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Church of St. Nicholas, Vukovar

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Church of St Nicholas
Hram svetog Nikole
Храм светог Николе
Православна црква у Вуковару 02.jpg
Church of St Nicholas
Church of St Nicholas is located in Vukovar-Syrmia County
Church of St Nicholas
Church of St Nicholas
Shown within Vukovar-Srijem County
Church of St Nicholas is located in Croatia
Church of St Nicholas
Church of St Nicholas
Church of St Nicholas (Croatia)
45°21′5″N 19°00′7″E / 45.35139°N 19.00194°E / 45.35139; 19.00194
LocationVukovar, Vukovar-Syrmia County
Country Croatia
DenominationSerbian Orthodox
History
StatusChurch
DedicationSt Nicholas
Architecture
Functional statusActive
Heritage designationRegister of Cultural Goods of Croatia
StyleBaroque
Administration
ArchdioceseEparchy of Osječko polje and Baranja

Church of St Nicholas (Serbian: Hram svetog Nikole, Serbian Cyrillic: Храм светог Николе) in Vukovar is a Serbian Orthodox church in eastern Croatia. The church is one of the oldest baroque buildings of the Serb community north of the Sava River.[1]

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The project "The World without Visas: Around the world with Valery Shanin". Travel across Serbia, Croatia and Montenegro became the next stage of the World without Visas project, within which Valery Shanin travels only around the countries, visa-free for Russians. On this trip, his fellow traveler was Maynur Klementyeva. Balkans: Wine and cheese The travel has begun in Beograd, the capital of Serbia. There was a great deal for air tickets to this Balkan city, at the beginning of July. The travelers did not stay long in Beograd. They visited the Beograd Fortress, the old district Zemun and headed to the railway station to take the train towards the Croatian border. In Sremski-Karlovei, one local invited us to be his guests and started a long conversation about politics. Of course, not while having a cup of tea. But a glass of domestic wine. After such a companionship, we had enough power to only crawl away to the bank of the Danube river and set a tent. And in the morning, back on the way. The most interesting sight in the second-largest Serbian city of Novi Sad is the Fortress of Petrovaradinsky. And not even itself — there is almost nothing left of the fortress, but the view from here over the bridge, that was destroyed in 1999 by the American bombings. Subotica — the most northern city of Serbia — is near the Hungarian border. The majority of the local population — Catholic Hungarians. Therefore, the churches are not Orthodox, but mainly Catholic. In the evenings, all the locals come out for a walk. This is why the central streets, squares, fountains and buildings are illuminated. And back again on the train. By rail, one can go all around Serbia, cheaply and with comfort. A short stop in Sombor. From here, straight on the bus to the town of Bachka-Palanka, which is almost on the Croatian border. The Serbo-Croatian border goes along the Danube River. On one side of the bridge it is Serbia, on the other — already Croatia. During the Yugoslavian war, Ilok was part of the self-proclaimed Serbian Kraina. The Croatian population left the city and it was occupied by the troops of the Yugoslavian national army. The garrison was positioned on the territory of the fortress. During the war, there was no production of wine here. But the ancient wine cellars of the 16th century haven't suffered. The wine, produced on the local winery, still goes through fermentation process and is stored here. Only 30 kilometers from Ilok, there is the City of Vukovar. It had an unenviable honor to become the Croatian Stalingrad. During the Yugoslavian war, there were heavy battles here between the insurgents - Croats and the regular army. The traces of destructions are still visible, although the restoration of city buildings and churches is well under way. Two thousand years ago, near the wade on the Drava River, there was a settlement of Illyrians. In Roman times, there was a town of Mursa on its place. Then Slavs came here. And in 1196, the city was mentioned for the first time under its current name — Osijek. The old town part, built up with buildings of the end of 19th — beginning of the 20th century, is located on the right bank of the Drava River, and the city park stretches along its left bank. Bicycle lanes have been arranged along the embankment for the fans of healthy lifestyle. There are more people here, than at architectural monuments. And back on the train. This time Croatian. Though, there is no particular difference. Both in Serbia and in Croatia, the rail cars, constructed at the time of the former Yugoslavia, are still running. The train arrived at Varazhdin late at night. The strong thunder-storm burst out at once, that kept the travelers at the train station until morning. The City of Varazhdin has a long history. People lived on its territory at the time of the Roman Empire. And in 1756 — 1776, the city was the capital of Croatia. The Stari Grad Castle of the 14th century has perfectly preserved. It's been restored recently and turned into a museum. The Castle of Trakoshchan, constructed in the 13th century, is 40 kilometers from Varazhdin. It changed many landlords during its existence, and currently belongs to the state. There is a walking trail laid in the park for tourists, around an artificial lake. However, there are no people interested in walking it, for some reason. The Castle of Trakoshchan is in the quiet corner of western Croatia. Buses rarely go there. Our only hope is for hitchhiking. - How is the hitchhiking? - I have dreamed about it all my life. Along beautiful places, across mountains. I am very happy, but tired. The Town of Krapina is known for the fact that, in 1899, the bones of Neanderthal human were found in a cave in its suburb. During more than a hundred years, that passed since then, no remarkable events have been registered. Tourists come seldom to Croatian Zagorye. Therefore, locals bring all of their accumulated hospitality down on those, who visit here. They willingly offer a ride, invite to their homes, teach how to drink wine correctly. They consider, that it should be diluted before drinking. If to add spring water to wine, then it satisfies thirst quicker and is digested by the organism better. Such blend is called "bevanda". And if to dilute dry white wine with mineral water, then you will get "geshmit". Of course, it's not just the theory. Everyone here has their own mini-production in cellars. Conversation smoothly flows into a tasting. Apart from the amateurs of the domestic wine, there are also professionals in Croatian Zagorye. The winery Zdolts is among the most popular and honored local wine-making enterprises. They grow their own grape and make wine — both white and red — for several generations. The story of the family history smoothly turns into the demonstration of the cellars, and then into wine tasting. - Sweet, semisweet. And all of this since early morning! When the travelers reached the Town of Pregrada, they had to make a pause. Without a habit, anyone would feel tired of frequent tastings. The Castle of Veliki Tabor was founded in the 12th century. It was repeatedly extended and rebuilt, its shape and functions were changing. The last large-scale restoration began in 2008 and hasn't come to an end yet. But the castle was partly opened for visitors. The most valuable asset — the cellar with the wine casks. - Absolutely empty space. There is nothing at all. There is no way without wine here. The Village of Kumrovets on the bank of the Sutla River, where passes the border of Croatia and Slovenia, was turned into an ethnographic museum. Eighteen rural houses of the end of 19th and the beginning of the 20th century have been restored. They serve as the exposition halls. Here, people were engaged in blacksmithing, there was the production of carriages and pottery, wood carved children's toys, national musical instruments and woven baskets. And along with it, they celebrated weddings and raised children. The travelers enjoyed walking around the museums. Only there, it is possible to hide from the persistent offers to taste another glass of wine. But once we returned on the road, there was instantly a passing well-wisher. Before we become inveterate drunks, it is necessary to leave from Croatian Zagorye as soon as possible to the south, to touristic places. - How was it? - I am sleeping. On the way, we stopped at Samobor, a small town, 10 kilometers from Zagreb. The local fan club of old cars organizes rallies every week on Saturdays. This is not a sport activity, but secular — to present oneself or rather, own car and to look at others. Samobor is known for its Kremšnite - cakes with foamy cream. They are in the menus of all city cafes and candy shops. Having left Samobor, the travelers tried to continue their travel hitchhiking. But you can't expect miracles on a completely deserted road. We had to walk to Yastrebarsko station. Trains are still more reliable, than hitchhiking. The next stop — the City of Ogulin on the bank of a deep canyon of the Dobra River. It seems, the name comes from here. "O gula" in translation from Latin means "over the cliff". The locals here, are as hospitable as in Croatian Zagorye and like to drink too. Only they drink raki, instead of wine. Croatia has a developed railway system, however, a little confusing. Trains travel slower, than buses, while the journey on them is cheaper. And the level of comfort is incomparably higher. The advantages are obvious. There are very few passengers. And sometimes, there are none at all. Traveling by train, that is like private. Beautiful! Rijeka. There is no need to be a big expert on foreign languages to understand, that this name comes from the word "river". The Riechina River divides the city into two approximately equal parts — old and new. In the old part, there are buildings, constructed in the period of the Austro-Hungarian empire. On the high hill — the picturesque ruins of the Trsat Castle, of the 12th century. Judging by the coat of arms, Venetians have laid a hand on this construction. The Church of Our Lady of Trsat - one of the seven main Catholic cathedrals of Croatia. The miraculous icon of Mother of God, presented by the Pope Urban the Fifth in 1367, is kept inside the altar. The suburb of Rijeka — Opatiya was also originally known as a large religious center. But in the times of Austrians, it turned into a popular sea resort. Tourists don't get often to the inland areas of the Istrinsky peninsula, they mainly go to the coast. However, there is something to look at. The City of Buzet stands on the same place, where once was the ancient Roman settlement of Pingentum. Nothing has remained from the Romans, of course. On the territory of the Old town, it is possible to see only the buildings of the 18-19th centuries, built so close to each other, that one can hardly squeeze between them. In the oak groves on the neighboring hills, people gather truffles. These virtually royal mushrooms— both by their taste and price — are used for preparation of dishes at all local restaurants. In the neighboring Town of Motovun, it is possible to taste truffles free of charge. Moreover, tourists are nearly forced to do it. - White truffles with cheese. Black truffles with champignons. This is our olive oil. The cep, oil with black truffles. Truffle olives. Truffle champignons. Black chopped. White chopped. Jam with truffles. Of course, there is also wine here. How without it. - Sweet wine. You can try. Pazin is not the largest city of Istria. But it is located in the geographical center of the Istria peninsula and therefore, became its capital. The Castle of Kashtel — the largest on the Istria peninsula. It was founded in the 10th century and since then never decayed. The City Museum was created in former casemates. Here, they have collected everything, that has at least some relation to ancient crafts and the traditional way of life. The track begins from the castle. It leads down into the canyon, to the entrance of a karst cave. It is called the Pazinsky Jama. It was this place, that was described in Jules Verne's novel "Matiash Shandor". Also it turns out, that it is not a usual hole, that there are many of, but a special one. Locals have to put a monument to the famous French novelist. As specifically thanks to him, they follow Ostap Bender's example and take money from tourists, so that the hole would not collapse. In the central regions of the Istrinsky peninsula, there is a railroad too. Trains go very seldom — but still more often than buses and strictly according to the schedule. The travelers returned to Rijeka. But only to change to a bus and go to Krk. We did not need to take the ferry. The island is connected to the continent with a high long bridge. The main town is called, same as the island - Krk. Only three letters and all — consonants. At once, it is clear, that it's not a Russian city, but foreign. It is not even Croatian, in fact. At once, it is clear, that it's not a Russian city, but foreign. It is not even Croatian, in fact. In the Middle Ages, Krk was a large Christian center and, at the same time, a powerful fortress with a naval base. Today, it is one of the popular tourist centers of Croatia. Both ancient churches and narrow medieval lanes have remained. They have been less fortunate with the beach. Lovers of beach vacations, after having swiftly run through the small streets and bought souvenirs, hurry to the south tip of the island of Krk — to the town with the name, amusing to Russian ear — Bashka (is translated as 'pumpkin' for the head). Bashka is a typical sea resort. Even from far, it is visible, that on the beach there's not an inch of room. Vacationers come here not only from all around the island, but also from the Town of Senj, located on the continent. They go back there before it's dark. Therefore, there is a water taxi running across the strait twice a day. Till the evening, Valery and Maynur managed to cover a little more distance by bus. The sun set, when they were on the seashore. The stones are uneven, with sharp tips and edges, but locals have refined the beach A perfect place to call it a night. A starry sky over the head, sounds of the sea waves and fresh breeze. On one of the first morning ferries, the travelers went to the Island of Pag, separated from the continent by the narrow strait. The ferry from Prizna leaves every hour and travels for only twenty minutes. The Island of Pag is the fifth largest Croatian island. It is stretching for sixty long kilometers, but it is not more than ten kilometers wide. And at the spot where ferries arrive, it is only five kilometers. It is easier to walk on foot across it — not along the asphalted road, that is winding in loops, but straight, through heathlands covered with stones and kitchen gardens. The key thing is not to get lost. There is no road and the trails wind in different directions. The Island of Pag is connected with the continent not only by a ferry, but also by an automobile bridge, that the bus routes run on. It is better to go to the City of Zadar. In the 9th century BC, on the territory of present Zadar, there was a settlement of Illyrians. In the I century BC, the Romans appeared here. During World War II, the city was bombed 72 times by American and British airplanes. It is simply a miracle, that something has still remained here. In the neighborhood with the ruins of the Roman forum there is the Saint Donat's Church, constructed in the 9th century. Next to it, there is the bell tower of the Cathedral of Saint Anastasia sticking out. Anyone who wishes, can go up to its top to look at the city and a piece of the Adriatic Sea, from the height of a bird's flight. So many are usually interested, that the internal staircase is often packed with people. The famous American director Alfred Hitchcock once declared, that he saw the most beautiful sunset in his life on the embankment of Zadar. It is hard to say, if he was right. Nobody could observe the sunset this evening, because of the weather. What to do? To swim! And it is even better to deep dive or play water polo. It is also possible to stroll slowly along the promenade. Or to go research some ruins — there is a lot of them here. The most picturesque ones are at the Roman forum. t is a must to take photographs on their background. And then, maybe to tune yourself into a sublime harmony. For this purpose, it isn't even necessary to go inside the church. The church choir performs under the open sky — right there, at the forum, on the porch of the Church of Saint Maria. It's a high time for evening celebrations. With every hour, there are more and more people on the streets. But the travelers hurry to the ferry to be transported on the Uglyan Island. The island stretches from the northeast to the southwest near the Dalmatian coast, on the west of Zadar. The travelers decided not to stay there and took another ferry back to the continent and went to Shibenik. The huge Fortress of Saint Mikhail, constructed in the 15th—16th centuries, is hanging over Shibenik. The fortification walls have perfectly preserved, but it is absolutely empty inside. If, of course, not to consider numerous tourists. The view from the walls, however, is beautiful. The whole Old Town part and nearby islands are visible. The monks of the medieval Franciscan monastery have laid out a fine garden in the monastery. The main place in it is taken by medicinal plants, not the decorative ones. The Cathedral of Saint Joseph — the most noticeable architectural construction of medieval Shibenik. Its dome, towering on the height of 32 meters, sticks out lonely over the tile roofs of the Old Town. The cathedral had been built throughout several centuries. The biggest sponsors received the honor to be commemorated forever. 17 kilometers from Shibenik, on the the Krk River, there is the ancient City of Skradin. There lived Illyrians and Romans, Turks and Venetians. From the fortress, from which remained very little, it is visible that all the old houses, find room on one rather short street. Tourists come to Skradin not for historical sights. From here commence the excursions, going to the National Park of Krk. Motor ships go up the river to the Falls of Skradinski Buk. From the specially built wooden bridges, one can see how the Krka and Chikola Rivers, merge into one. The water flows several cascades down and falls into the pool, lying at the foot of the waterfall. There is always a lot of tourists here. And every single one wants to take a dip, and then visit a local restaurant to try a fish platter. Between the cascades of the waterfall, there is an old mill. It's been repaired recently. And now, it is possible to see, how the energy of water, by means of a smart wooden mechanism, is transferred to the stone millstones. There are free buses running around the park — to be precise, the fare is already included in the admission fee. Other transport isn't permitted here. The road is asphalted, but it is so narrow, that it is hardly possible to pass another car. In 1522, on the rock on the edge of a deep canyon, Turks founded the Fortress of Drnish. Later around it, there was a city. In 1674, during the collision of the Turkish army with the troops of the Venetian republic, the fortress was destroyed. By 1990, when there were bloody battles between Serbians and Croats, it was already lying in ruins. The fortress in the City of Knin has preserved much better. The first fortification strengthenings on the Mountain Spas, were made by the Romans. They were completed and reconstructed by Turks, Venetians and Austrians. Up to the 20th century, it was a functioning fortress. In 1991, Knin became the capital of the self-proclaimed republic of Serbian Kraina, that declared independence from Croatia. There was heavy fighting going between Serbians and Croats for several years. Croats won. And on the 6th of August 1995, the Croatian colors were hoisted over the fortress. Split — the largest city and port on the Adriatic coast of Croatia. In the I century AD, in the Bay of Aspalatos, the Romans created the settlement of Spalatum. In the time of the Roman emperor Diokletian, in the 4th century AD, a huge imperial palace was built here. The palace was taking a whole quarter of the ancient town. Antique fragments are found here separately, and in the form of components of later medieval constructions. The entrance to the territory of the city from the embankment, passes through a basement gallery. From there, you need to climb some steps and here you get to the courtyard — the peristyle. Diokletian's Mausoleum was reconstructed as Saint Donat's Cathedral. It is no longer a functioning church, but a museum Entrance on the belltower is for additional fee. It is worth going up there, to take a look on the whole Old Town at once. The Town of Supetar, with no more than three thousand residents, is the largest town on the Island of Brach and its administrative center. Here, there is only a pier, where the ferries from Split and several pebble beaches moor. Bol was founded in Roman times, but its active development did not begin until 1923, when a first summer scout camp was opened here. Then, they also began to build hotel complexes. And the port was gradually reoriented to service tourist cruise vessels. Ships go to the Zlatni Rat Beach as shuttles, once filled to their full capacity. The Zlatni Rat Beach is regarded as the best Croatian beach. Its name means "Golden Horn". And this is a rare case, when the name corresponds to reality. And this is a rare case, when the name corresponds to reality. All of it is true: the golden sand horn protruding into the sea from out of the pine forest. The beach has a lot of advantages and only one drawback - too many people. Everyone wants to go to the best beach of Croatia and the place is small. On this day, we are still considered lucky - the strong wind scared many people away. The next Croatian island — Hvar. Ferries from the Island of Brach come to the port Town of Yelsa. Life glimmers only ashore, near the port. Once you move a couple of hundreds of meters from the sea, you will appear in the usual Croatian village, and the pine woods begin a little further. The City of Stari Grad, located on the bank of the bay, protruding deep into the islands, is old not only by its name - as it often happens - but also by its virtue. One of the oldest cities of Europe was founded in 384 BC by the Greek immigrants from the Paros Island — the city was called in its honor. In the times of the Romans, the name was changed to Fariya, and later Slavs called it Hvar. Then, on the island appeared one more city with the same name, therefore the former Faros started to be called the Old City or Stari Grad. For its centuries-old age, UNESCO included the old town part in its world heritage list of monuments. Hvar can be considered new, only in comparison with Stari Grad. It was also founded by the Greek settlers in the 4th century BC. The first Slavs appeared here in the 7th century. In the 12th century, Venetians constructed a fortress and Hvar became one of the largest naval bases of the Venetian republic. The city was often attacked both by Turks and Austrians. And in 1807, the Russian admiral Ushakov, also left his mark here. However, the fortress has perfectly preserved. Now there is a museum and an observation deck here. The present resort Town of Korchula was a rather large port in the Middle Ages. Today, it is only yachts and boats with vacationers parking under the walls of the Old Town. But it is that same port, from where Korchula's native, Venetian merchant Marco Polo was leaving for his travels. From the bell tower of the cathedral, one can see the house where, as believed, the great traveler was born. Nearby is the restaurant called by his name. The ferry route connects Korchula with another seaport — Dubrovnik. The best-known city of the Adriatic coast of Croatia was included in the world heritage list of UNESCO a long time ago and quite rightly. Dubrovnik was founded by Croats and its name comes from the words "oak grove" - oaks in the neighborhood of the city are still not rare. After a long period of Byzantine domination, in the 12th century, the city gained independence and began to compete on equal terms with Venice in trade and shipbuilding. Life was booming. In the port, where you can only now see cursing boats and yachts, big vessels from around the world used to moor. Kayaks easily moor at once unapproachable walls. They are no longer poured over with the melted pitch and thrown at stones. It's too late. The city has already surrendered — capitulated before flows of tourists. Now it belongs to them by right. Here, there is either a hotel or a restaurant on every step of the way, and in the intervals between them - churches and former palaces. They all have been turned into museums a long time ago. Private houses offer rental rooms for visitors. At every turn, there are vagrant musicians and circus actors. The streets are very narrow — it's hard to miss each other, and the squares are the size of a сompact apartment. Such city planning has an invaluable advantage. Even in the middle of summer, the sun can't break through into narrow wells of streets. But it is still fairly hot. The heat begins to lower down only after or before the sunset. We still can manage to swim and go to the uninhabited Island of Lokrum. After the nightfall, it is absolutely not hot, but very warm. Ideal conditions for aimless strolls. Streets are filled with people. Buildings get illuminated. Tables of cafes and restaurants get set on the sidewalks. Seems to be a usual evening and nothing special is going on. But everybody is in a festive mood. There is no need to do anything, it's good enough just to be here. The travel across Croatia comes to an end in Dubrovnik — ahead is Montenegro. The City of Hertseg Novi, belonged to Russia in 1806 — 1807, in the middle of the Napoleonic war in Europe. Since then, the connection of locals with Russia was always there. Many of them enrolled in the Russian navy. Even today, this city is surprisingly Russian. Russian speech is heard everywhere, cafes and restaurants always have menus in Russian language. In the middle of the 16th century, Turks constructed a fortress. It is called Kanli Kula, which means the"Bloody tower". It was a prison, and a lot of blood was spilled here. After the restoration, the fortification was opened as a summer movie theater. In the afternoons, it is empty here. Tourists suntan on the city beaches. Hertseg Novi is situated at the entrance to the narrow and very long Kotorsky Gulf, that is called here Boka Kotorska. It does not look like a piece of the Adriatic Sea, but more like a huge lake. There are never storms here, nor big waves. The gulf is surrounded from all sides with high mountains, and the entrance to it is through a narrow pass, like a bottle neck. There is a road stretching along the coast. It is nice to take pleasant strolls on it. And once it gets dark, it is easy to find a place for a tent. But it is better to sleep directly under the open sky. If, of course, the moonlight wouldn't disturb. The Town of Risan founded in the 4th century BC — the oldest settlement on the bank of the Kotorsky Bay — is known for its Sopot Cave and for the Museum of Roman mosaic. The larger part of mosaics are only geometrical patterns, of different degree of complexity. Experts were delighted to see them. But tourists are most often disappointed. The Town of Perast is also very ancient and honored. Saint Nikolay's Church — the main temple of Perast. In 1691, near it, was constructed the highest belltower on the east Adriatic coast. From the height of 55 meters opens the view over the whole city and part of the Kotorsky Bay. Excursions to the Church of Virgin Mary on the Reef, leave regularly from the pier. Nobody moors at the monastery walls. Monks don't encourage tourists. The boat is approaching the Church of the Virgin on the Reef or otherwise called in Serbian as Gospa of Shkrpela. According to the local legend: once, as a result of a ship-wreck, two seamen reached the reef, that was sticking out in the middle of the gulf and found there an icon of St.Mary the Virgin. Having learned about it, the locals flooded several old ships at the reef, then began to bring stones from the coast and dump them in the water. This is how the small artificial island has gradually appeared. In 1632, the Church of the Virgin on the Reef was constructed on it. It has been turned into a museum and is among the main sights of Montenegro. Not only motor boats from Perast, but also large cruise vessels from Kotor moor to the island. From Perast it is easier to reach Kotor by bus. Old Kotor is surrounded with fortification walls. Small lanes connect the tiny squares, built up with palaces, mansions, old houses and churches. The spiritual center is the Orthodox Church of Saint Nicholas the Wonderworker, on Saint Luka's Square. One more cruise ship with tourists rushes to Kotorsky Bay, using all sail power. And Valery and Maynur are going to research the inland regions of Montenegro. Cetinje, located in a valley surrounded with mountains, at the foot of the sacred Lovchen Mountain, was founded in 1482 by the prince Ivan Chernoyevich. The city became the spiritual center of Montenegro nation, a stronghold of fighting for independence and orthodox belief. John the Baptist's right hand — the relics of his palm, that he christened Christ by, and also the piece of the cross, which Jesus Christ was crucified on, is kept in the Cetinsky Monastery. These relics are exhibited for pilgrims, but it is forbidden to take pictures of them. As well as on the whole territory of the monastery. In 1878, Cetinje became the capital of the sovereign Montenegro. The modest palace of the king Nikola I was built here and the embassies. Including, the Russian one. The Lovchen Mountain — a national shrine of Montenegrins. The central part of the mountain range was declared a national park back in 1952. Here, they protect not only, or even, not so much the nature, but the historical heritage. On the mountain top of Lovchen is buried Pyotr Petrovich Negosh — the governor of Montenegro and simalteniously the metropolitan of the Serbian Orthodox Church. In the period of his governing, Montenegro was finally proclaimed as an independent sovereign state. In 1851, Negosh was buried in a small chapel. Later it was replaced by the mausoleum. From this observation deck, the view is opening over nearly half of Montenegro. Mountains, mountains, and some more mountains. And slightly further down the road, the Kotorsky Bay becomes perfectly visible. At the foot of the Lovchen Mountain is the native village of Montenegro's Peter I - Negosh. Today, this village is famous all over the country for its smoked ham — prosciutto and cheese, that is called — negoshsky. And again sea and beaches. There are not only mountains in Montenegro. Since the 15th century, on the Island of Saint Stefan, there was a small village. At the beginning of the last century, its inhabitants began to leave from here to different sides of the world in search of work. The island became almost uninhabited. In the 1950's, the remaining inhabitants were moved from there. The vacant houses have been carefully restored and turned into hotels for the richest tourists. So, the island of millionaires has appeared in Montenegro. Lake Skadar — the biggest not only in Montenegro, but on the whole Balkan peninsula. It is impossible to see the whole of it standing on the bank. Organized tourists are brought here by boats. For independent tourists it is more convenient to rent a motor boat. One hour is not enough, three or more — recommended only for those, who are specially interested in lakes. While the two-hour lake trip, is just perfect. The route is standard. In the beginning, the boat squeezes into the narrow channel, overgrown with sedges and lilies, then goes closely to the coastal thickets, while the guide is trying to spot some birds' nesting places. The fishing village, that has no road leading to it and where it is possible to get to only by water, was abandoned long time ago — nowadays, very few people want to live without electricity and a water supply system. And this place never had them. It was necessary to think of original technical innovations. For example, huge shafts, they served for lifting of fishnets from under the water. The boat quickly floats past several islands. On one of them, once, was a monastery, on another — a prison. It is hard to see the difference between them. The excursion finished inside the same channel. The guide snatches out a lily from the water with a skilled movement. This way, there will be no flowers left here. The small Town of Virpazar — the only hardly noticeable settlement on the coast of the Skadar Lake — one of the most popular tourist centers of Montenegro. It is often called the Venice of Montenegro. They lie. There are no canals here. Only a river and a single bridge. On the steep cliff, directly above Virpazar, there is the Besats Fortress. It was constructed in 1874. At the end of the 19th century, here, in the distant suburb of the Ottoman Empire, it was restless. Montenegro separatists waged the guerrilla war. This is why Turks had to build numerous defenses — analoges of modern blockposts. Nowadays, the fortress is not attractive to anyone. The ruins are not fenced or protected. The Village of Godinye, was founded approximately 600 years ago. Now the top part of the village is abandoned. It is only possible to get to it by going straight through the woods. The Skadar Lake is one of the sights of Montenegro. But there is not even a walking pedestrian trail for tourists laid along its coastline. We have to walk directly on the highway's roadside, built on the dam, risking to appear under the car wheels. Trains are also rushing past. The Lesendro Fortress stood on the lake's island and was almost unapproachable. But after the dam's construction it appeared on the roadside of the brisk highway and anyone can go inside it. The fortress was constructed in the 18th century. It means, that it managed to take part in numerous collisions between Montenegrins and Turks. The ruins themselves do not create any strong impression. But the view from the walls is remarkable. Part of the lake we had to examine already from the train window on our way to Podgorica. Near the modern capital of Montenegro, with its main sight - the modern suspension bridge "the Millennium", there are the remains of ancient ruins. The City of Duklya, or Diokletiya, was the capital of the most ancient states that ever existed on the territory of modern Montenegro. At the beginning of the 5th century, Duklya was destroyed by Goths. After, there were only heaps of rocks and pieces of destroyed walls left. Nikshich, on the contrary, was founded by Goths. Romans came here in the 4th century and renamed the town into Anagastum. Slavs, who appeared on these territories in the 9th century, also gave a new name — Onogosht. Then, the city was a part of the Ottoman Empire. After the liberation of Montenegro, it received a new name again — Nikshich. Currently, it is known all over the country as the homeland of beer "Nikshichko". It is not worth to come to Pluzhin to look at the town on the bank of an ordinary-looking reservoir, that has spoiled the landscape on the river banks of Piva. There is nothing to do here and to look at. But it is exactly here, where roads and trails diverge from to the places of natural beauty, hidden from the looks of casual tourists. The asphalted, but hardly busy highway leads to the Village of Stabna. Then the trails, winding through the woods and across the slopes, begin. It is important not to get lost. Otherwise, we may inadvertently end up in Bosnia, instead of the Stabnsky Lake. The border passes somewhere closeby. And there is no-one to ask for correct direction. The places here are deserted. The travelers also went by foot to the Durmitor National Park. There is an asphalted road, but transport goes infrequently. Many drivers offer a lift. But what for? The road passes through the woods and mountains. Only occasionally, shepherds and shelters with sheep are coming across. It is easy and pleasant to walk. Only by the evening, when it was getting much colder, we stopped a couple of French people to get to a place, more suitable for camping. We have continued on our way in the morning. We were walking straight ahead. Valery, as usual, is guided by his inner voice, instead of maps and a compass. At first, the places were absolutely wild and deserted. But near the settlement of Zhablyak, the travelers have gotten on the well-trodden and marked trails. Tourists began to come across. - He doesn't allow to seat. We are walking and walking all the time. We have incidentally seen the Barno Lake from above, from the ridge. We've gone down the scree. It turned out that there is an easier trail coming to the lake from below. Therefore, there are a lot of people there. However, nobody ventures to swim in the ice cold water. Having walked a bit in circles in the dense woods, the travelers came to the bank of the Snake Lake. It looks ominous — fully suits its name. However, there are no snakes here. They have mistaken harmless tritons for snakes. A few more kilometers through the forest, past the abandoned windmill, the trail comes to the bank of the Black Lake. From here, it is already very close to the Village of Zhablyak. In this village, all the locals, with maybe only the exception of someone idle, offered us services of a guide. The jeep safaris on Russian "Nivas" are very popular among tourists. Of course, it is more correct to walk by foot in the park. But Durmitor is big, and there is not enough time for it. We had to use the services of a taxi driver. The road goes across the mountains and the woods in the outskirts of Durmitor. Then, the descent into the Sushitsa River Canyon begins and soon the road ends on the shore of the Sushichko Lake, that is almost completely dried up, because of the summer heat. The Town of Pljevlja — one of the oldest in Montenegro. The Mosque Hussein Pasha Bolyanych, built in 1569, has remained here. And three kilometers from the town, at the end of the valley, the pilgrims are welcome in the Orthodox Holy Trinity Monastery. It was mentioned for the first time in the chronicles of 1537. A church with unique frescos, that is strictly forbidden to film, has been remaining here since the same time. However, the buildings surrounding the church, were constructed only at the end of the 19th century. The canyon of the Tara River, has stretched for 80 kilometers between the Sinyaevina and Durmitor Mountains on one of its sides, Lyubishnya and Zlatni Bohr on the other. In 1937, the banks of the canyon were spanned by the Dzhurdzhevich arch Bridge, 172 meters high. There is a wonderful camping near it. Valery Shanin has already been here during his around the world travel three years ago. The camping owner Dragolyub treats his visitors as his own guests. He treats to the original dishes, prepared from home made products. Everything is organic: potato, meat, cheese and raki. - Thank you! The River Tara Canyon is the deepest in Europe and the second deepest in the world. In order to truly experience its mightiness, it is necessary to raft down the river — there is no other way. For this reason, rafting is so popular here. However, it is hardly any rafting. The current of the Tara River is not very strong. There are no rapids at all, only occasional smooth rifts and not scary chutes. The first stop is at the small river, flowing into Tara. There used to be a mill near here. But only a part of the semi-decayed framework and a stone millstone are left of it. There are two routes offered to those who want to raft down the Tara River Canyon : a short and a long one. Both start at the same time. The majority of tourists prefers a cheaper and shorter route. It finishes straight behind the Dzhurdzhevich Bridge. Only two boats continue down the canyon. The Biogradsko Lake is located in the center of the National Park with the same name. The easiest way to reach there — a taxi from the Town of Moykovac. The Biogradsko Lake is famous for family vacations with children. There is a pedestrian trail laid along the coast for the lovers of slow walks. However, there are also difficult tourist routes in this national park, considered for prepared tourists. One of them begins near the camping place on the bank of the lake. First, we had to walk on a tractor path, winding on the slope, grown over with forest. It is best to walk here during the daylight hours only. There are bears in the park. You do not encounter them often, but their traces are visible everywhere. After sunset it is quickly getting cold. Luckily, we have found a camping on the path. His owners — one close-knit family — provided the travelers with warm blankets — in addition to summer sleeping bags, that's possible to freeze in, and offered us a homemade dinner — at one table with them, as for their personal guests. - Should we begin? A little bit of everything. We continued on our route in the morning. Still, not along the trail, but walking on the tractor path. It at first goes along the ridge, from where the Biogradsko Lake is visible. Then turns onto the plateau. Mountains in Montenegro are remarkable. It is possible to walk on them for weeks. But our travel is coming to an end. It is time to go back to Beograd, the return tickets have been purchased in advance. The departure date can't be postponed. On the way to the Serbian border, Valery and Maynur stopped by in the Orthodox Monastery of Moracha. Its Cathedral of the Assumption of the Mother of God, is decorated inside with the well-known frescos of the 12th century. Its Cathedral of the Assumption of the Mother of God, is decorated inside with the well-known frescos of the 12th century. The frescos in the monastic chapel are less valued. We have entered Serbia from the side of Rozhaye and Novi Pazar became the first Serbian city. Near it, there is the Dzhurdzhevi-Stupovi Monastry, built in 1171, by the founder of the Serbian church - Stefan Nemanya. The Church of the Saint Apostles Pyotr and Pavel, was founded in the 8th century or in the beginning of the 9th century, therefore it is considered the oldest church of Serbia. Saint Savva — the first patriarch of the Serbian Orthodox church was baptized in it. The Orthodox Monastery of Sopochani, with the Church of Holy Trinity of the 12th century, was one of the largest spiritual centers of Serbia in the Middle Ages. In 1389, it was burned down by Turks. The monastery was restored during 1948 — 1956. In the City of Nish, the travelers got acquainted with the Serbian Alexander, who preferred to speak English. They also walked around the territory of the Turkish fortress constructed approximately two centuries ago. The next stop will be in the Manasia Monastry, similar to a medieval fortress on the outside. The big wall, two meters thick, was strengthened by ten watchtowers. But one can not hide behind it. The monastery, built about six centuries ago, was repeatedly destroyed by Turks. Serbians often fought — such is their destiny. The performances, dedicated even to World War I, ages ago from now, enjoy wide popularity. The response of people to them is as big, as to some battle reports. The performances take place not only in theaters, but also on squares. There are not only strengthened monasteries in Serbia, but also real fortresses. The largest of them is in Smederevo. This hardly noticeable town nowadays, was the capital of the country in the Middle Ages. In the 15th century, a huge stone fortress was built on the bank of the Danube River, that matched the status of the city as the capital. There is no admission fee here. The bastion of the Despot Dzhuradzha, was turned into a museum. Inside, they also organize theatrical performances under the open sky. Two-month travel across Serbia, Croatia and Montenegro comes to an end. The train is carrying the travelers to Beograd. If there are no unforeseen delays on the way, they will be just in time for their flight. One more trip within "The World without Visas" project comes to an end. There will be new travels — there are so many visa-free countries for Russians in the world. And every year their number is constantly growing.

Contents

Architecture

St Nicholas is nave building with an apse and bell tower at the main facade.[2] The main front in the central part is slightly accentuated, processed by single and doubled pilasters, cornices and attic wavy line on the edges of a classicist vases.[2] Slender tower that emphasize edge pilasters ending baroque arches with the lantern.[2] Vaulted nave of the church is divided into four bays, which are separated by a wide archivolts resting on Ionic capitals, while the semi-dome-vaulted sanctuary.[2] The bell tower, which was completed in 1767, is 37 meters high.[3]

History

Present church was built in the period from 1733 till 1737.[4]The church is built on location of old wooden church from 1690.[5][4] The church was closed and looted during the World War II (1941-1942), and in 1991 interior of the church was dynamited by the local Croatian armed units in the city.[4] Of the total 1991 pre-war internal inventory there is kept only 39 icons, 3 gospels and part of archive and church vessels.[3] Reconstruction of external damage is completed, while the restoration of the interior is still in progress.

Inventory

St Nicholas inventory along church itself, is stated separately in Register of Cultural Goods of Croatia as a collection protected cultural property.[2] Collection is composed of Baroque iconostasis from 1757, 17 icons from 1760, 23 books printed in Moscow in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries - two of which are valuable octoechos from 1537, liturgical vessels, two choirs, the bishop's and the Virgin thrones, pews from the 18th century and table for communion.[2]

Serbian Home Vukovar

Serbian Home Vukovar building before restoration
Serbian Home Vukovar building before restoration

The original Serbian Home (Serbian: Srpski dom, Serbian Cyrillic: Српски дом) building in Vukovar was built in 1733. for the needs of the Serbian Russo-Slavic School.[4] The original building was destroyed in a fire in 1822 in which 300 buildings in Vukovar burned.[3]

The building was also seat of Serbian Singing Society "Javor". During World War II, the church was taken over by Nazis and Ustashe who established at as a Town Command Center.[3] They changed building name into Adolf Hitler Home and destroyed the Serbian Cyrillic inscription Српски дом at the top of building.[3] In the former Yugoslavia, the building belonged to Velepromet company and today it is subject to an ownership dispute between the town and Serbian Orthodox Church. Since 1991 building temporary facility religious rites until church interior will be renovated.[4][3]

See also

References

  1. ^ Konstrukcija poslijeratnog prostora:Simbolička izgradnja Vukovara, Mateo Žanić, Institutu društvenih znanosti Ivo Pilar, POLEMOS: časopis za interdisciplinarna istraživanja rata i mira, Vol.XI No.22 Srpanj 2008.
  2. ^ a b c d e f "Ministarstvo kulture-pretraživanje kulturnih dobara". Retrieved 2013-03-30.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "Православни храмови источне Славоније, Барање и западног Срема /14/" (PDF). Joint Council of Municipalities. p. 20. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-02-25. Retrieved 2014-03-05.
  4. ^ a b c d e "KULTURNO ISTORIJSKI SPOMENICI, ZGRADA SRPSKOG DOMA U VUKOVARU and -RODNA KUĆA I CRKVA U KOJOJ JE KRŠTEN ZAHARIJE ORFELIN U VUKOVARU". Consulate General of Serbia in Vukovar. Retrieved 2014-03-05.
  5. ^ Konstrukcija poslijeratnog prostora:Simbolička izgradnja Vukovara, Mateo Žanić, Institutu društvenih znanosti Ivo Pilar, POLEMOS: časopis za interdisciplinarna istraživanja rata i mira, Vol.XI No.22 Srpanj 2008.
This page was last edited on 14 December 2019, at 21:50
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