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Chemnitz dialect

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Chemnitz dialect is a distinct German dialect of the city of Chemnitz and an urban variety of Vorerzgebirgisch, a variant of Upper Saxon German.[1]

Phonology

Consonants

Consonant phonemes[1]
Labial Dental Postalveolar Dorsal Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive aspirated
unaspirated p t k
Fricative f s ʃ χ h
Approximant ʋ l j
Rhotic ʁ
  • Stops and fricatives are voiceless, whereas nasals and approximants are voiced.[2] The rhotic /ʁ/ may be either voiced or voiceless, see below.
  • /m, p/ are bilabial, whereas /f, ʋ/ are labiodental. /f/ - /ʋ/ do not constitute a voiceless-voiced pair.[3]
  • /n, t, l, s/ are dental [, , , ].[1]
    • /t/ is alveolar [] after /ʃ/.[4]
  • /ŋ, kʰ, k/ are velar, /χ, ʁ/ are uvular, and /j/ is palatal. /χ/ - /ʁ/ do not constitute a voiceless-voiced pair.[3]
    • The /kʰ–k/ contrast is restricted to the word-initial position. In many cases, it corresponds to the /k–ɡ/ contrast in Standard German, but sometimes Upper Saxon /k/ corresponds to Standard German /k/.[5]
    • /ʁ/ occurs only in onsets, and it has few possible pronunciations, which are in free variation with one another:[4]
      • Voiced uvular approximant [ʁ̞];[4]
      • Voiced [ʁ] or voiceless [ʁ̥] lenis uvular fricative;[4]
      • Voiceless uvular trill [ʀ̥];[4]
      • Unaspirated voiceless uvular stop [q].[4]
  • /p, t, k, f, s, ʃ, χ/ may be voiced between sonorants, either partially [p̬, t̬, k̬, f̬, s̬, ʃ̬, χ̬] or fully [b, d, ɡ, v, z, ʒ, ʁ].[5]
    • Word-final /p, t, k/ vary between being fully voiced stops [b, d, ɡ], aspirated voiceless stops [pʰ, tʰ, kʰ] or, most commonly, unaspirated voiceless stops [p, t, k].[2]
    • Word-initially, the /t–k/ contrast is neutralized before /l/, which means that e.g. the word Kleid ('dress') can be pronounced as either [tleːt] or [kleːt].[6]
  • /χ/ occurs in complementary distribution with /h/; the latter can only occur syllable-initially in stressed syllables and word-initially, whereas /χ/ occurs in all other positions.[7]
  • In consonant clusters, voicing and aspiration are not contrastive.[6]
  • When a stop or fricative precedes, the sequences /əm, ən, əŋ, əl/ can be realized as syllabic consonants [m̩, n̩, ŋ̍, l̩]. The nasals appear depending on the place of articulation of the preceding consonant. When it is bilabial, the following syllabic nasal is bilabial [m̩]. When it is dental, the following syllabic nasal is dental [n̩]. When it is velar, the following syllabic nasal is velar [ŋ̍]. When it is the uvular fricative /χ/, the following syllabic nasal is uvular [ɴ̩].[4]
  • When another nasal precedes a syllabic nasal, such sequence is realized as a single consonant, either short or (sometimes) long.[4]
  • Oral consonants are commonly deleted when they occur before nasals and after long vowels.[4][which oral consonants? Stops? All of them?]
  • Non-phonemic glottal stop [ʔ] is inserted in two cases:
    • Before word-initial vowels, even the unstressed ones.[4]
    • Before stressed syllable-initial vowels within words.[4]
Example words for consonants[2]
Phoneme IPA Orthography Translation
/p/ /ˈpʌsə/ passe '(I) pass'
/t/ /ˈtʌsə/ Tasse 'cup'
/kʰ/ /ˈkʰʌsə/ Kasse 'cash register'
/k/ /ˈkʌsə/ Gasse 'lane'
/m/ /tʌm/ Damm 'dam'
/n/ /tʌn/ dann 'then'
/ŋ/ /tʌŋ/ Tang 'seaweed'
/f/ /fae̯n/ fein 'fine'
/s/ /sae̯n/ sein 'his'
/ʃ/ /ʃae̯n/ Schein 'shine', 'light'
/χ/ /ʋʌχ/ wach 'awake'
/h/ /hae̯n/ Hain 'grove'
/ʋ/ /ʋɔˤː/ war 'was'
/l/ /laɵ̯/ lau 'lukewarm'
/j/ /jɔˤː/ Jahr 'year'
/ʁ/ /ʁaɵ̯/ rau 'rough'

Vowels

Monophthongs of the Chemnitz dialect, from Khan & Weise (2013:236–237). Red vowels are pharyngealized.
Monophthongs of the Chemnitz dialect, from Khan & Weise (2013:236–237). Red vowels are pharyngealized.
Plain[8]
  [-back] [+back]
short long short long
Close ɪ ɵ ʉː
Close-mid ɵː
Open-mid ɛ ɛː ɞ
Open ʌ ʌː
Pharyngealized[9]
Short Long
Close ʊˤː
Close-mid oˤː
Mid ʌˤː
Open-mid ɔˤː
Open aˤː
Non-native[10]
Short Long
Close ʏ
Mid œ øː
  • The pharyngealized vowels correspond to the sequences of vowel + /r/ in the standard language.[9]
  • The non-native vowels are occasionally used in cognates of some Standard German words, such as brüder [ˈpʁyːtoˤ] ('brothers'). In other cases, they are pronounced the same as /ɪ, iː, ɛ, eː/[10]
  • Unstressed /ɪ, ɛ, ɵ, ɞ, ʌ/ may all be reduced to [ə], which is often fronted to [ə̟] in the utterance-final position.[8]
  • /ʊˤː, oˤː, ʌˤː, ɔˤː, aˤː/ are often diphthongal [ʊːɒ̯ˤ, oːɒ̯ˤ, ɪːɒ̯ˤ, ɔːɒ̯ˤ, aːɒ̯ˤ] in careful speech. Monophthongal realizations are common before consonant clusters in syllable coda, where they are optionally shortened.[11]
  • /oˤ/ corresponds to Standard German [ɐ].[9]
  • Monophthongs are somewhat retracted when they precede dorsals, except /j/. The retraction is strongest before /χ, ʁ/. A weaker retraction occurs when monophthongs follow a dorsal (except /j/) with, again, the strongest retraction after uvulars.[10]
  • Monophthongs are allophonically pharyngealized if a vowel in the following syllable is pharyngealized.[10] In Dresden, this also applies to consonants, as well as consonants and vowels in the syllable after the one with a pharyngealized vowel.[12]
  • The phonetic quality of the monophthongs is as follows:
Example words for monophthongs[13]
Plain Pharyngealized
Short Long
Phoneme IPA Orthography Translation Phoneme IPA Orthography Translation Phoneme IPA Orthography Translation
/ɪ/ /ʋɪnt/ Wind 'wind' /iː/ /ˈpiːtn̩/ bieten 'to offer' /ʌˤː/ /ʃʌˤːm/ Schirm 'umbrella'
/ɵ/ /ˈʋɵn(t)oˤ/ Wunder 'wonder' /ʉː/ /ˈpʉːtn̩/ Buden 'booths' /ʊˤː/ /ʃʊˤːf/ Schurf 'blight'
/ɛ/ /ʋɛn/ wenn 'when', 'if' /eː/ /ˈpeːtn̩/ beiden 'both' /aˤː/ /ʃtaˤːm/ sterben 'to die'
/oˤ/ /ˈʋʌsoˤ/ Wasser 'water'
/ɞ/ /ˈʋɞnə/ Wonne 'bliss' /ɵː/ /ˈpɵːtn̩/ Boden 'floor' /oˤː/ /ʃoˤːf/ Schorf 'scab'
/ɛː/ /ˈpɛːtn̩/ bäten '(if they) requested'
/ʌ/ /ˈʋʌnə/ Wanne 'tub' /ʌː/ /ˈpʌːtn̩/ baten '(they) requested' /ɔˤː/ /ʃɔˤːf/ scharf 'sharp'
Diphthongs of the Chemnitz dialect, from Khan & Weise (2013:237).
Diphthongs of the Chemnitz dialect, from Khan & Weise (2013:237).
Diphthong phonemes[9]
Ending point
unrounded rounded
Mid ɞʏ̯
Open ae̯ aɵ̯
  • Notes about diphthongs:
    • /ɞʏ̯/ is phonetically [ɞ̝˖ʏ]. It begins mid somewhat advanced central rounded, ends near-close near-front rounded.[9]
    • /ae̯/ is phonetically [æ̠e̞]. It begins near-open near-front unrounded, ends lowered close-mid front unrounded.[9]
    • /aɵ̯/ is phonetically [æ̠ɵ̞]. It begins near-open near-front unrounded, ends slightly lowered close-mid central rounded.[9]
Example words for diphthongs[9]
Phoneme IPA Orthography Translation
/ɞʏ̯/ /ˈlɞʏ̯tn̩/ leuten 'to ring'
/ae̯/ /ˈlae̯tn̩/ leiten 'to lead'
/aɵ̯/ /ˈlaɵ̯tn̩/ lauten 'to read'

Sample

The sample text is a reading of the first sentence of The North Wind and the Sun.[14]

Broad phonetic transcription

[ˈeːnəs ˈtʌːχəs hʌmʃ toˤ ˈnoˤːtʋɪnt ɵnt tə ˈsɞnə kəˈtsʌŋt | ʋaˤː fɞn ˈpeːtn̩ tɛn nʉː toˤ ˈʃtaˤːkʁ̞ə ɪs | ɛls ə ˈʋʌntʁ̞oˤ mɪt nəm ˈʋɔˤːmən ˈmʌntl̩ ʌn | foˤˈpeːkʰʌːm][14]

Orthographic version (standard German)

Eines Tages haben sich der Nordwind und die Sonne gezankt, wer von den beiden denn nun der Stärkere ist, als ein Wanderer mit einem warmen Mantel an, vorbeikam.[14]

References

Bibliography

This page was last edited on 8 July 2018, at 15:59
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