the rise of Marius. Pen & Sword Military. p. 175. Retrieved 1 December 2012.
  19. ^ Strauss, Barry (2009). The Spartacus War. Simon and Schuster. pp. 21–22. ISBN 1-4165-3205-6.
  20. ^ Marcus Junianus Justinus, Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus, 38.4, 'all Italy, at the present time, was in arms in the Marsian war,... At the same time, too, the Cimbri from Germany, many thousands of wild and savage people, had rushed upon Italy like a tempest', The Latin text has not like this translation an imperfect and a pluperfect, but two perfect infinitives (consurrexisse... inundasse...)
  21. ^ Marcus Junianus Justinus, Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus, 38.3, 'In the next place, well understanding what a war he was provoking, he sent ambassadors to the Cimbri, the Gallograecians, the Sarmatians, and the Bastarnians, to request aid'
  22. ^ James R. Dow: Bruno Schweizer's commitment to the Langobardian thesis. In: Thomas Stolz (Hrsg): Kolloquium über Alte Sprachen und Sprachstufen. Beiträge zum Bremer Kolloquium über „Alte Sprachen und Sprachstufen“. (= Diversitas Linguarum, Volume 8). Verlag Brockmeyer, Bochum 2004, ISBN 3-8196-0664-5, S. 43–54.
  23. ^ Pozzato, G; Zorat, F; Nascimben, F; Gregorutti, M; Comar, C; Baracetti, S; Vatta, S; Bevilacqua, E; Belgrano, A; Crovella, S; Amoroso, A. "Haemochromatosis gene mutations in a clustered Italian population: evidence of high prevalence in people of Celtic ancestry". Eur J Hum Genet. 9: 445–51. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5200643. PMID 11436126.
  24. ^ Haselgrove and Wigg-Wolf, Colin and David (2005). Iron Age coinage and ritual practices. Von Zabern. p. 162. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
  25. ^ "The dating and origin of the silver cauldron". National Museum of Denmark. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
  26. ^ A.A. Lund, Die ersten Germanen: Ethnizität und Ethnogenese, Heidelberg 1998.
  27. ^ Julius Caesar, Gallic Wars 1.33.3-4; Strabo, Geographica 4.4.3, 7.1.3; Pliny, Natural History 4.100; Tacitus, Germania 37, History 4.73.
  28. ^ Appian, Civil Wars 1.4.29, Illyrica 8.3.
  29. ^ Naturalis Historia, 4.95: Philemon Morimarusam a Cimbris vocari, hoc est mortuum mare, inde usque ad promunturium Rusbeas, ultra deinde Cronium.
  30. ^ Ahl, F. M. (1982). "Amber, Avallon, and Apollo's Singing Swan". American Journal of Philology. 103: 399.
  31. ^ Germanic has *murþ(r)a "murder" (with the verb *murþ(r)jan), but uses *daujan and *dauða- for "die" and "dead".
  32. ^ Accordingly, Pokorny, Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, 1959, p. 735, describes the word as "Gaulish?".
  33. ^ a b Rives, J.B. (Trans.) (1999). Germania: Germania. Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-815050-4
  34. ^ Rawlinson, in Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 6 (1877) 156.
  35. ^ Markale, Celtic Civilization 1976:40.
  36. ^ Hubert, The Greatness and Decline of the Celts. 1934. Ch. IV, I.
  37. ^ a b c Ó hÓgáin, Dáithí (2003). The Celts: A History. Boydell Press. p. 131. ISBN 0-85115-923-0.
  38. ^ Bell-Fialkoll (Editor), Andrew (2000). The Role of Migration in the History of the Eurasian Steppe: Sedentary Civilization v. "Barbarian" and Nomad. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 117. ISBN 0-312-21207-0.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  39. ^ "Languages of the World: Germanic languages". The New Encyclopædia Britannica. Chicago, Illinois, United States: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 1993. ISBN 0-85229-571-5. This long-standing, well-known article on the languages can be found in almost any edition of Britannica.

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