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Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Charles Eugène
Prince of Lambesc
Duke of Elbeuf
Prince de Lambesc.jpg
Born(1751-09-25)25 September 1751[1]
Palace of Versailles, France
Died2 November 1825(1825-11-02) (aged 74)
Vienna, Austria
Full name
Charles Eugène de Lorraine
HouseHouse of Lorraine
FatherLouis de Lorraine
MotherLouise de Rohan

Charles Eugène of Lorraine (25 September 1751 – 2 November 1825) was the head of and last male member of the House of Guise, the cadet branch of the House of Lorraine which dominated France during the Wars of Religion, remained prominent as princes étrangers at court throughout the ancien régime, and participated in the émigré efforts to restore the Bourbons to the throne. He was an officer in the French and Habsburg militaries during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars.

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France is a wealthy and flourishing country in Europe. One of the most known places which people talk about France is Paris and specifically the Eiffel Tower here. France has been occupied by people since the Neolithic times. France has a rich cultural heritage and many historical palaces and buildings which present the grandeur of the country during the ancient times. The once beautiful country France also went through a time of war and revolt before it could finally settled down and flourished. Like most revolutions, France too was tired of the monarchy and the overly rich aristocrats who took advantage of the peasants and the working class. There were other reasons too. France had become one of the most populated countries in the entire Europe. More population mean more food and goods for the consumers. France had spent heavily on the American Revolution and the ruling King Louis XVI and his predecessor had left the country almost bankrupt. Besides the harvest was poor, the cattle suffered with disease, assets of the royal house were dwindling and the price of the bread was too high to be afforded by the peasants. Government imposed very high taxes on the people to recover the losses which seemed to be unaffordable. This angered the people more. The people showed their frustration towards the government through strikes, theft and riots. The French Revolution had uprooted the monarchy and feudal system. People wanted sovereignty and absolute rights. Trail of Events in French Revolution Historians have blamed King Louis XVI to have laid the groundwork of the French Revolution. The period of ‘Ancien Regime’ which began in Middle Ages and lasted till 1792 was the time of Kings and feudal lords, this phase is considered as the time when the framework of the revolution was built. Besides the ‘Ancien Regime’, there were other reasons too. Ancien Regime Monetary Crunch When Louis XVI came to the throne France was already going through monetary problems. The nearing bankrupt situation of country was because of its involvement in the Seven Years War and then the American Revolution. Anne Robert Jacques Turgot who was the then finance minister of France was dismissed when he was unable to ratify restructurings in the financial structure of France. Jacques Necker was given the position of Comptroller General of Finance the following year after Turgot’s dismissal. Necker understood that the tax system of the country was too harsh and the lower classes were unable to bear it. The clergy and nobility however enjoyed several exemptions. He disputed the tax exemptions for the clergy and nobility should be abridged. He suggested that borrowing money would solve the monetary problems of the country. At an occasion he also said that the powers of the ‘parlement’ should be restricted. The king’s ministers did not appreciate his actions. Necker wanted to take the position of a minister but the king refused and removed Necker. The new Comptroller appointed was Charles Alexandre de Calonne. Calonne was not serious about his work initially but he soon understood that the financial position of the country was in a bad state which required immediate action – a new tax code. In the new proposal Calonne added a steady land tax which meant that the clergy and aristocrats would have to pay tax. Nobody was willing to agree to Calonne’s proposal and there was much opposition. Calonne called for the Assembly of Notables who did not approve his offer and instead his position was at stake. The King called for the Estates General for May 1789. The Estates General hadn’t been called for since 1614. Summoning the Estates General signalled that the Bourbon of Monarchy was in trouble. Estates General of 1789 The Estates General is a general assembly which represents the French Estates of Realm (a method of division of the society from the Ancien Regime times). There were three estates which comprised of the clergy, the nobility and remaining France. Elections were conducted in 1789. All French born males of Third Estate with a minimum age 25 who paid taxes and lived in the place where the elections were about to be held had the right to vote. There were around 100,000 Catholic clergy in the First Estate. The Second Estate had 400,000 women and men and most of them were nobles. The Third Estate represented local officers and lawyers, land owners and some were in industry or different types of trades. Around 1201 representatives came up which comprised of 291 nobles, 610 Third Estate members and 303 clergy. The ‘cahiers de doleances’ was compiled which was the ‘Book of Grievances’ and the book consisted of many thoughts which were to support the monarch government. In the beginning people thought the Estates General would help in improving the taxes. Verification of powers was the first on the list of the Estates General. But all the three estates failed to have a successful discussion together. The discussion diverted from taxes to organizing a legislature separately. A Catholic clergyman and theorist, Abbe Sieyes said that the Third Estate who were now addressed as ‘Communes’ should continue with the verification and ask the other two estates to take part too. They should however not wait for them. June 13, 1789 was the date selected for the verification of the powers. They invited the First two Estates. The Three Estates could failed to come together so the Third Estate completed the procedure of verification. They proclaimed themselves as National Assembly of the people. The others were invited to join them and they also made it quite clear that the affairs of the state would be ran by them, they could choose to stay or leave. They slowly increased on their count and now had the power to dictate any combined assembly. The courtiers of the king suggested that he take action against the National Assembly. On June 20, 1789 the hall where the National Assembly met was closed, the participants moved their gathering to a tennis court. They took the ‘Tennis Court Oath’ which they decided not to separate till they had done something about fall of France. The tennis court was also closed for them and they met in Church of Saint Louis, several clergy joined the National Assembly. The Third Estate had necessitated that all the deputies should verify the credentials of a deputy instead of an estate examining the credentials of their own members, however the other estates did not agree to this. It was said by Necker that the credentials should be verified by self-estates and the king should be the judge. National Assembly The National Assembly played an important role in the French Revolution. Formed by the Third Estates, the Assembly was formed on June 13, 1789 and lasted less than a month till July 9, 1789 and later on the Legislative Assembly (National Constituent Assembly) took its place on September 30, 1791. The King addressed all the representatives of the three Estates on June 23, 1789. The members chose not to speak throughout the speech of the king and when he concluded and asked them to leave all the clergy and nobles left but the deputies of the common people did not go. Honore Gabriel Riqueticomte de Mirabeau said that the assembly was surrounded by a military force (the armies belonged to the king) and questioned whether the enemies were at the gate. He necessitated that an investigation done. He added that the king was bound with an oath and unless a constitution formed the king couldn’t leave. The deputies were fixed on their thoughts. The assembly was joined by 47 more members of the nobility along with Duke of Orleans. The Estates General was now the National Assembly but the deputies remained the same. Versailles and Paris was surrounded by the troops. The National Constituent Assembly which was the reconstituted from National Assembly requested the king to remove the troops which had surrounded the cities. King Louis said that the troops were for safety measures and he alone had the authority to judge whether or not troops were required in the city. The people got angry because of the presence of the armies in the cities and triggered the Storming of Bastille which marked French Revolution. Constitutional Monarchy and the Revolution Storming of Bastille When the king suddenly replaced Prime Minister Jacques Necker with Baron de Breteuil, the National Assembly was alarmed and discussed about creation of the ‘Bourgeois Guard’. The National Assembly declared on July 13, 1789 that a ‘Bourgeois Militia’ would be formed. The newly formed militia needed weapons who then stormed the ‘Les Invalides’ which is a compound of many buildings which are related to military history of France. Public displays of anger already began on July 12, 1789. The crowd of common people came face to face with the Royal German Cavalry Regiment, another group of soldiers was released on the crowd by Prince de Lambesc at Place Louis XV. The commander of the Royal troops Baron de Besenval dreaded that his people would massacre the crowd who were not even armed properly. He withdrew his cavalry and led them towards Sevres. The crowd grew crazier by the day and began to bootee any place where there were guns, food or supplies were squirreled. The Royal troops were silent when there was bedlam in the society. The militia then raged in Bastille which is known as ‘Storming of Bastille’. On July 14, 1789 the once empty prison in Bastille was armed to face the crowd. The people asked for the prison to be surrendered and the arms and gunpowder in it given to them. Two representatives were called in the fortress to negotiate. The negotiations were long and the crowd was getting impatient. In the afternoon at about 1:30 the angry crowd rushed in the courtyard while some of them climbed the rook and freed the drawbridge. The soldiers in charge asked the people to move back but there was a situation of utter chaos and the warnings were misunderstood as encouragement to enter the gates. The soldiers started firing and the mob became more violent who thought they were being drawn into some kind of trap. The crowd didn’t pay any heed to their deputies too. The crowd were later on joined by the French Guards who came with two cannons. Although the Royal troops were camped nearby, they did not intervene in the fight. A cease fire was ordered at 5:00 pm by Governor de Launay and he handed over a letter which contained his terms. The crowd refused but the governor had to surrender because he knew he wouldn’t stand a chance with limited food and no water. The gates of the inner courtyard were opened and the fortress of Bastille was freed at 5:30 pm. Governor Marquis de Launey was dragged by the crowd and stabbed to death. The French Guards did not let the crowd harm the regiment who were sent back to their regiment. Lieutenant Louis de Flue gave a full account of what happened in Bastille and the entire culpability was put on the 5000 Royal Troops who were camping in Champs de Mars and failed to take action when Bastille was attacked. Abolition of Feudalism and Declaration of the Rights of Man With so many revolts and rebellions of the peasants, feudalism was already about to end and finally on August 4 and 11, 1789 the through August Decrees National Constituent Assembly eliminated feudalism and privileges. Personal serfdom was finally gone, there were other rights which only nobility had. The tithe which the 10% tax was gathered by the First Estate in the name of Church was also abolished. Some towns, nobles, provinces, cities and clergy lost their special privileges with the August Decrees. Also the peasants were to pay to have the seigneurial dues released and more than one fourth of the farmlands of France were affected by this. A source of income for several landowners – this was also abolished. Some of the other proposals included equality in punishment, anyone could go into public offices, freedom of worship, conversion of tithe into payments subject to recovery and many more. The peasant’s lands were free and did not have to pay compulsory taxes. The decisions which were made during August, 1789 endured and were made a part of the books of modern government of France. The entire aristocratic society was shattered. They no longer had any privileges. Individuals were free to do anything which was not prohibited by the law. The old system of law was structured on 13 regional parliaments was deferred in the month of November, 1789 and by September 1790 it was abolished completely. The pillars of the old government were demolished overnight. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was published on August 26, 1789 which consisted of a declaration of values more than a constitution with lawful effect. The National Constituent Assembly was not only a legislature but also performed the work of a body that draft a new constitution. The October March Another important occurrence in the French Revolution is the October March or as it is commonly known as The Women’s March on Versailles. On October 5, 1789 several French women were seen mutinying over the increased prices and shortage of bread in the market. Their acts were entwined with the undertakings of the revolutionaries who were already looking for political reforms in France. Soon the small group of women had become a crowd of thousands and invigorated by the revolutionary protesters, they looted the city armoury for weapons and paraded to the Palace of Versailles. They surrounded the palace grounds and in a vehement confrontation they put forth their demands in front of King Louis XVI. The palace was raided and the king was forced to go to Paris along with the mob. The mob’s number had increased to 60,000, the mob was merry and they had a nous of victory in them. The mob arrived at the Tuileries Palace which had been abandoned for a long time. The women of Paris were highly appreciated by the people for the act they had undertaken. Mayor Jean Sylvian Baily officially welcomed King Louis XVI to Paris. There were many deputies of the monarch who did go to Paris for they thought the mob was too dangerous for them and some of them went as far as fleeing the country. Dechristianisation of the Church The revolution initiated a huge movement of power from the Roman Catholic Church to the state. For centuries the Church had been powerful and the largest single landowner in France – 10% of French lands were under them. The Church did not have to pay taxes but they took tithe which is a 10% tax on income. This is collected in form of crops from the peasants and a very small portion of this was distributed among the needy. The Church was hated by all and because of this its power deteriorated in the opening of Estates General in May 1789. There were 130,000 members of clergy in the First Estate. August Decrees nullified the Church’s power to impose tithe. To deal with the financial crisis of the nation on November 2, 1789, it was declared that the entire property of the church was at the nation’s disposal. The property of the church was used to support the new currency – assignats. From making payments to the clergy to looking after the sick, poor and orphans everything was taken care by the country. The person who bid the most could buy the land which was being auctioned by the Assembly in December 1789. In a couple of years the value of assignats had decreased by 25%. Next the monastic vows and all religious instructions were liquefied. The nuns and monks were encouraged to go back to their normal lives and several of them got married too. On July 12, 1790, the Civil Constitution of the Clergy was passed which made what was left of the clergy to employeed of the nation. An election system was formed for the parish priests and bishops and a specific pay scale was set for the entire clergy. Catholics were against this election system as it repudiated the Pope’s power in Rome on the Church of France. A group of bishops got together and wrote a declaration which stated that they were unwilling to accept the law. After this act, the National Assembly required all the clergy to take an oath of loyalty. There were some who took the oath while some of them preferred to remain loyal to the Pope in Rome, causing a rift in the Church. Those who swore by the oath were known as constitutional while those who were against it were known as refractory clergy or non-juring. In areas such as Vendee, Brittany and Normandy, there were very few priests who took the oath. This act of the clergy made the civilians furious. With just 24% of clergy loyal to the legislation, people went against the clergy and forced them to exile and many were called traitors and were executed. This Civil Constitution was not accepted by Pope Pius VI in Rome which made the French Church all the more isolated. In 1793, a new Republican Calendar was developed which had 10 weeks making it extremely challenging for the Catholics to remember Saint days and Sundays. The holidays went down from 52 to 37 which had the workers grumbling and annoyed. Dechristianisation was at its peak during the ‘Reign of Terror’ (there is no specific date known of when the terror started but the historians have marked 1794 as its end). During this time there were thousands of priests who were arrested and thrown in prison while several were killed. Churches were trampled and religious images were destroyed. The revolution was such that the people tried to replace the Catholic Church completely. The local festivals were celebrated instead of the religious ones. Cult of Reason was established which was most important step in dechristianisation. The Cult of Reason was established as an opposition to the Church. Its main goal was perfection of humanity through liberty and truth. However this also led to counter rebellions when the local people sometimes counter attacked the revolutionists along with the clergy who were being hunted. There was chaos in the nation. Ultimately the campaign had to be abandoned and this was replaced by Cult of the Supreme Being which was also non-Christian. In years to come Napoleon Bonaparte when was to rule he would have put a stop to dechristianisation and the relationship between the French State and Catholic Church of Rome would have been re-established. This would last till 1905 till the Third Republic would have annulled it. This harassment of the clergy and the Church led to another rebellion within the French Revolution which is known as War in the Vendee. This struggle began in the year 1793 in the region of Vendee. The people of Vendee were not as educated as the Parisians, they looked forward to the ideals of the church to lead their daily lives. They were simple people, however when Paris wanted to take away the influence of the Church from the lives of the people they revolted. The Royal Army, Catholic Army and some local people were supporting this revolt and had to face the military of Vendee and then the Republican armies. There were several battles fought and the Battle of Savenay was the last and decisive where the Republicans won defeating the Catholic and Royal Army. There was a massacre with thousands dead and thousands more executed. No prisoners were kept, each one of them were killed, no women and children were spared. Monarchy was on its brink of extinction and these events assured that it doesn’t come back anymore. France was under a phase of reformation and there would be a new balance of powers which would be for the common people. Intrigues and Radicalism: The groups in the National Assembly began to look more distinguished. Jean Sifrein Maury and Jacques Antoine Marie de Cazales were to become the right wing who were against the revolution. People like Jean Joseph Mounier, comte de Clermont Tonnerre, Pierre VitorMalouet, Comte de Lally Tollendal, Comte de Virieualong with Necker also wanted France to revolutionize but they wanted to follow a British form of constitution. The National Party were the centre and comprised of Bailly and Honore Mirabeau. In the opposition were Adrien Duport Barnave and Alexandre Lameth. Proposing laws and changes was Maximilien Robespierre Abbe Sieyes who was the only one left and also the one who made the agreement for centre and left. Many committees became independent and the National Guards under Lafayette also became an important power. Although the members of the Estates General are selected for a year, after the Tennis Court Oath the members assured to be together till the French Constitution was in place. Although the member is the right said that there should be an election, Mirabeau denied. The French Army was in a complete mess. It was getting difficult to maintain harmony as many soldiers revolted against the aristocratic officers and killed them. One of such rebellions was suppressed by General Bouille but he was accused for his act and called an anti-revolutionary. Many soldiers left the army and went to other countries because of which there were hardly any experienced people left to control the army. Many political clubs also came up during this time. One of the most important ones was a 152 member Jacobin Club. The society was formed mainly for political debates on August 10, 1790. People had different views about the political system and soon differences crept in. In no time there were groups who went ahead and formed separate clubs. There was a new judicial structure formed wherein all the magistrates were temporary and were not responsible to the king. All hereditary offices were abolished and only the monarch was left. People now had the freedom to practise any trade after they bought a valid license because Strikes were now illicit. King Louis XVI’s Attempt to Flee the Country Louis XVI was extremely troubled by the course in which the revolution was going. His brother and his wife said that they should take refuge in other countries. Although there was no particular side that the King wanted to take but he was afraid for his safety and therefore decided to flee from the country just like thousands of aristocrats had done. He planned on going to Austria. General Bouille promised refuge to the King and his family in his camp at Montmedy. On June 20, 1791 the King and his family dressed as servants while his servants dressed as the royals and fled from the Tuileries Palace at night. The cover up did not last long and they were caught at Varennes. Louis XVI was suspended by the Assembly temporarily and both he and his queen were now kept under guard. This had a deep impact on the common people who were further aggravated against the nobility and the clergy. This was a mighty thrust towards building the constitutional monarchy of France. End of National Constituent Assembly and Establishment of Legislative Assembly: Most of the members of the National Constituent Assembly favoured a constitutional monarchy over a republic one. After reaching conciliation, Louis XVI was forced to swear loyalty to the constitution along with an agreement which said that on deferring oath to lead the army against the nation or allow someone to lead an army on his name would lead him having to give up his position. Most of the patriotic clubs and important newspapers were closed down as people were being massacred. Mere difference in thoughts created chaos. Many went into hiding too. In a situation of mayhem within the nation there was another threat and this time it was outside the borders of France. The brother in law of Louis XVI – Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II, Louis’ brother Comte d’Artois Charles Phillipe along with King Frederick William II of Prussia issued the Declaration of Pillnitz. The declaration stated that they would wage war on the country if the French King was not given back his righteous position. Leopold had no intentions on war but still went ahead with the declaration to please Comte d’Artois, however, this declaration raged the French people. What little respect for the foreign monarchs and the threat just seemed to fuel the fire within. The members of the Assembly had initially decided that when a new legislature (Legislative Assembly) would be formed they would refrain from being a part of it. All the constitutional laws which were passed and put it together in one constitution was then submitted to Louis XVI who after his temporary dismissal was restored to his position. The King accepted it and also gave in writing to protect it from any types of foreign attacks. He also would have to execute the written laws at all costs. The Assembly was addressed by the King and was also applauded for his speech. This was the last for the National Constituent Assembly and on September 30, 1791 it was suspended. In a population of 25 million people, about 4 million people cast vote and thus the Legislative Assembly was formed. France would now function as a constitutional monarchy. The King’s powers were now shared with the members of the Legislative Assembly. He had the right to veto and also the power to select the ministers. He had used his veto power against the law which was threatening the emigres (people who fled from France) with death. The law had also proposed that all non-juring clergy should take the civic oath within eight days. The newly set Legislative Assembly had much to witness. There were some members who had called for war against Prussia and Austria and were referred to as the Girondins while those who were against this thought were known as Jacobins or Montagnards. This opposition in thoughts would alienate the members from each other in the coming years. Prussia and Austria had displayed their thoughts on going to war with France and leaders of the Assembly thought of taking advantage of this situation. They thought if they would win the war they would fortify the support of the government. On April 20, 1792 France declared war on Austria. By the end of April they attacked and took over Austrian Netherlands which is Luxembourg and Belgium in the present day. Constitutional Monarchy Fails to Run France: In their effort to administer the country, the Assembly had failed miserably. An unruly navy and army, riots in the nations and an empty treasury was the proof of its failure. They could not consolidate the achievements of the Revolution because of some reasons. They tried to over-rule the Roman Catholic Church by selling all its lands, close down its operations and monasteries and then try to replace all this with a structure which caused dismay among the peasants and the religious people. The King was not happy about the limited powers that he was granted and took help from his foreign monarch allies to have this change altered. These foreign allies when threatened to overthrow France, the people were aggravated and responded with vehemence. The peasants didn’t want to pay any land taxes and their dues to the land owners. The working section of the cities especially Paris were angry about the fact that all the professionals and property owners had confiscated the spoils got from the Revolution. The whole of Paris was against the King and wanted the Assembly to overthrow the king, however the Assembly was diffident in taking such a drastic step. On August 10, 1792 an angry mob of Parisians, rebellions and hundreds of soldiers from all the cities of France went to residence of the King at the Tuileries Palace and attacked the Swiss Guards and killed them. Louis XVI then left the palace along with his family and went to the Assembly who was gathered in the Salle du Manego just opposite the palace. They had now become prisoners and in a session held later during the day the Legislative Assembly suspended the monarchy, most of the deputies present were Jacobins. In response to this act the Duke of Brunswick of Prussia attacked France on August 19, 1792 and surrounded Longwy. The Assembly sent away many non-juring priests to western parts of France as they were danger to France. The peasants got angry over this act and took over Vendee. The government was now dependant on the rebellious communities. The foreign armies were advancing and the Assembly was hunting for traitors within the country. The people of Paris were furious on the Prussian army attack and taking over of Verdun and the peasant uprising. Rumours were spread that the prisoners were plotting with the enemies of the nation. On September 2, 3 and 4, 1792 they ransacked the prisons of Paris and killed around 1500 prisoners. Almost all of them were criminals but many of them were priests too. A revolutionist by the name Jean Paul Marat sent across a letter to all the cities of France stating they should also follow the footsteps of Paris. Almost all the cities killed prisoners and non-juring priests. The Assembly hardly seemed to take any action. There was a huge argument within the Assembly, the people who allowed the attacks were labelled as terrorists. There was a situation of pandemonium in the nation where people were being slaughtered like cattle and the government was unable to handle the situation. This continued to happen till the National Convention was formed. It was the third government in the French Revolution who was given the job to write the new constitution of France. When the team member met on September 20, 1792 they immediately abolished monarchy and made France a republic government on September 21, 1792. September 22, 1792 has been accepted as the start of the first year of the French Republican Calendar. Execution of Louis XVI Followed by Reign of Terror The Prussian and Imperial Armies warned France to wage war if they did not reinstate monarchy and among all this confusion Louis XVI was thought to be the conspirator. January 17, 1793 Louis XVI was sentenced to death for conspiring against public safety and liberty. This sentence was given to him by a closed group of Convention. Louis XVI was simply addressed as Citoyen (citizen) Louis Capet and was to be executed by guillotine on January 21, 1793. Monarchies and conservatives were dumb-struck when they heard about the execution and called in for war against France. The nation was drowning in wars giving an opportunity to the Jacobins to come back to power. However famine and shortage of food throughout the country had made the air of France so bad that no power seemed to control it. Maximilien Robespierre the leader of the Jacobins also had to face the guillotine. In the Reign of Terror there were thousands who were killed in the guillotine some faced trial but thousands lost lives without one. French Constitution of 1793 was adopted by the Convention on June 24, 1793 – this was the first Republican constitution of France. The Jacobins were stronger in power now. The Republican Army began to suppress the revolts. Goods were sequestered from the people who were exiled or were those who opposed the Revolution and this was then distributed among the needy. The situation was slowly bought under control. After Louis XVI’s execution his Queen too followed the guillotine soon. There were many more people such as Brissot, Bailly, Madame Roland etc. who were executed – they were Girondins. In the Reign of Terror although there were many people who died because of their political actions or thinking most of them were dead just because people suspected them for treachery. None were spared! If they did not face the guillotine they were beaten to death by the crowd. The Girondins took control of the French government from July 1794. They began their revenge for all the deaths that Jacobin had caused. Their Jacobin Club was shut down and their revenge is known as White Terror. The Republican Calendar was changed back to the normal seven day weeks. Freedom of religion was granted in one of the laws passed on February 21, 1795 but there were some limitations to it. No religious signs should be displayed outside churches or homes and the bells were not supposed to be rung. By the October of the same year the people became overly enthused about going to church so the government once again like 1790 had to ask the priests to take oaths. In the end of 1794 and beginning of 1795 people once again came to roads especially women when there was shortage of bread. Just like the March on Versailles they went to the Convention who turned the crowd back. This happened once again in the later in May when a crowd pounced on the Convention and killed one deputy in thoughts that they would be heard, but the Convention paid no heed to what they had to say. The angry Convention banned all the women from partaking in any political events and all the deputies who had supported this act were executed. Street fighting was tolerated no more! France had now made peace with both Spain and Prussia and earlier in 1794 had conquered Belgium and the Dutch Republic in 1795. The Directory and Coup The Constitution of the Year III was passed by the Convention on August 25, 1795 and took effect on September 27, 1795. There were two Chambers one was the ‘Council of 500’ who made the laws and the other was ‘Council of Elders’ who studied and passed the laws, one-third of the Chambers would have to be renewed every year. There were five directors had the executive power. They tried to pull back the nation together but the situation was extremely bad although some effects did take place. In one of the coups on November 9 and 10, 1799 the five directors of the Convention were replaced by three Consuls which comprised of – Sieyes, Napoleon and Roger Ducos. In the name of French Revolution more than half of the Italy was conquered by Napoleon by 1799. France now had many satellites who had to pay huge subsidies. The governmental and political systems were modernized and Piedmont and Belgium were important parts of France. In the coming years the Bourbons were restored to the throne and the brother of Louis XVI – Louis XVIII was made the King. France is now a Republic form of government. The Prime Minister is the head of government and along with his group of ministers, he sees to the affairs of the government. The appointment is done by the President of the nation. Although there were many evils of the society which came to an end in the Revolution there were thousands of lives that were taken in this Revolution. The Revolution of France is a perfect example where the power of common man is witnessed. Besides France, there were more countries who benefitted out of this revolt especially Italy. It was a Revolution of mortality.

Contents

Biography

His wife Anna Cetner (Zetzner) by Pietro Labruzzi
His wife Anna Cetner (Zetzner) by Pietro Labruzzi

Born on 25 September 1751 in Versailles, France, Charles Eugène was a peer of France and Prince of Lorraine. Styled as the Prince of Lambesc. One of four children, he had a younger brother and two younger sisters. Through his sister, Joséphine of Lorraine, he was an uncle of Charles Emmanuel, Prince of Carignan and great uncle of the future King Charles Albert of Sardinia.[citation needed]

He married twice; firstly to Anna Cetner (Zetzner) (1764–1814), whom he wed 20 May 1803. The couple had no issue. He married again to Viktoria Folliot de Crenneville (1766–1845); again the couple had no children.[citation needed]

He defended the royal palace in the riot at the Tuileries Gardens in July 1789. Initially he served in the French army, but at the outset of France's wars with Austria, he picked up the Bourbon cause in Germany. His regiment was taken into service in the Habsburg army in 1793, and he served with distinction in several of the wars of the First and Second Coalitions.[citation needed]

Upon the Bourbon restoration in 1815, his dynastic dignities were restored to him, but due to widespread unpopularity in France, he never returned to exercise his privileges. He died in Vienna in 1825.[citation needed]

Military career

Charles Eugène
AllegianceKingdom of France House of Bourbon
 Habsburg Monarchy
Service/branchColonel-Proprietor – 5th Chevauxleger Regiment: 20 February 1804 – 10 June 1819
Rank• Grand Equerry for Louis XVI, 1775–1791
• General of Cavalry
• Colonel and Proprietor 21st/7th Cuirassier Regiment 22 June 1794 – 21 November 1825
• Captain of the First Arcièren Life Guard: 31 December 1806 – 21 November 1825
Battles/warsFrench Revolutionary Wars
AwardsOrder of the Holy Spirit 1776
• Commanders Cross, Order of Saint Louis <1791
• Commander's Cross, Military Order of Maria Theresa
Order of the Golden Fleece 1808

French military service

The eldest of House of Lothringen-Lambesc served as the King of France's grand equerry.[2] Charles Eugène became Colonel and Proprietor (Chief) of the Royal Allemand-Dragoons in 1778 and was promoted to Marshal of the Camp in the French Army on 9 March 1788. He received the Commanders Cross of the Order of Saint Louis.[citation needed]

Charles Eugène leading the Allemand Dragoons against the mob, 12 July 1789
Charles Eugène leading the Allemand Dragoons against the mob, 12 July 1789

In the early days of the French Revolution, Charles Eugène's Allemand Dragoons were an important element in the protection of the Louis' Court. On 12 July 1789, Charles Eugène rode at the head of his dragoons across the Place of Louis XV into the Tuileries Gardens, against a mob that had gathered there and forced the group out of the garden.[citation needed]

In the course of the attack, many were injured, and Charles Eugène was held popularly responsible, although no charges were filed.[3]

When hostilities between France and the Habsburgs reached a crisis point in 1791, he left his Allemand Dragoons and followed the Bourbon cause with his younger brother, Joseph, Prince of Vaudémont.[4]

Habsburg military service

On 18 June 1791, the prince was appointed major general in the Austrian army. In October 1791, he was given command of a brigade composed of the Freikorps (volunteers) "Degelmann" and 37th Dragoon Regiment in Flanders.[5]

On 1 February 1793, his regiment, the 37th Dragoons, was taken into Habsburg service and in 1798, it was united with the 10th Cuirassier Regiment. At the Battle of Tournai on 22 May 1794, he charged the French infantry on the heights of Templeuve with four squadrons (approximately 1,000 men) of the 18th Chevauxleger Regiment "Karaiczay", cutting down 500 men and taking three guns. On 22 June 1794, he was appointed Colonel and Proprietor of the 21st of Cuirassier Regiment in recognition of his actions. In the Battle of Fleurus, on 26 June 1794, he charged with four squadrons of 5th Carabiners Albert to rescue part of Campaign Marshal Count von Kaunitz's infantry, which had been surrounded by three French cavalry regiments.[4] This unlikely charge against another cavalry force more than five times its size took the French by surprise; the French cavalry scattered, giving Kaunitz to organize an orderly withdrawal of his own force from the field.[6]

On 4 March 1796, Charles Eugène was promoted to Lieutenant Field Marshal . In 1796 he served in Germany under Field Marshal Dagobert Sigmund von Wurmser in the Army of the Upper Rhine; on 11 May of that year, he was awarded the Commander's Cross of the Military Order of Maria Theresa Order. He fought with distinction at the Battle of Amberg on 24 August and in the Battle of Würzburg on 2 September, commanding a brigade of cavalry.[6]

In the War of the Second Coalition, the Prince fought in Swabia at the Battle of Engen. After this campaign, the prince was posted to the Habsburg province Galicia, where he was governor general. On 3 December 1806, he was promoted to General of Cavalry and a few weeks later, captain of the First Arcièren Life Guard in Vienna; he was also awarded the Order of the Golden Fleece in 1808.[6]

After the restoration of Louis XVIII, he was created again Peer of France, and his dignities further enhanced by the title Duke of Elbeuf.[4] Louis XVIII furthermore appointed him as a Marshal of France. Because of the popular hostility against him in France, relating to the incident in the Tuileries in July 1789, he never exercised these privileges and he died at the age of 74 in Vienna on 21 November 1825. He had briefly been married to the widow of Count von Colloreedo, but they were divorced after a few months. He had no children, and with his death, and his brother's, the male line of old Lothringen lines of Erbouf, Harecourt, and Armagnac ended.[6]

Ancestry

Sources

Notes and citations

  1. ^ van de Pas, Leo. "Charles de Lorraine, Prince of Lambesc". Genealogics .org. Retrieved 2010-03-21.
  2. ^ Antony Spawforth, Versailles: a biography of a palace. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2008, ISBN 978-0-312-35785-6 p. 157.
  3. ^ (in German) Jens Ebert. "Lothringen". Die Österreichischen Generäle 1792–1815. Napoleon Online.DE. Accessed 23 January 2010.
  4. ^ a b c (in German) Ebert. "Lothringen".
  5. ^ Digby Smith, Lothringen-Lambesc. Leopold Kudrna and Digby Smith (compilers). A biographical dictionary of all Austrian Generals in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, 1792–1815. The Napoleon Series, Robert Burnham, editor in chief. April 2008 version. Accessed 23 January 2010.
  6. ^ a b c d Smith, Lothringen-Lambesc. Accessed 23 January 2010.

Bibliography

  • (in German) Ebert, Jens-Florian. "Lothringen". Die Österreichischen Generäle 1792–1815. Napoleon Online.DE. Accessed 23 January 2010.
  • Smith, Digby. Lothringen-Lambesc. Leopold Kudrna and Digby Smith (compilers). A biographical dictionary of all Austrian Generals in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, 1792–1815. The Napoleon Series, Robert Burnham, editor in chief. April 2008 version. Accessed 23 January 2010.
  • Spawforth, Antony. Versailles: a biography of a palace. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2008, ISBN 9780312357856
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