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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Chespirito
Chespirito in 2008
Born
Roberto Mario Gómez Bolaños Sr.

(1929-02-21)21 February 1929
Died28 November 2014(2014-11-28) (aged 85)
Resting placePanteón Francés,[2] Mexico City
Occupations
  • Actor
  • comedian
  • screenwriter
  • director
  • producer
Spouses
Graciela Fernández
(m. 1968; div. 1989)
(m. 2004)
Children6, including Roberto Gómez Fernández
Comedy career
MediumTelevision, film, music, theatre, comic books
Years active1947–2000
GenresSketch, farce, physical comedy, sitcom, satire
Subject(s)Children, language, parody, superheroes, social issues
Notable works and rolesChespirito
El Chapulín Colorado
El Chavo del Ocho
La Chicharra
Signature

Roberto Mario Gómez Bolaños Sr.[3] (21 February 1929 – 28 November 2014),[4] more commonly known by his stage name Chespirito, or "Little Shakespeare",[5] was a Mexican actor, comedian, screenwriter, humorist, director, producer, and author.[6] He is widely regarded as one of the icons of Spanish-speaking humor and entertainment and one of the greatest comedians of all time.[7][8] He is also one of the most loved and respected comedians in Latin America.[9][10] He is mostly known by his acting role Chavo from the sitcom El Chavo del Ocho.

He is recognized all over the planet for writing, directing, and starring in the Chespirito (1970–1973, 1980–1995), El Chavo del Ocho (1973–1980), and El Chapulín Colorado (1973–1979) television series. The character of El Chavo is one of the most iconic in the history of Latin American television, and El Chavo del Ocho continues to be immensely popular, with daily worldwide viewership averaging 91 million viewers as of 2014.[11]

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/5
    Views:
    7 505
    12 764
    1 145 259
    179 748
    1 759 775
  • Chespirito 95 aniversario #chespirito
  • Lalo España niega estar “ardido” por no poder ser CHESPIRITO #chespirito #elchavodelocho #televisa
  • Reencuentro Chavo y Quico
  • Mexico's Biggest TV Mystery - El Chavo del Ocho
  • Íconos: Eugenio Derbez y Chavo del 8

Transcription

Early life

Roberto Mario Gómez Bolaños Sr. was born in Mexico City[1] on 21 February 1929. He was the second child of Francisco Gómez Linares, a painter and illustrator,[12] who died at the age of 41 in 1935. His mother, Elsa Bolaños Aguilar, was a bilingual secretary;[12] she died of pancreatic cancer[13] at the age of 66 in 1968. Elsa was the youngest child of Ramón Bolaños Cacho, a military doctor, and his Zacatecas-born wife, María Aguilar.[14] Via his mother, Bolaños was a first cousin once removed of the President of Mexico from 1964 to 1970, Gustavo Díaz Ordaz.[15][16] He had an older brother called Francisco (1926–2010), and a younger brother called Horacio Gómez Bolaños, who portrayed the character Godínez in El Chavo del Ocho, and an even older half-brother born of one of his father's liaisons.[17]

Before becoming an actor, Gómez was an amateur boxer.[18] He studied mechanical engineering at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM),[19] but he never came to practice that profession.[20] Before he became famous, he wrote a number of plays, contributed dialogue to Mexican film and television scripts, and secured some character-acting work. "Chespirito" was of short stature; his stage name was the Spanish phonetic pronunciation of William Shakespeare "Chespir" (pronounced "shespir") with diminutive suffix -"ito".[21] Between 1960 and 1965 he dedicated himself to writing scripts for "Comedians and songs" and "El estudio de Pedro Vargas", which were the two programs with the highest audience in Mexico.[22]

Career

Chespirito as Chaparrón Bonaparte in Chespirito

Chespirito was discovered as an actor while waiting in line to apply for a job as a writer; soon he began writing and starring in his children's comedy shows.[23] Chespirito's first show was Los Supergenios de la Mesa Cuadrada, a sketch comedy show that premiered in 1968; the show also starred Ramón Valdés, María Antonieta de las Nieves, and Rubén Aguirre. Los Supergenios was later renamed Chespirito y la Mesa Cuadrada and later Chespirito. The characters El Chavo, El Chapulín Colorado, and Dr. Chapatín were introduced on this show (1972, 1970 and 1968 respectively).[24][25]

El Chavo del Ocho and El Chapulín Colorado

His best known roles were in the shows El Chavo del Ocho and El Chapulín Colorado. Both series premiered in 1973 and were based on sketches of the same name from Los Supergenios.[26] The shows were produced by Mexican TV network Televisa and aired in 124 countries. Other shows produced by and starring Chespirito were the short-lived La Chicharra from 1979 and a second version of Chespirito from 1980 to 1995.[27]

Chespirito as Dr. Chapatín in Chespirito

In El Chavo, Chespirito played an 8-year-old boy who often took refuge inside a wooden rain barrel in a Mexican neighborhood,[28] and in El Chapulín Colorado he played a good-hearted superhero who gets involved in humorous situations.[29] The Simpsons creator Matt Groening has said that he created the Bumblebee Man character after watching El Chapulín Colorado in a motel on the Mexico–United States border.

Chespirito as El Chavo

El Chavo and El Chapulín Colorado have become cultural icons all over Latin America and have aired in many countries worldwide.[30]

Roberto Gómez Bolaños was also noted as a composer. He started writing music as a hobby, and most of his early musical work was related to his comedy work, featured particularly in occasional Chapulín Colorado or Chavo del Ocho special episodes. Later works include the theme songs for various Mexican movies and telenovelas, such as Alguna Vez Tendremos Alas and La Dueña. He is also the creator of the theater comedy Once y Doce (Eleven and Twelve), the most successful theater comedy in Mexican history; it is still played occasionally.[31]

Works by Chespirito

Chespirito logo
El Chapulín Colorado logo
El Chavo del Ocho logo
  • Dr. Chapatín (1968–1979; 1980–1995), one of the presenters of Los Supergenios who starred in sketches in the show, also appeared in the El Chapulín Colorado half-hour show of 1973–1979. He represents an old doctor who constantly has fights and confusions due to his old age and hitting people with a paper bag whose contents were never revealed in-sketch. In an interview, Chespirito revealed that Dr. Chapatín carried in his bag all the bad feelings of the people, which is why it hurt a lot. Dr. Chapatín's character did a small cameo in the movies "El Chanfle", "El Chanfle 2","Don Ratón y Don Ratero", and "El Charrito".
  • Chespirito (character) (1968–1975; 1980–1986; 1991–1992; 1994–1995), occasionally starred in sketches of the Los Supergenios as a "character".
  • El Chapulín Colorado (1970–1973; 1973–1979; 1980–1993), second most successful character of Bolaños; became a weekly half-hour show in 1973. A naive but brave superhero who always tries to help people in problems.
  • Los Chifladitos (1970–1972; 1980–1995), starred alongside Rubén Aguirre, one of the main sketches of the Los Supergenios until Aguirre left the show. Chespirito did Chaparron Bonaparte and Aguirre, Lucas Tañeda, as a pair of demented characters who ran in several confusions by the use of puns and the unexpected convulsions of Chaparron called "Chiripiorcas".[33]
  • Los Caquitos (1970–1975; 1980–1995) became the third most successful creation of Bolaños; sketches were created until 1975. Originally they were Chespirito as Chómpiras and Ramón Valdés as Peterete. In the sketches of the 80s, Édgar Vivar took the place of Valdés, playing a new character named El Botija, while Florinda Meza got a new character for the sketches as La Chimoltrufia, Botija's wife. It became Chespirito's main act in the last years of his program due to him being too old to perform his other characters.
  • Los Chiripiojos (1972), is the family La Chimoltrufia.[34]
  • El Chavo del Ocho (1971–1973; 1973–1980; 1980–1992), created as immediate successor of Los Chifladitos; become a weekly half-hour show in 1973. Is about a poor kid who lives in a small neighborhood with other families who share comic situations. It's Chespirito's most successful character.
  • La Chicharra (1979–1982), half-hour show that replaced El Chapulín Colorado in 1979. He tried to create something new with a newspaper reporter who happens to take the wrong news in the wrong place. The show's lead character, Vicente Chambon, originally appeared as part of Chespirito in its early days.[32]
  • Don Calavera (1994–1995), the nickname of Carlos Vera, a mortician who likes to flirt with widows, is the last character created by Chespirito, appears only in the 1980–1995 version of the Chespirito show.[32]

Later years

On 19 November 2004, after 27 years together, he married actress and longtime companion Florinda Meza, who starred as Doña Florinda in El Chavo.[35] After show production was stopped for El Chavo and El Chapulín Colorado, both toured Mexico and the rest of Latin America and the United States with different plays, sometimes playing the characters who made them famous. In 2003, Chespirito and Florinda Meza received the keys to the town of Cicero, Illinois.[36]

During Mexico's presidential campaigns of 2000 and 2006 he openly supported the National Action Party (PAN) by appearing in TV commercials and urging people to vote for the party's candidates, Vicente Fox and Felipe Calderón.[37] For the 2012 race, he made public that he would vote for the Partido Accion Nacional (PAN) candidate, Josefina Vázquez Mota, but did not appear in a commercial.[37] In 2007, he joined a campaign led by Catholics and conservatives against the legalization of abortion in Mexico City.[37]

He shared that while pregnant with him, his mother suffered an accident and the doctor advised her to get an abortion; she refused.[37] He also wrote the books El Diario de El Chavo del Ocho ("Diary From the Kid from Number 8"),[38] ...Y También Poemas ("...And Poems Too"),[39] and Sin Querer Queriendo: Memorias ("Accidentally on Purpose: Memoirs"). In 2009, he was also honored by the Colombian TV-channel RCN in which he received the keys of the municipality of Soacha; more than 20,000 people attended the homage. On 12 November 2009, he was admitted to a Mexico City hospital due to prostate complications, which required a simple surgery to treat. He was released from treatment the following day.[40]

On 29 February 2012, a celebration of Chespirito's life and work was held at the Auditorio Nacional.[41] The special, titled América celebra a Chespirito, was a multinational tribute that gathered a diverse group of actors, singers, and fans from 17 nations.[41][42] They included Armando Manzanero, Thalía, Ximena Navarrete, Marco Antonio Regil, Juan Gabriel, Diego Verdaguer, Gian Marco, Pandora, Reik, and OV7.[41][42] Chespirito's ill health was apparent: he was in a wheelchair, required oxygen tanks, and could not stay the entire program.[41][42] Nonetheless, he expressed great emotion and gratitude for the tribute.[42] The special was broadcast across the participating nations on 11 March.[41][42]

Over Twitter, Chespirito denounced the actions of the Yo Soy 132 movement after the takeover of Televisa Chapultepec following the 2012 election.[37] In 2012, Chespirito was honored by his friends and former cast members, putting an end to many rumors that the comedian was dying. Even so, former colleagues such as Édgar Vivar expressed their concern publicly for Chespirito's poor health.[citation needed]

Death

At 2:30 PM (19:30 GMT) on Friday, 28 November 2014, Chespirito died from heart failure as a complication of Parkinson's disease at the age of 85, in his home in Cancún, Quintana Roo, Mexico.[43][44] Many Mexican celebrities and Chespirito's former co-stars took to Twitter to express their feelings and send their condolences to Chespirito's widow and family. Such celebrities and former co-stars included George Lopez, Eugenio Derbez, Carlos Villagrán, Édgar Vivar, Rubén Aguirre, and María Antonieta de las Nieves. Chespirito is widely regarded as one of the most renowned Spanish-language comedians of the 20th century.[45]

On 1 December 2014, he was buried at the Panteón Francés in Mexico City,[46] following a private funeral on Saturday and a public one held on Sunday at Estadio Azteca, attended by about 40,000 fans.[46] His widow does not permit fans to visit his tomb. A private security guard is there along with a security camera at all times.

Legacy

A statue of "El Chavo" stands in Cali, Colombia

Chespirito has been described as one of the most recognized Mexican comedians of the 20th century as well as being well known and honored in all of Latin America. He has been honored for his creative writing, characters, comedic pick-up lines, and for his clean humor style. His TV shows have been made into cartoons since 2006 (El Chavo Animado, with some other Chespirito characters appearing in the show). The animated show has been translated into English, Portuguese, and French. An animated TV show based on another famous Chespirito character, El Chapulín Colorado, was announced in 2015. It aired the first episode online on 13 April.

Tributes

In 2000, Televisa gave him a tribute entitled "No contaban con mi astucia," commemorating the thirty-year anniversary of the humorous program El Chavo del Ocho.[47] In 2004, the Art Chroniclers Association (ACROARTE) of the Dominican Republic and the National Dominican Brewery awarded him the Soberano Award in recognition of his career in Latin American television and his many facets as a writer, screenwriter, actor, comedian and producer. In 2012, there was a tribute called América celebra a Chespirito also made by Televisa, with the popular singer Thalía performing a song written by Gian Marco Zignago.[48] The Google Doodle of 21 February 2020, honored Chespirito.[49]

Controversies

In 2000 and 2006, Roberto Gómez Bolaños participated in television advertisements supporting the electoral campaigns of the National Action Party.[50] In 2006, he also wrote a letter to then-candidate Andrés Manuel López Obrador, asking him not to divide Mexicans.[51]

In April 2007, he joined the claim of Catholic and conservative groups that were fighting to maintain abortion as a crime in the Federal District, against the position of the Legislative Assembly, whose representatives were inclined to decriminalize it during the first twelve weeks of gestation. Gómez Bolaños participated in television propaganda against the new law.[50] He is known for comments on Pablo Picasso's Guernica painting, such as those made at the beginning of May 2007, in Colombia, where he declared that the work "is a caricature."[52]

When asked who had been the best president of Mexico, Chespirito replied: "Gustavo Díaz Ordaz in some things and not because he was my uncle, whom nobody wanted. Before 1968, he was the best president, and if we look at the numbers of the inflation that Mexico experienced is justified. Then, Salinas, although he had not won, but he was extremely intelligent. And the same thing happens with Fox, his figures are better after Díaz Ordaz pa'cá. Now, the most accurate answer I can give is: none."[53]

Fernando Rodríguez Mondragón, son of Colombian drug lord Gilberto Rodríguez Orejuela, head of the extinct Cali Cartel in Colombia and author of the book El hijo del ajedrecista, pointed out that Roberto Gómez Bolaños performed at a party for one of the sons of the heads of the aforementioned cartel. Given this information, Gómez Bolaños' immediate response was that he had never been linked to drug trafficking in any of its forms, but María Antonieta de las Nieves assured that El show de Chespirito was presented at the celebration of a first communion for the family of the drug dealer.[54]

Accusations of support for dictatorships

According to El Financiero, Roberto Gómez Bolaños was severely criticized for traveling to nations that were under the yoke of dictators such as Jorge Rafael Videla in Argentina, and Augusto Pinochet in Chile. According to Bolaños, the cast visited all the countries of South America except for Cuba. "The case most criticized by the Mexican media was, perhaps; that of 1978, when Chespirito traveled to Santiago, the Chilean capital, during Pinochet's regime," appearing at the Chilean National Stadium, where he had a record audience of 80,000. On the other hand, at the Quinta Vergara stage during the Viña del Mar Festival, "thousands of fans also attended, who even had to be accommodated in the surrounding mountainous areas, as the place had exceeded its quota."[55]

Gómez Bolaños received negative criticism from the Mexican press for having appeared at the National Stadium, a place that had been used as a concentration camp. Bolaños did not respond to these accusations until 2005 in the book Sin querer queriendo, he clarified that "none of the actors was aware that the stadium had been a concentration camp" and that, had they known it, "we would have worked there anyway". He goes on to say that, according to that logic, "no actor should present themselves in the Zócalo where the memory of all those who were murdered during the Ten Tragic Days was muddied". The comedian also expressed his happiness for having performed at the National Stadium: "How can we forget the long standing ovation that they gave us while we did an Olympic lap twice, even though we ended up puffing with exhaustion? It was worth it, wasn't it?".[55]

Legal Issues with Maria Antonieta De Las Nieves

In July 2013, Maria Antonieta announced that she finally won a lawsuit against Chespirito, backed by Televisa which began in 2001 for the misuse of her character La Chilindrina. "You have the scoop of knowing that I have already won the lawsuit against Televisa and Chespirito. Chilindrina is already mine and no one can take her away from me," De Las Nieves said at a press conference in Lima, the capital of Peru. According to the American-Mexican media Univision, on 26 July 2013, Gomez Bolaños told them that "the day El Chavo ended, everyone did whatever they wanted with their character, that's how I wanted to do it. I said I was going to continue, he said yes, but later he regretted it and said no." Unlike Carlos Villagran who left the show in 1978, Maria Antonieta stayed on the show until the late-1990s.[56]

Series stopped all airings

On 31 July 2020, all TV channels and streaming services that broadcast any of Chespirito's series made announced that they were no longer broadcasting it from the next day on. Currently, the reason they gave was because the contract expired that day, and Televisa (owner of the series) didn't update it due to revenue disputes with Grupo Chespirito (owner of all episode scripts and almost all characters).[citation needed]

Currently, the only exception to this rule is El Chavo: The Animated Series broadcasting in Brazil, being still broadcast on SBT via the Sábado Animado block and still available locally on Amazon Prime Video.[57]

Theatre work

Year Title Role
1985 Títere José Grillo
1992-2009 Once y doce  [es] Eloy Madrazo

Filmography

TV series

Year Title
1956-1967 Cómicos y Canciones
1968-1970 Sábados de la Fortuna
1969-1970 El Ciudadano Gómez
1970-1971 Los Supergenios de la Mesa Cuadrada
1971-1973/1980-1995 Chespirito
1973-1979 El Chapulín Colorado
1973-1980 El Chavo del Ocho
1979-1980 La Chicharra  [es]
1993-1994 Con humor… al estilo Chespirito

Films

Year Title Role
1960 Dos locos en escena Don Juan
Dos criados malcriados
1967 El mundo loco de los jóvenes
1968 Operación carambola Carlitos
El zángano Psychologist
1969 La princesa hippie  [es] Damian Damianoski
1970 Las tres magnificas Manolo
El amor de Maria Isabel  [es] Driving instructor
El cuerpazo del delito  [es] Goliath
La hermana Trinquete  [es]
1979 El Chanfle  [es] Chanfle
1982 El Chanfle 2
1983 Don ratón y don ratero  [es] Ratón Pérez
1984 Charrito  [es] Charrito
1988 Música de Viento  [es] Sr. Quevedo

Director

Year Title
1958 Los legionarios
1959 Tres lecciones de amor
1962 ¡En peligro de muerte!
1984 Charrito
1991 Milagro y magi  [es]

Producer

Year Title
1997 Elisa antes del fin del mundo  [es]
1997 Un baúl lleno de miedo

Awards and nominations

TVyNovelas Awards

Year Category TV series Result Ref
1987 Best comedy actor Chespirito Won [58]
Best comedy program Won
1991 Best comedy actor Won

ACE Awards

Year Category Result Ref
2008 Extraordinary Awards Won [58]

On 20 November 2013, Chespirito received the Ondas Iberoamericano Award for the most outstanding career on television.[59]

Discography

  • 1977: Chespirito y Sus Canciones - ¡No Contaban Con Mi Astucia! (Discos Fontana)
  • 1977: Así Cantamos y Vacilamos en la Vecindad del Chavo (Discos Fontana)
  • 1979: 1er Festival de la Canción Infantil de Radio Variedades - Canta Chespirito y su Compañía
  • 1980: El Chavo Canta - ¡Eso, Eso, Eso...! (Discos Fontana)
  • 1981: Síganme los Buenos a la Vecindad del Chavo (Discos Fontana)
  • 1989: Chaves (Polydor Records Brazil/SBT)

Books

  • 1995: El diario del Chavo del 8 ISBN 978-607-111-041-1, 607-111-041-6
  • 2003: ...y también poemas ISBN 978-607-111-032-9, 607-111-032-7
  • 2006: ¡Sin querer queriendo! ISBN 9786071110565

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Lopez, Elias E. (28 November 2014). "Roberto Gómez Bolaños, Mexico's Comedic Artist 'Chespirito,' Dies at 85". The New York Times.
  2. ^ "Despiden a Chespirito en Panteón Francés de La Piedad". El Universal. Archived from the original on 9 January 2015. Retrieved 2 December 2014.
  3. ^ ""México, Distrito Federal, Registro Civil, 1832-2005", Roberto Mario Gómez y Bolaños". FamilySearch. Retrieved 9 November 2022.
  4. ^ Varillas, Adriana (28 November 2014). "Muere Roberto Gómez Bolaños "Chespirito"" [Roberto Gómez Bolaños "Chespirito", Dies]. El Universal (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 7 May 2015. Retrieved 28 November 2014.
  5. ^ Mora 1982, p. 162.
  6. ^ Gómez Bolaños, Roberto (2007b). El diario de El Chavo del Ocho [The Diary of El Chavo del Ocho] (in Spanish). Mexico City, Mexico: Penguin Random House. ISBN 9786071110411.
  7. ^ PERÚ, Empresa Peruana de Servicios Editoriales S. A. EDITORA. "¡Feliz día, Chespirito! Los 85 de Roberto Gómez Bolaños". andina.pe.
  8. ^ Martínez, Laura; By, Provided (21 February 2020). "Google Doodle honors Mexican comedian Chespirito". Laredo Morning Times.
  9. ^ "Roberto Gomez Bolaños: Comedian who changed comedy in Latin America with his television character 'El Chavo del Ocho'". The Independent. 3 December 2014. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  10. ^ "Titan of Latin American Comedy, Mexico's Beloved 'Chespirito' Dead at 85". NBC News. 28 November 2014. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  11. ^ "Meet El Chavo, The World's Most Famous (And Richest) Orphan". Forbes. Retrieved 29 November 2014.
  12. ^ a b López, Alberto (21 February 2020). "Roberto Gómez Bolaños, 'Chespirito', el ingeniero de la comedia". El País (in Spanish). ISSN 1134-6582. Retrieved 24 October 2021.
  13. ^ "Su escudo siempre fue un corazón: perfil". Noticias Caracol (in Spanish). 28 November 2014. Retrieved 24 October 2021.
  14. ^ Gómez Bolaños 2007, p. 14.
  15. ^ Gómez Bolaños 2007, p. 15.
  16. ^ "El presidente que era tío de Chespirito". 28 November 2014.
  17. ^ Gómez Bolaños 2007, Ch. 1.
  18. ^ "Boxeador amateur, fotógrafo, ingeniero y médico : los desconocidos oficios anteriores de los protagonistas del Chavo del 8". Infobae (in European Spanish). 25 October 2020. Retrieved 24 October 2021.
  19. ^ "Murió Roberto Gómez Bolaños 'Chespirito'". Semana (in Spanish). 28 November 2014. Retrieved 24 October 2021.
  20. ^ "Falleció Roberto Gómez Bolaños "Chespirito" a los 85 años". La Jornada (in Spanish). 28 November 2014. Archived from the original on 1 December 2014. Retrieved 28 November 2014.
  21. ^ "Thousands of Chespirito fans gather in Mexican stadium for heartfelt tribute". Fox News Latino. Archived from the original on 16 December 2014. Retrieved 4 December 2014.
  22. ^ comedia, ‘Chespirito’ sigue presente en la (21 February 2020). "Chespirito sigue presente en la comedia". Revista Cambio. Retrieved 24 October 2021.
  23. ^ "'Chespirito' y el cine" (in Spanish). Televisa. 28 November 2014. Retrieved 28 November 2014.
  24. ^ "El entrañable 'Doctor Chapatín'" (in Spanish). Televisa. 29 November 2014. Retrieved 29 November 2014.
  25. ^ "Las 12 cosas poco conocidas de Chespirito y sus programas" (in Spanish). CNN. Turner Broadcasting System. 29 November 2014. Retrieved 29 November 2014.
  26. ^ Bautista, Eduardo (29 November 2014). "Chespirito, el hombre que hizo reír a América Latina". El Financiero (in Spanish). Retrieved 29 November 2014.
  27. ^ Aguirre, Francisco (29 November 2014). "Más allá del Chavo: Los cinco shows de Chespirito que tal vez nunca conociste" (in Spanish). La Tercera. Retrieved 29 November 2014.
  28. ^ Nájar, Alberto (28 November 2014). "Adiós a Chespirito, una vida "sin querer queriendo"" (in Spanish). BBC Mundo. Retrieved 28 November 2014.
  29. ^ Duque Cardozo, Mario Alberto (28 November 2014). "El Chapulín, el héroe inolvidable". El Colombiano (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 November 2014.
  30. ^ "El Chavo del ocho, icono de la cultura de AL, cumplió 40 años". La Jornada (in Spanish). Agence France-Presse. 22 June 2011. Retrieved 28 November 2014.
  31. ^ "Murió el célebre comediante mexicano '" (in Spanish). Deutsche Welle. 29 November 2014. Retrieved 29 November 2014.
  32. ^ a b c "5 programas de Chespirito que no fueron tan exitosos como 'El Chavo'" (in Spanish). Publimetro. 29 November 2014. Retrieved 29 November 2014.
  33. ^ Ávila, Carlos (29 November 2014). "Chaparrón Bonaparte, personaje clave de los Chifladitos" (in Spanish). Televisa. Retrieved 29 November 2014.
  34. ^ "Moda con inspiración en los personajes de "Chespirito"" (in Spanish). Terra Networks. 29 November 2014. Retrieved 29 November 2014.
  35. ^ "El Chavo del Ocho" festejó 27 años de amor con "Doña Florinda" (in Spanish). El Universo. EFE México. 20 November 2004. Retrieved 28 November 2014.
  36. ^ "Se recupera"Chespirito" tras una neumonía" (in Spanish). La Crónica de Hoy. 8 February 2007. Retrieved 28 November 2014.
  37. ^ a b c d e "A Gómez Bolaños le gustaba meterse en la política". Milenio (in Spanish). 28 November 2014. Retrieved 28 November 2014.
  38. ^ Bolaños, Roberto Gómez (2007). El Diario de el Chavo del Ocho. Punto de Lectura. ISBN 9786071110411.
  39. ^ Bolaños 2006.
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Bibliography

External links

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