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Chiba Prefecture

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Chiba Prefecture
千葉県
Japanese transcription(s)
 • Japanese千葉県
 • RōmajiChiba-ken
Flag of Chiba Prefecture
Official logo of Chiba Prefecture
Location of Chiba Prefecture
CountryJapan
RegionKantō
IslandHonshu
CapitalChiba
SubdivisionsDistricts: 6, Municipalities: 54
Government
 • GovernorToshihito Kumagai (from April 2021)
Area
 • Total5,157.61 km2 (1,991.36 sq mi)
Area rank28th
Population
 (June 1, 2019)
 • Total6,278,060
 • Rank6th
 • Density1,200/km2 (3,200/sq mi)
ISO 3166 codeJP-12
Websitewww.pref.chiba.lg.jp
Symbols
BirdMeadow bunting
FishSeabream
FlowerSeiyō aburana blossom
TreeKusamaki

Chiba Prefecture (千葉県, Chiba-ken) is a prefecture of Japan located in the Kantō region of Honshu.[1] Chiba Prefecture has a population of 6,278,060 (1 June 2019) and has a geographic area of 5,157 km2 (1,991 sq mi). Chiba Prefecture borders Ibaraki Prefecture to the north, Saitama Prefecture to the northwest, and Tokyo to the west.

Chiba is the capital and largest city of Chiba Prefecture, with other major cities including Funabashi, Matsudo, Ichikawa[2] and Kashiwa. Chiba Prefecture is located on Japan's eastern Pacific coast to the east of Tokyo, and is part of the Greater Tokyo Area, the most populous metropolitan area in the world. Chiba Prefecture largely consists of the Bōsō Peninsula, which encloses the eastern side of Tokyo Bay and separates it from Kanagawa Prefecture. Chiba Prefecture is home to Narita International Airport, the Tokyo Disney Resort, and the Keiyō Industrial Zone.

Etymology

The name of Chiba Prefecture in Japanese is formed from two kanji characters. The first, , means "thousand" and the second, means "leaves". The name first appears as an ancient kuni no miyatsuko, or regional command office, as the Chiba Kuni no Miyatsuko (千葉国造).[3] The name was adopted by a branch of the Taira clan, which moved to the area in present-day Chiba City in the late Heian period. The branch of the Taira adopted the name and became the Chiba clan, and held strong influence over the area of the prefecture until the Azuchi-Momoyama period. The name "Chiba" was chosen for the prefecture at the time its creation in 1873 by the Assembly of Prefectural Governors (地方官会議, Chihō Kankai Kaigi), an early Meiji-period body of prefectural governors that met to decide the structure of local and regional administration in Japan.[4]

The compound word Keiyō (京葉), which refers to the Tokyo-Chiba region, is formed from the second character in Tokyo (), and the second character in Chiba (), which can also be pronounced "kei" and "yō" respectively.[5] This compound is used in terms such as the Keiyō Line, Keiyō Road, Keiyō Rinkai Railway Rinkai Main Line, and the Keiyō Industrial Zone.

History

Haniwa funerary object of a chicken, Kofun period. From the collection of the Shibayama Haniwa Museum
Haniwa funerary object of a chicken, Kofun period. From the collection of the Shibayama Haniwa Museum
Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
18901,191,353—    
19031,316,547+0.77%
19131,401,587+0.63%
19201,336,155−0.68%
19251,399,257+0.93%
19301,470,121+0.99%
19351,546,394+1.02%
19401,588,425+0.54%
19451,966,862+4.37%
19502,139,037+1.69%
19552,205,060+0.61%
19602,306,010+0.90%
19652,701,770+3.22%
19703,366,624+4.50%
19754,149,147+4.27%
19804,735,424+2.68%
19855,148,163+1.69%
19905,555,429+1.53%
19955,797,782+0.86%
20005,926,285+0.44%
20056,056,462+0.44%
20106,216,289+0.52%
20156,224,027+0.02%
source:[6]

Early history

Chiba Prefecture was settled in prehistoric times, as evidenced by the Jōmon period remains in every part of the region. The prefecture holds the largest kaizuka sea shell mounds in Japan, evidence of a large population in the prefecture that relied on the rich marine products of the Pacific Ocean and Tokyo Bay. Kofun burial mounds are found across the prefecture, with the largest group being in Futtsu along Tokyo Bay.[7]

Asuka and Nara periods

In the Asuka period (538 – 710), under the Taika Reform of 645, the administrative structure of present-day Chiba Prefecture changed significantly. The historical province of Fusa Province, which may have covered much of Chiba and Ibaraki prefectures, was divided into two provinces: Shimōsa Province (also called Shimofusa) in the north and Kazusa Province in the southern area. Awa Province at the south of Chiba Prefecture, was separated from Kazusa Prefecture in 718. These administrative units existed until they were abolished and merged into Chiba Prefecture after the Meiji restoration. The central government established a kokubunji provincial temple in each province.[8]

Heian period

The imperial court gradually extended its authority over the three provinces in the Nara (710 – 794) and Heian (794 – 1185) periods. Shōen feudal estates were established across the three provinces, and the region became an important source of tax revenue, agricultural and other products to the capital in Kyoto. As the Heian period progressed, however, the kokushi provincial governors came to exert military power independent of the central government in Kyoto. The Chiba clan broke entirely with the imperial court and was instrumental in the establishment of the Kamakura shogunate.[8][9]

Modern period

Student militia of the Japanese 52nd Army training on Kujūkuri Beach, early 1945
Student militia of the Japanese 52nd Army training on Kujūkuri Beach, early 1945

Chiba Prefecture was established on June 15, 1873 with the merger of Kisarazu Prefecture and Inba Prefecture. The 1923 Great Kantō earthquake caused widespread destruction in Chiba Prefecture, most notably in the southernmost part of the Bōsō Peninsula, where 1,300 residents were killed. Areas of the prefecture adjacent to Tokyo saw much damage, and mob violence against Koreans and other ethnic minorities occurred in the chaos after the earthquake in Funabashi, Ichikawa, and other areas.[10] Koreans in several neighborhoods of Yachiyo were killed, and a tower was erected in 1972 near Yachiyodai Station to memorialize those killed in the incident.[11] The militarization of Chiba Prefecture dates to the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905). Coastal fortifications were built along Tokyo Bay as far south as Tateyama to protect the capital of the Japanese Empire from attack. In the 1930s the north and central areas of the prefecture became a center of large-scale military production, and military bases and fortifications were constructed in most coastal areas of the prefecture. After the United States took control of Saipan the northern part of the prefecture, most notably the city of Chiba and Chōshi, were firebombed. Much of the industrialized north of the prefecture was destroyed. Operation Coronet, one of two parts of Operation Downfall, was the planned land invasion of Tokyo in March 1946 by the United States. Coronet planned Kujūkuri Beach as one of two initial landing bases, the other being Hiratsuka via Sagami Bay. The U.S. First Army would enter at Kujūkuri, sweep across the Bōsō Peninsula, and meet the U.S. Eighth Army at Tokyo. After the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki but due to the surrender of Japan in 1945, the plan was never carried out.[12]

Post-war period

Nippon Steel Kimitsu Works, 2007, Kimitsu, Keiyō Industrial Zone
Nippon Steel Kimitsu Works, 2007, Kimitsu, Keiyō Industrial Zone

During the Occupation of Japan (1945–1952) Chiba Prefecture was controlled by American forces from the second floor of the prefectural capitol building in the city of Chiba. Numerous other cities in the prefecture, including Chōshi to the north and Tateyama to the south, were used as bases of the occupation. The rich agriculture areas across the prefecture protected the region somewhat from the level of food shortage and starvation immediately following the war. The immediate post-war period was characterized by carefully planned industrial expansion in the north of the prefecture and the significant increase of agricultural production after land reforms across the prefecture. The Keiyō Industrial Zone brought together smaller industrial areas along the entirety of the western coast of Chiba Prefecture, and the industrial zone became, and remains an important center of heavy industrial production and large-scale port facilities in Japan. Cities to the northeast of the prefecture in close proximity to Tokyo were connected by rail to the capitol, and became and remain bedroom communities to Tokyo. Narita International Airport began operation in 1978 in Narita after much protest to replace the overcrowded Tokyo International Airport (Haneda Airport). The majority of international air traffic enters Japan via Chiba Prefecture. Agriculture, specifically of rice, and also vegetables to serve the Greater Tokyo Metropolitan Area expanded greatly and became a source of income to the northeast and central areas of the prefecture. Agriculture expansion of the central and southern regions of the prefecture was in contrast to the depopulation of these areas as a significant part of the population moved to the northeast of the prefecture as a result of the urbanization of Japan, a process that continues into the 21st century.

2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami

Cosmo Oil Chiba Refinery fire, Ichihara, caused by the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami
Cosmo Oil Chiba Refinery fire, Ichihara, caused by the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami

The 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami affected areas as far south as Chiba Prefecture. While the loss of life and damage to housing and industry was far less than in the Tōhoku region, 20 people were killed in Chiba Prefecture, mostly from the tsunami that hit Asahi to the northeast of the prefecture and caused 13 deaths. An oil refinery fire, widely seen in the news media following the Tōhoku earthquake, was at the Cosmo Oil Chiba Refinery in Ichihara. Large liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) tanks burned from March 11–21, 2011.[13] Soil liquefaction in areas of reclaimed land across the northern and western areas of Chiba Prefecture caused damage, primarily to housing.[14][15] Chiba City, Funabashi, Narashino, and especially Urayasu were greatly affected.[16] As a result of permanent damage to housing stock due to soil liquefaction and evidence of radioactive materials, the population of Chiba Prefecture fell for the first time since 1920.[14][17]

Geography

Chiba Prefecture borders Ibaraki Prefecture to the north at the Tone River, Tokyo and Saitama Prefecture to the west at the Edo River, the Pacific Ocean to the east and Tokyo Bay around its southern boundary. Most of Chiba lies on the hilly Boso Peninsula, a rice farming region: the east coast, known as the Kujūkuri Plain,[18] is an especially productive area. The most populous zone, in the northwest of the prefecture, is part of the Kantō region that extends into the urban agglomeration of Tokyo and Saitama. The Kuroshio Current flows near Chiba, which keeps it relatively warm in winter and cooler in summer than neighbouring Tokyo.

National and prefectural parks

Coastal area in Emi, Kamogawa
Coastal area in Emi, Kamogawa

With the exception of the large-scale Keiyō Industrial Zone in the northeast, the entirety of the coast of Chiba Prefecture is protected as two quasi-national parks and one prefectural natural park under the national park system of Japan. As of 1 April 2012, 6% of the total land area of the prefecture was designated as Natural Parks.[19]

Chiba Prefecture has designated and maintains eight prefectural natural parks to protect both natural and cultural areas, namely the Inba Tega, Kasamori Tsurumai, Kujūkuri, Mineokasankei, Ōtone, Takagoyama, Tomisan, and Yōrō Keikoku Okukiyosumi Prefectural Natural Parks.[22] Cities, towns, and villages in the prefecture also have designated and protected parklands. These parks are maintained for environmental protection as well as providing local recreational facilities.

Municipalities

Map of Chiba Prefecture     Government Ordinance Designated City      Other city      Town      Village
Map of Chiba Prefecture
     Government Ordinance Designated City      Other city      Town      Village

Since 2010, Chiba consists of 54 municipalities and since 2013, they are 37 cities, 16 towns and one village.

Municipalities of Chiba Prefecture
Flag, short name w/o suffix Full name District
(-gun)
Area (km2)
(January 2021)[23]
Population
(March 2021)[24]
LPE code
(w/o pref. [12...],
checksum [-x])
Japanese transcription translation
Flag of Chiba, Chiba.svg
Chiba
(Prefectural capital, designated major city)
千葉市 Chiba-shi Chiba City 271.76 981,738 100
Flag of Choshi, Chiba.svg
Chōshi
銚子市 Chōshi-shi Chōshi City 84.20 57,533 202
Flag of Ichikawa, Chiba.svg
Ichikawa
市川市 Ichikawa-shi Ichikawa City 57.45 496,657 203
Flag of Funabashi, Chiba.svg
Funabashi
(Core city)
船橋市 Funabashi-shi Funabashi City 61.38 641,499 204
Flag of Tateyama, Chiba.svg
Tateyama
館山市 Tateyama-shi Tateyama City 110.05 44,692 205
Flag of Kisarazu, Chiba.svg
Kisarazu
木更津市 Kisarazu-shi Kisarazu City 138.95 136,118 206
Flag of Matsudo, Chiba.svg
Matsudo
松戸市 Matsudo-shi Matsudo City 61.38 492,367 207
Flag of Noda, Chiba.svg
Noda
野田市 Noda-shi Noda City 103.55 152,227 208
Flag of Mobara, Chiba.svg
Mobara
茂原市 Mobara-shi Mobara City 99.92 86,446 210
Flag of Narita, Chiba.svg
Narita
成田市 Narita-shi Narita City 213.84 130,689 211
Flag of Sakura, Chiba.svg
Sakura
佐倉市 Sakura-shi Sakura City 103.69 169,059 212
Flag of Togane, Chiba.svg
Tōgane
東金市 Tōgane-shi Tōgane City 89.12 57,560 213
Flag of Asahi, Chiba.svg
Asahi
旭市 Asahi-shi Asahi City 130.45 63,507 215
Flag of Narashino, Chiba.svg
Narashino
習志野市 Narashino-shi Narashino City 20.97 174,990 216
Flag of Kashiwa, Chiba.svg
Kashiwa
(Core city)
柏市 Kashiwa-shi Kashiwa City 114.74 433,941 217
Flag of Katsuura, Chiba.svg
Katsuura
勝浦市 Katsuura-shi Katsuura City 93.96 16,723 218
Flag of Ichihara, Chiba.svg
Ichihara
市原市 Ichihara-shi Ichihara City 368.17 268,038 219
Flag of Nagareyama, Chiba.svg
Nagareyama
流山市 Nagareyama-shi Nagareyama City 35.32 200,298 220
Flag of Yachiyo, Chiba.svg
Yachiyo
八千代市 Yachiyo-shi Yachiyo City 51.39 200,538 221
Flag of Abiko, Chiba.svg
Abiko
我孫子市 Abiko-shi Abiko City 43.15 130,290 222
Flag of Kamogawa, Chiba.JPG
Kamogawa
鴨川市 Kamogawa-shi Kamogawa City 191.14 31,554 223
Flag of Kamagaya, Chiba.svg
Kamagaya
鎌ケ谷市 Kamagaya-shi Kamagaya City 21.08 109,370 224
Flag of Kimitsu, Chiba.svg
Kimitsu
君津市 Kimitsu-shi Kimitsu City 318.81 81,355 225
Flag of Futtsu Chiba.svg
Futtsu
富津市 Futtsu-shi Futtsu City 205.47 42,280 226
Flag of Urayasu, Chiba.svg
Urayasu
浦安市 Urayasu-shi Urayasu City 17.30 169,749 227
Flag of Yotsukaido chiba chapter.svg
Yotsukaidō
四街道市 Yotsukaidō-shi Yotsukaidō City 34.52 93,233 228
Flag of Sodegaura Chiba.svg
Sodegaura
袖ケ浦市 Sodegaura-shi Sodegaura City 94.93 63,975 229
Flag of Yachimata, Chiba.svg
Yachimata
八街市 Yachimata-shi Yachimata City 74.94 66,430 230
Flag of Inzai, Chiba.svg
Inzai
印西市 Inzai-shi Inzai City
(In[ba] West City)
123.79 103,677 231
Flag of Shiroi, Chiba.svg
Shiroi
白井市 Shiroi-shi Shiroi City 35.48 61,673 232
Flag of Tomisato, Chiba.svg
Tomisato
富里市 Tomisato-shi Tomisato City 53.88 49,470 233
Flag of Minamiboso Chiba.JPG
Minamibōsō
南房総市 Minami-Bōsō-shi Minami-Bōsō City
(South Bōsō City)
230.10 35,454 234
Flag of Sosa Chiba.JPG
Sōsa
匝瑳市 Sōsa-shi Sōsa City
(after Sōsa District)
101.52 34,427 235
Flag of Katori, Chiba.svg
Katori
香取市 Katori-shi Katori City
(after Katori District)
262.35 71,391 236
Flag of Sanmu, Chiba.svg
Sanmu
山武市 Sanmu-shi Sanmu City 146.77 48,196 237
Flag of Isumi, Chiba.svg
Isumi
いすみ市 Isumi-shi Isumi City 157.50 35,570 238
Flag of Oamashirasato Chiba.JPG
Ōamishirasato
大網白里市 Ōami-Shirasato-shi Ōami-Shirasato City
(merger of Ōami Town & Shirasato Village)
58.08 47,722 239
Flag of Shisui, Chiba.svg
Shisui
酒々井町 Shisui-machi Shisui Town Inba 19.01 20,278 322
Flag of Sakae Chiba.svg
Sakae
栄町 Sakae-machi Sakae Town 32.51 19,902 329
Flag of Kozaki Chiba.JPG
Kōzaki
神崎町 Kōzaki-machi Kōzaki Town Katori 19.90 5,663 342
Flag of Tako Chiba.JPG
Tako
多古町 Tako-machi Tako Town 72.80 13,804 347
Flag of Tounosho Chiba.JPG
Tōnoshō
東庄町 Tōnoshō-machi Tōnoshō Town 46.25 13,085 349
Flag of Kujukuri, Chiba.svg
Kujūkuri
九十九里町 Kujūkuri-machi Kujūkuri Town Sanbu 24.46 14,652 403
Flag of Shibayama Chiba.JPG
Shibayama
芝山町 Shibayama-machi Shibayama Town 43.24 6,916 409
Flag of Yokoshibahikari Chiba.JPG
Yokoshibahikari
横芝光町 Yokoshiba-Hikari-machi Yokoshiba-Hikari Town
(merger of Yokoshiba Town & Hikari Town)
67.01 22,271 410
Flag of Ichinomiya, Chiba.svg
Ichinomiya
一宮町 Ichinomiya-machi Ichinomiya Town
([Kazusa] provincial shrine Town)
Chōsei 22.99 11,622 421
Flag of Mutsuzawa Chiba.JPG
Mutsuzawa
睦沢町 Mutsuzawa-machi Mutsuzawa Town 35.59 6,761 422
Flag of Chosei Chiba.JPG
Chōsei
長生村 Chōsei-mura Chōsei Village 28.25 13,656 423
Flag of Shirako Chiba.JPG
Shirako
白子町 Shirako-machi Shirako Town 27.50 10,280 424
Flag of Nagara, Chiba.svg
Nagara
長柄町 Nagara-machi Nagara Town 47.11 6,664 426
Flag of Chonan Chiba.JPG
Chōnan
長南町 Chōnan-machi Chōnan Town 65.51 7,368 427
Flag of Otaki, Chiba.svg
Ōtaki
大多喜町 Ōtaki-machi Ōtaki Town Isumi 129.87 8,762 441
Flag of Onjuku Chiba.JPG
Onjuku
御宿町 Onjuku-machi Onjuku Town 24.85 6,769 443
Flag of Kyonan Chiba.JPG
Kyonan
鋸南町 Kyonan-machi Kyonan Town Awa 45.17 7,027 463
Flag of Chiba Prefecture.svg
Chiba
千葉県 Chiba-ken Chiba Prefecture 5,157.50 6,275,916 000
ISO: JP-12

Mergers

With the introduction of modern municipalities (cities/towns/villages) in 1889, Chiba's districts were subdivided into 43 towns and 315 villages. The first city was created in 1921 when Chiba Town from Chiba District became district-independent as Chiba City. The postwar/1950s Great Shōwa mergers reduced the number of municipalities in Chiba to 101 by 1960, including 14 cities by then. The early 3rd millennium Great Heisei mergers created the current 54 municipalities by 2010.

List of governors of Chiba Prefecture (from 1947)

Economy

Industry

Chiba Prefecture is home to one of Japan's largest industrial areas. Prior to World War II manufacturing in the prefecture was centered on the brewing industry, specifically the production of soy sauce, sake and mirin sweet cooking sake. The manufacturing sector expanded greatly after the war. The prefecture was chosen as the site for a major Kawasaki Steel factory in 1950. In the same period the prefectural government embarked on a large-scale land reclamation program to dredge large plots of waterfront property. The large-scale construction of factories, warehouses, and docks on this reclaimed land around the Tokyo Bay area ultimately formed the Keiyō Industrial Zone.[25] Chiba Prefecture is now 6th in Japan in industrial output with the bulk of the industry focused on the petroleum, chemical, and steel and machine industries.[26] Together, these industries account for forty-five percent of the prefecture's exports. In recent years, the government has funded more than eighty industrial parks to bring development further inland as well.

Agriculture

Rice production, Sawara, Katori
Rice production, Sawara, Katori

The prefecture also boasts Japan's overall second-highest agricultural output. Among all the prefectures, only Hokkaidō produces more agricultural products, and Chiba leads Hokkaidō in vegetable production.[citation needed] Peanuts are considered a specialty product of Chiba: 78 per cent of the country's peanuts are produced in the prefecture.[27]

Chiba Prefecture leads the nation in the production of several vegetables, including carrots; cabbage; daikon radish; negi, the ubiquitous Japanese cultivar of the Welsh onion; loquat; nashi, the Japanese cultivar of the pear, which has a two hundred-year history of cultivation in the prefecture; tomatoes; and spinach[27][28] It is the nation's second largest producer of corn.[27] Rice is also grown, and seaweed, specifically nori, is harvested in large quantities from Tokyo Bay.[29]

Demographics

Chiba's population is one of the wealthiest in Japan due to the prefecture's strong commercial and industrial sectors. Per capita GDP is ¥3.1 million, the fifth-highest in the country. 70% of the population is employed in the service sector, with 25% in industry and 5% in agriculture.[citation needed]

Climate

Chiba Prefecture has a humid subtropical climate (Koppen Cfa) with hot, humid summers and mild, cool winters. The tsuyu rainy season occurs for approximately 50 days from June to July. According to the Japanese Meteorological Agency, the average of annual temperature is 15.7 °C (60.3 °F). The average high is 19.6 °C (67.3 °F), and the average low is 12.3 °C (54.1 °F).[30]

Climate data for Chiba, Chiba
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 9
(48)
9
(48)
12
(53)
17
(63)
22
(71)
24
(75)
27
(81)
29
(85)
26
(79)
21
(69)
16
(61)
12
(53)
19
(66)
Average low °C (°F) 1
(33)
1
(34)
4
(39)
9
(49)
14
(57)
18
(64)
21
(70)
23
(74)
19
(67)
13
(56)
8
(46)
3
(37)
11
(52)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 48.3
(1.90)
66
(2.6)
94
(3.7)
109.2
(4.30)
96.5
(3.80)
139.7
(5.50)
106.7
(4.20)
121.9
(4.80)
177.8
(7.00)
157.5
(6.20)
83.8
(3.30)
48.3
(1.90)
1,249.7
(49.2)
Source: weather.com

Education

Universities

Chiba University Library
Chiba University Library

Secondary schools

The Chiba Prefectural Board of Education oversees municipal school districts in the prefecture. The board also directly operates the prefecture's public high schools.

Culture

Museums

Chiba Prefecture is home to one national-level museum and several prefectural and local museums. The National Museum of Japanese History is located in Sakura and focuses on the history, archaeology, and folk culture of Japan.[31] The Chiba prefectural museums consist of a main museum, the Natural History Museum and Institute, Chiba in the central Chuō-ku ward of Chiba City, and six branch museums throughout the prefecture. The Chiba Prefectural Museum of Art is in Chiba City. The Chiba Prefectural Boso-no-mura in Sakae focuses on the local culture of the late Edo period, and the Chiba Prefectural Otone Museum in Katori focuses on the culture of the Tone River basin. The reconstructed Japanese castles of Sekiyado and Ōtaki host regional historical museums. The Chiba Museum of Science and Industry is located in Ichikawa on the site of a former factory, and the Coastal Branch of Natural History Museum and Institute, Chiba in Katsuura focuses on the marine environment of the Pacific Ocean coast.[32] Numerous other municipalities in the prefecture also host museums.

Libraries and archives

The Chiba Prefectural Library consists of three libraries. The Chiba Prefectural Central Library is located in the central Chuō-ku ward of Chiba City directly southwest of Chiba Castle and in close proximity to the City of Chiba offices. The Central Library houses a general collection as well as the central research collection for the prefecture.[33][34] The Chiba Prefectural West Library is located in Matsudo next to the Matsudo Museum,[35] and houses a research collection focused on natural history and the fine arts. The Chiba Prefectural East Library is located in Asahi,[36] and houses a research collection focused on the literature and history of the prefecture.[37] The Chiba Prefectural Archives are located across the Miyako River from the City of Chiba offices. The archive maintains a collection of rare books and materials from across the prefecture, as well as materials related to the administration of Chiba Prefecture.[38] Each municipality in the prefecture maintains a local libraries, and many shrines and temples maintain archival collections related to their institutions.

Cuisine

Futomaki, large sushi rolls, Katori, Chiba Prefecture
Futomaki, large sushi rolls, Katori, Chiba Prefecture

The traditional diet of Chiba Prefecture is not fundamentally different than that of the rest of Japan. Chiba Prefecture produces prolific quantities of rice across all areas in the prefecture, vegetables in the northern area of the prefecture, and fish, seafood, and shellfish along the coastal areas of the prefecture. Chōshi has been a major center of worldwide soy sauce production since the Edo period, and the prefecture remains the top producer in Japan. Kikkoman is headquartered in Noda in northwestern Chiba Prefecture.[28][39] These are all important components of Japanese cuisine.

Certain local products, however, are grown in abundance and have resulted in several dishes unique to the areas. Peanuts, grown in great quantities in the prefecture, appear fresh in markets in the prefecture and are eaten boiled as a snack. Miso paste mixed with peanuts is also produced in Chiba.[28] Takenoko, whole bamboo shoot, are harvested in the central part of the Bōsō Peninsula. The takenoko of Ōtaki lack the concentration of arsenic typically found in uncooked bamboo shoots, and as such, are uniquely eaten raw in the area as "takenoko sashimi".[40][41] Futomaki or futomakizushi, literally "fat roll", is a large version of the sushi roll. The futomaki popularly made in Chiba Prefecture is up to 10 centimeters in diameter. Futomaki in Chiba Prefecture often utilize various ingredients to form a pattern, such as a flower or a kanji character, when the roll is cut and served.[28][41]

Sports

The prefecture plays host to two major events in the Japanese athletics calendar: the International Chiba Ekiden and the Chiba International Cross Country.

The following sports teams are based in Chiba.

American football

Football

Baseball

Basketball

Rugby

Futsal

Volleyball

  • V.Challenge League II: Chiba Zelva (Chiba)

Transportation

Narita International Airport

Most Tokyo-bound visitors arriving on international flights land in Narita International Airport, which is situated in Narita in the north of the prefecture, and connected to Tokyo by the East Japan Railway's Narita Express and the Keisei Electric Railway's Skyliner.

Railways

Jōban Line
Jōban Line
Narita Line
Narita Line
Kominato Railway
Kominato Railway
Isumi Railway
Isumi Railway

People movers

Road

Expressways

National highways

  • Route 6
  • Route 14
  • Route 16
  • Route 51
  • Route 124
  • Route 126
  • Route 127
  • Route 128
  • Route 294
  • Route 295
  • Route 296
  • Route 297
  • Route 298
  • Route 356
  • Route 357
  • Route 408
  • Route 409
  • Route 410
  • Route 464
  • Route 465

Tourism

The Tokyo Disney Resort is located in Urayasu near the western border of the prefecture. The Kamogawa Sea World is located in Kamogawa. There are also a number of tourist sites on the Chiba peninsula, such as Nokogiriyama; Kujūkuri Beach; and Onjuku beach.

A beach in Chiba
A beach in Chiba

Politics

Main building of the prefectural government in Chiba City
Main building of the prefectural government in Chiba City
The prefectural assembly building
The prefectural assembly building

Since 2009, the prefectural governor[42] is Eiji Suzuki, better known under his stage name as Kensaku Morita, former actor, member of the House of Representatives (LDP/Independent – Tokyo 4th district) and member of the House of Councillors (Independent – Tokyo). He was reelected overwhelmingly to a second term as governor in the March 2013 election against only a Communist challenger and a minor, unaffiliated independent.

The assembly of Chiba Prefecture[43] has a regular membership of 95, elected in 45 electoral districts, currently still in the unified local election cycle of 1947 (last round 2011). As of July 2014, it is composed as follows: LDP 52 members, DPJ 13, Kōmeitō 7, JCP 4, Shimin Net/SDP/Independents 4, Your Party 3, four other caucuses with 5 members in total.[44]

In the National Diet, Chiba is represented by 13 members from single-member districts in the House of Representatives, and six members (three at-large per election) in the House of Councillors. After the most recent Diet elections of 2010, 2012 and 2013, the prefecture is represented by eleven Liberal Democrats and two Democrats in the House of Representatives, and three Liberal Democrats, two Democrats, and one Your Party member in the House of Councillors. Current Diet members from Chiba include former prime minister Yoshihiko Noda (H.R., DPJ – 4th district) and former ministers Kuniko Inoguchi (H.C., LDP – class of 2010) and Motoo Hayashi (H.R., LDP – 10th district).

Local government

As of 2014, Chiba is divided into 54 contiguous municipalities (see list above): 37 cities, 16 towns and one village,[45] as in all of postwar Japan each with a directly elected mayor and assembly. The most populous and Chiba's only designated major city is the capital Chiba City. Two cities, Funabashi and Kashiwa, are core cities. After late 20th century mergers, much of the rest of the prefecture is also organized in independent cities: Of the (today purely geographical) counties, only six remain, four of which have only one or two remaining towns or villages. – After the reorganization of county and municipal governments in all prefectures in 1889/1890, there had initially been 12 counties and no city in Chiba;[46] Chiba town in Chiba county became the first municipality in Chiba to be elevated to city status in 1921.

Police

Chiba police HQ
Chiba police HQ

While by far not as large as that of neighbouring Tokyo, Chiba's police force is among the country's ten largest at more than 10,000 members (including the Narita airport police). As in every prefecture, the police are supervised by the public safety commission; its five members are appointed by the governor with approval by the assembly.[47][48]

Sister states

Chiba Prefecture has a sister-city relationship with:

In popular culture

References

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  28. ^ "Ichikawa Produces Nori (Laver Seaweed)". Ichikawa City. 2009-11-25. Archived from the original on 2012-02-14. Retrieved 2012-01-30.
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  38. ^ "Kikkoman Corporate Profile". Archived from the original on 2012-03-26. Retrieved 2012-05-01.
  39. ^ 第271回『たけのこ』春の息吹 たけのこ4月18日放送予定(in Japanese)
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  42. ^ Chiba Prefecture: Assembly (in Japanese)
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External links

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