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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 Prunus avium, sweet cherry, also called wild cherry
Prunus avium, sweet cherry, also called wild cherry
 Prunus cerasus
Prunus cerasus

A cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus Prunus, and is a fleshy drupe (stone fruit).

The cherry fruits of commerce usually are obtained from cultivars of a limited number of species such as the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and the sour cherry (Prunus cerasus). The name 'cherry' also refers to the cherry tree, and is sometimes applied to almonds and visually similar flowering trees in the genus Prunus, as in "ornamental cherry" or "cherry blossom". Wild cherry may refer to any of the cherry species growing outside cultivation, although Prunus avium is often referred to specifically by the name "wild cherry" in the British Isles.


Many cherries are members of the subgenus Cerasus, which is distinguished by having the flowers in small corymbs of several together (not singly, nor in racemes), and by having smooth fruit with only a weak groove along one side, or no groove. The subgenus is native to the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, with two species in America, three in Europe, and the remainder in Asia. Other cherry fruits are members of subgenus Padus.


Etymology and antiquity

The English word cherry derives from Old Northern French or Norman cherise from the Latin cerasum,[1] referring to an ancient Greek region, Kerasous (Κερασοῦς) near Giresun, Turkey, from which cherries were first thought to be exported to Europe.[2] The indigenous range of the sweet cherry extends through most of Europe, western Asia, and parts of northern Africa, and the fruit has been consumed throughout its range since prehistoric times. A cultivated cherry is recorded as having been brought to Rome by Lucius Licinius Lucullus from northeastern Anatolia, also known as the Pontus region, in 72 BC.[3]

Cherries were introduced into England at Teynham, near Sittingbourne in Kent, by order of Henry VIII, who had tasted them in Flanders.[4][5][6]

Cherries arrived in North America early in the settlement of Brooklyn, New York (then called "New Netherland") when the region was under Dutch sovereignty. Trades people leased or purchased land to plant orchards and produce gardens, "Certificate of Corielis van Tienlioven that he had found 12 apple, 40 peach, 73 cherry trees, 26 sage plants.., behind the house sold by Anthony Jansen from Salee [Morocco, Africa] to Barent Dirksen [Dutchmen],... ANNO 18th of June 1639."[7]


The cultivated forms are of the species sweet cherry (P. avium) to which most cherry cultivars belong, and the sour cherry (P. cerasus), which is used mainly for cooking. Both species originate in Europe and western Asia; they do not cross-pollinate. Some other species, although having edible fruit, are not grown extensively for consumption, except in northern regions where the two main species will not grow. Irrigation, spraying, labor, and their propensity to damage from rain and hail make cherries relatively expensive. Nonetheless, demand is high for the fruit. In commercial production, cherries are harvested by using a mechanized 'shaker'.[8] Hand picking is also widely used to harvest the fruit to avoid damage to both fruit and trees.

Common rootstocks include Mazzard, Mahaleb, Colt, and Gisela Series, a dwarfing rootstock that produces trees significantly smaller than others, only 8 to 10 feet (2.5 to 3 meters) tall.[9] Sour cherries require no pollenizer, while few sweet varieties are self-fertile.[9]

Growing season


Like most temperate-latitude trees, cherry seeds require exposure to cold to germinate (an adaptation which prevents germination during the autumn, which would then result in the seedling being killed by winter temperatures). The pits are planted in the autumn (after first being chilled) and seedlings emerge in the spring.[10] A cherry tree will take three to four years in the field to produce its first crop of fruit, and seven years to attain full maturity.[10] Because of the cold-weather requirement, none of the Prunus genus can grow in tropical climates.

Cherries have a short growing season and can grow in most temperate latitudes.[10] Cherries blossom in April (in the Northern Hemisphere) and the peak season for the cherry harvest is in the summer. In southern Europe in June, in North America in June, in England in mid-July, and in southern British Columbia (Canada) in June to mid-August. In many parts of North America, they are among the first tree fruits to flower and ripen in mid-Spring.

In the Southern Hemisphere, cherries are usually at their peak in late December and are widely associated with Christmas. 'Burlat' is an early variety which ripens during the beginning of December, 'Lapins' ripens near the end of December, and 'Sweetheart' finish slightly later.[11]

Pests and diseases

Generally, the cherry can be a difficult fruit tree to grow and keep alive.[9] In Europe, the first visible pest in the growing season soon after blossom (in April in western Europe) usually is the black cherry aphid ("cherry blackfly", Myzus cerasi), which causes leaves at the tips of branches to curl, with the blackfly colonies exuding a sticky secretion which promotes fungal growth on the leaves and fruit. At the fruiting stage in June/July (Europe), the cherry fruit fly (Rhagoletis cingulata and Rhagoletis cerasi) lays its eggs in the immature fruit, whereafter its larvae feed on the cherry flesh and exit through a small hole (about 1 mm diameter), which in turn is the entry point for fungal infection of the cherry fruit after rainfall.[12] In addition, cherry trees are susceptible to bacterial canker, cytospora canker, brown rot of the fruit, root rot from overly wet soil, crown rot, and several viruses.[9]


 Rainier cherries from the state of Washington, USA
Rainier cherries from the state of Washington, USA

The following cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:

Name Height Spread Ref.
Accolade 8m 8m [13]
Amanogawa 8m 4m [14]
Autumnalis (P. × subhirtella) 8m 8m [15]
Autumnalis Rosea (P. × subhirtella) 8m 4m [16]
Avium Grandiflora see Plena
Colorata (P. padus) 12m 8m [17]
Grandiflora see Plena
Kanzan 12m 12m+ [18]
Kiku-shidare-zakura 4m 4m [19]
Kursar 8m 8m [20]
Morello (P. cerasus) 4m 4m [21]
Okamé (P. × incam) 12m 8m [22]
Pandora 12m 8m [23]
Pendula Rosea 4m 4m [24]
Name Height Spread Ref.
Pendula Rubra 4m 4m [25]
Pink Perfection 8m 8m [26]
Plena (Grandiflora) 12m 8m+ [27]
Praecox (P. incisa) 8m 8m
Prunus avium (wild cherry) 12m+ 8m+
Prunus × cistena 1.5m 1.5m [28]
Prunus sargentii (Sargent's cherry) 12m+ 8m+ [29]
Prunus serrula (Tibetan cherry) 12m 8m+ [30]
Shirofugen 8m 8m [31]
Shirotai 8m 8m [32]
Shōgetsu 8m 8m [33]
Spire 12m 8m [34]
Stella 4m 4m [35]
Ukon 8m 8m+ [36]

See cherry blossom and Prunus for ornamental trees.


Top (sweet) cherry producing nations in 2014 (tonnes)
Rank Country Production
1 Turkey 445,556
2 United States 329,852
3 Iran 172,000
4 Spain 118,220
5 Italy 110,766
6 Chile 83,903
7 Romania 82,808
8 Uzbekistan 80,000
9 Russia 77,000
10 Greece 73,380
World 2,245,826
Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organization[37]
Top sour cherry producing nations in 2014 (tonnes)
Rank Country Production
1 Russia 198,000
2 Ukraine 182,880
3 Turkey 182,577
4 Poland 176,545
5 United States 137,983
6 Iran 111,993
7 Serbia 93,905
8 Hungary 91,840
9 Uzbekistan 45,000
10 Azerbaijan 25,669
World 1,362,231
Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organization[37]

In 2014, world production of sweet cherries was 2.25 million tonnes, with Turkey producing 20% of this total. Other major producers of sweet cherries were the United States and Iran. World production of sour cherries in 2014 was 1.36 million tonnes, led by Russia, Ukraine, Turkey and Poland.

Middle East

 Ripe sweet cherries in Tehran
Ripe sweet cherries in Tehran

Major commercial cherry orchards in West Asia are in Turkey (mainly Anatolia), Iran, Syria, Uzbekistan, Lebanon (Bekaa Valley), and Israel (Golan Heights, Gush Eztion and Northern Galilee).


Major commercial cherry orchards in Europe are in Turkey, Italy, Spain and other Mediterranean regions, and to a smaller extent in the Baltic States and southern Scandinavia.

In France since the 1920s, the first cherries of the season come in April/May from the region of Céret (Pyrénées-Orientales),[38] where the local producers send, as a tradition since 1932, the first crate of cherries to the president of the Republic.[39]

North America

In the United States, most sweet cherries are grown in Washington, California, Oregon, Wisconsin, and Michigan.[40] Important sweet cherry cultivars include Bing, Ulster, Rainier, Brooks, Tulare, King, and Sweetheart.[41] Both Oregon and Michigan provide light-colored 'Royal Ann' ('Napoleon'; alternately 'Queen Anne') cherries for the maraschino cherry process. Most sour (also called tart) cherries are grown in Michigan, followed by Utah, New York, and Washington.[40] Sour cherries include 'Nanking' and 'Evans'. Traverse City, Michigan claims to be the "Cherry Capital of the World", hosting a National Cherry Festival and making the world's largest cherry pie. The specific region of northern Michigan known for tart cherry production is referred to as the "Traverse Bay" region.

Native and non-native sweet cherries grow well in Canada's provinces of Ontario and British Columbia where an annual cherry fiesta has been celebrated for seven consecutive decades in the Okanagan Valley town of Osoyoos.[42] In addition to the Okanagan, other British Columbia cherry growing regions are the Similkameen Valley and Kootenay Valley, all three regions together producing 5.5 million kg annually or 60% of total Canadian output.[43] Sweet cherry varieties in British Columbia include 'Rainier', 'Van', 'Chelan', 'Lapins', 'Sweetheart', 'Skeena', 'Staccato', 'Christalina' and 'Bing'.


In Australia, cherries are grown in all the states except for the Northern Territory. The major producing regions are located in the temperate areas within New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania. Western Australia has limited production in the elevated parts in the southwest of the state. Key production areas include Young, Orange and Bathurst in New South Wales, Wandin, the Goulburn and Murray valley areas in Victoria, the Adelaide Hills region in South Australia, and the Huon and Derwent Valleys in Tasmania.

Key commercial varieties in order of seasonality include 'Empress', 'Merchant', 'Supreme', 'Ron's seedling', 'Chelan', 'Ulster', 'Van', 'Bing', 'Stella', 'Nordwunder', 'Lapins', 'Simone', 'Regina', 'Kordia' and 'Sweetheart'. New varieties are being introduced, including the late season 'Staccato' and early season 'Sequoia'. The Australian Cherry Breeding program is developing a series of new varieties which are under testing evaluation.[44]

The New South Wales town of Young is called the "Cherry Capital of Australia" and hosts the National Cherry Festival.

Nutritional value

Cherries, sour, red, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 209 kJ (50 kcal)
12.2 g
Sugars 8.5 g
Dietary fiber 1.6 g
0.3 g
1 g
Vitamin A equiv.
64 μg
770 μg
85 μg
Thiamine (B1)
0.03 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
0.04 mg
Niacin (B3)
0.4 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
0.143 mg
Vitamin B6
0.044 mg
Folate (B9)
8 μg
6.1 mg
Vitamin C
10 mg
Vitamin K
2.1 μg
16 mg
0.32 mg
9 mg
0.112 mg
15 mg
173 mg
3 mg
0.1 mg
Other constituents
Water 86 g

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
Cherries, sweet, red, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 263 kJ (63 kcal)
16 g
Sugars 12.8 g
Dietary fiber 2.1 g
0.2 g
1.1 g
Vitamin A equiv.
3 μg
38 μg
85 μg
Thiamine (B1)
0.027 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
0.033 mg
Niacin (B3)
0.154 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
0.199 mg
Vitamin B6
0.049 mg
Folate (B9)
4 μg
6.1 mg
Vitamin C
7 mg
Vitamin K
2.1 μg
13 mg
0.36 mg
11 mg
0.07 mg
21 mg
222 mg
0 mg
0.07 mg
Other constituents
Water 82 g

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Raw sweet cherries are 82% water, 16% carbohydrates, 1% protein, and negligible in fat (table). As raw fruit, sweet cherries provide little nutrient content per 100 g serving (nutrient table). Dietary fiber and vitamin C are present in moderate content while other vitamins and dietary minerals each supply less than 10% of the Daily Value (DV) per serving, respectively (table).[45]

Compared to sweet cherries, raw sour cherries contain slightly higher content per 100 g of vitamin C (12% DV) and vitamin A (8% DV) (table).[46]

Other uses

Cherry wood is valued for its rich color and straight grain in manufacturing fine furniture, particularly desks, tables and chairs.[47][48]


The list below contains many Prunus species that bear the common name cherry, but they are not necessarily members of the subgenus Cerasus, or bear edible fruit. For a complete list of species, see Prunus. Some common names listed here have historically been used for more than one species, e.g. "rock cherry" is used as an alternative common name for both P. prostrata and P. mahaleb and "wild cherry" is used for several species.

  • Prunus apetala (Siebold & Zucc.) Franch. & Sav. – clove cherry
  • Prunus avium (L.) L. – sweet cherry, wild cherry, mazzard or gean
  • Prunus campanulata Maxim. – Taiwan cherry, Formosan cherry or bell-flowered cherry
  • Prunus canescens Bois. – grey-leaf cherry
  • Prunus caroliniana Aiton – Carolina laurel cherry or laurel cherry
  • Prunus cerasoides D. Don. – wild Himalayan cherry
  • Prunus cerasus L. – sour cherry
  • Prunus cistena Koehne – purple-leaf sand cherry
  • Prunus cornuta (Wall. ex Royle) Steud. – Himalayan bird cherry
  • Prunus cuthbertii Small – Cuthbert cherry
  • Prunus cyclamina Koehne – cyclamen cherry or Chinese flowering cherry
  • Prunus dawyckensis Sealy – Dawyck cherry
  • Prunus dielsiana C.K. Schneid. – tailed-leaf cherry
  • Prunus emarginata (Douglas ex Hook.) Walp. – Oregon cherry or bitter cherry
  • Prunus eminens Beck – German: mittlere Weichsel (semisour cherry)
  • Prunus fruticosa Pall. – European dwarf cherry, dwarf cherry, Mongolian cherry or steppe cherry
  • Prunus gondouinii (Poit. & Turpin) Rehder – duke cherry
  • Prunus grayana Maxim. – Japanese bird cherry or Gray's bird cherry
  • Prunus humilis Bunge – Chinese plum-cherry or humble bush cherry
  • Prunus ilicifolia (Nutt. ex Hook. & Arn.) Walp. – hollyleaf cherry, evergreen cherry, holly-leaved cherry or islay
  • Prunus incisa Thunb. – Fuji cherry
  • Prunus jamasakura Siebold ex Koidz. – Japanese mountain cherry or Japanese hill cherry
  • Prunus japonica Thunb. – Korean cherry
  • Prunus laurocerasus L. – cherry laurel
  • Prunus lyonii (Eastw.) Sarg. – Catalina Island cherry
  • Prunus maackii Rupr. – Manchurian cherry or Amur chokecherry
  • Prunus mahaleb L. – Saint Lucie cherry, rock cherry, perfumed cherry or mahaleb cherry
  • Prunus maximowiczii Rupr. – Miyama cherry or Korean cherry
  • Prunus mume (Siebold & Zucc.) – Chinese plum or Japanese apricot
  • Prunus myrtifolia (L.) Urb. – West Indian cherry
  • Prunus nepaulensis (Ser.) Steud. – Nepal bird cherry
  • Prunus nipponica Matsum. – Takane cherry, peak cherry or Japanese alpine cherry
  • Prunus occidentalis Sw. – western cherry laurel
  • Prunus padus L. – bird cherry or European bird cherry
  • Prunus pensylvanica L.f. – pin cherry, fire cherry, or wild red cherry
  • Prunus pleuradenia Griseb. – Antilles cherry
  • Prunus prostrata Labill. – mountain cherry, rock cherry, spreading cherry or prostrate cherry
  • Prunus pseudocerasus Lindl. – Chinese sour cherry or false cherry
  • Prunus pumila L. – sand cherry
  • Prunus rufa Wall ex Hook.f. – Himalayan cherry
  • Prunus salicifolia Kunth. (=P. serotina) – capulin, Singapore cherry or tropic cherry
  • Prunus sargentii Rehder – Sargent's cherry
  • Prunus serotina Ehrh. – black cherry, wild cherry
  • Prunus serrula Franch. – paperbark cherry, birch bark cherry or Tibetan cherry
  • Prunus serrulata Lindl. – Japanese cherry, hill cherry, Oriental cherry or East Asian cherry
  • Prunus speciosa (Koidz.) Ingram – Oshima cherry
  • Prunus ssiori Schmidt- Hokkaido bird cherry
  • Prunus stipulacea Maxim.
  • Prunus subhirtella Miq. – Higan cherry or spring cherry
  • Prunus takesimensis Nakai – Takeshima flowering cherry
  • Prunus tomentosa Thunb. – Nanking cherry, Manchu cherry, downy cherry, Shanghai cherry, Ando cherry, mountain cherry, Chinese dwarf cherry, Chinese bush cherry
  • Prunus verecunda (Koidz.) Koehne – Korean mountain cherry
  • Prunus virginiana L. – chokecherry
  • Prunus x yedoensis Matsum. – Yoshino cherry or Tokyo cherry

See also


  1. ^ "Cherry". Online Etymology Dictionary, Douglas Harper. 2017. Retrieved 13 February 2017. 
  2. ^ Rhind W (1841). A History of the Vegetable Kingdom, Page 334. Oxford University. 
  3. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pontus". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  4. ^ Oliver Lawson Dick, ed. (1949). Aubrey's Brief Lives. Edited from the Original Manuscripts. p. xxxv. The curious antiquary John Aubrey (1626–1697) noted in his memoranda: "Cherries were first brought into Kent tempore H. viii, who being in Flanders, and likeing the Cherries, ordered his Gardener, brought them hence, and propagated them in England. 
  5. ^ "All the cherry gardens and orchards of Kent are said to have been stocked with the Flemish cherry from a plantation of 105 acres in Teynham, made with foreign cherries, pippins [ pippin apples ], and golden rennets goldreinette apples, done by the fruiterer of Henry VIII." (Kent On-line: Teynham Parish)
  6. ^ The civic coat of arms of Sittingbourne with the crest of a "cherry tree fructed proper" and motto "known by their fruits" were only granted on July 28, 1949, however.
  7. ^ van Laer, AJF (1974). "New York Historical Manuscripts: Dutch; volume 1: 1638–42" (PDF). Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., Baltimore. 
  8. ^ Chainpure (2009-06-23). "Soul to Brain: Wow! Its Cherry Harvesting". Retrieved 2011-11-26. 
  9. ^ a b c d Ingels, Chuck, et. al. (2007). The Home Orchard: Growing Your Own Deciduous Fruit and Nut Trees. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources. pp. 27–8. 
  10. ^ a b c "Cherry". Fruit and Nut Information Center. Department of Plant Sciences, University of California at Davis. 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2016. 
  11. ^ "Varieties". Cherish the moment. Cherry Growers of Australia. 2011. Retrieved 12 September 2017. 
  12. ^ "cherry fruit fly (Rhagoletis cingulata)". 
  13. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus 'Accolade' (d) AGM / RHS Gardening". Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  14. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus 'Amanogawa' AGM / RHS Gardening". Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  15. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus × subhirtella 'Autumnalis' AGM / RHS Gardening". Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  16. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus × subhirtella 'Autumnalis Rosea' AGM / RHS Gardening". Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  17. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus padus 'Colorata' AGM / RHS Gardening". Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  18. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus 'Kanzan' AGM / RHS Gardening". Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  19. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus 'Kiku-shidare-zakura' AGM / RHS Gardening". Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  20. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus 'Kursar' AGM / RHS Gardening". Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  21. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus cerasus 'Morello' (C) AGM / RHS Gardening". Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  22. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus × incam 'Okamé' AGM / RHS Gardening". Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  23. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus 'Pandora' AGM / RHS Gardening". Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  24. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus pendula 'Pendula Rosea' AGM / RHS Gardening". Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  25. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus pendula 'Pendula Rubra' AGM / RHS Gardening". Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  26. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus 'Pink Perfection' AGM / RHS Gardening". Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  27. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus avium 'Plena' (d) AGM / RHS Gardening". Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  28. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus × cistena AGM / RHS Gardening". Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  29. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus sargentii AGM / RHS Gardening". Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  30. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus serrula AGM / RHS Gardening". Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  31. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus 'Shirofugen' AGM / RHS Gardening". Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  32. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus 'Shirotae' AGM / RHS Gardening". Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  33. ^ "RHS Plant Selector – Prunus 'Shogetsu'". Retrieved 29 May 2013. 
  34. ^ "RHS Plant Selector – Prunus 'Spire'". Retrieved 29 May 2013. 
  35. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus avium 'Stella' (F) AGM / RHS Gardening". Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  36. ^ "RHS Plant Selector – Prunus 'Ukon'". Retrieved 29 May 2013. 
  37. ^ a b "Crops/Regions/Production of Cherries by Countries (from pick lists)". UN Food & Agriculture Organization, FAOSTAT, Statistics Division. 2014. Retrieved 12 September 2017. 
  38. ^ (in French) Fabricio Cardenas, Vieux papiers des Pyrénées-Orientales, Premières cerises de Céret et d'ailleurs, August 24, 2014
  39. ^ (in French) Fabricio Cardenas, Vieux papiers des Pyrénées-Orientales, Des cerises de Céret pour le président de la République en 1932, June 1st 2014
  40. ^ a b Cherry Production (PDF) (Report). National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA. June 23, 2011. ISSN 1948-9072. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 6, 2012. Retrieved 2011-10-06. 
  41. ^ "Cherry Varieties". Retrieved 24 October 2014. 
  42. ^ "Cherry Fiesta 2106". Osoyoos Festival Society. 2016. Retrieved 21 November 2016. 
  43. ^ "Cherries". BC Ministry of Agriculture. 2013. Archived from the original on 1999-02-02. Retrieved 28 June 2014. 
  44. ^ "ANNUAL INDUSTRY REPORT 08 • 09" (PDF). Horticulture Australia Limited (HAL). 
  45. ^ "Nutrition facts, cherries, sweet, raw, 100 g". US Department of Agriculture National Nutrient Database, Standard Reference 21. Retrieved 19 February 2013. 
  46. ^ "Nutrition facts, cherries, sour, red, raw, 100 g". US Department of Agriculture National Nutrient Database, Standard Reference 21. Retrieved 19 February 2013. 
  47. ^ "Types of Ontario wood: Black cherry". Queen's Printer for Ontario, Canada. 2016. Retrieved 25 December 2016. 
  48. ^ "Selecting wood furniture" (PDF). Utah State University. 1987. Retrieved 25 December 2016. 

External links

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