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Caswell County, North Carolina

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Caswell County
Caswell County Courthouse in Yanceyville
Caswell County Courthouse in Yanceyville
Official seal of Caswell County
Map of North Carolina highlighting Caswell County
Location within the U.S. state of North Carolina
Map of the United States highlighting North Carolina
North Carolina's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 36°24′00″N 79°19′48″W / 36.399997°N 79.33°W / 36.399997; -79.33
Country United States
State North Carolina
Named forRichard Caswell
Largest townYanceyville
 • Total428 sq mi (1,110 km2)
 • Land425 sq mi (1,100 km2)
 • Water3.3 sq mi (9 km2)  0.8%%
 • Estimate 
 • Density56/sq mi (22/km2)
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
Congressional district6th

Caswell County is a county located in the U.S. state of North Carolina. It is part of the  Greensboro-High Point Metropolitan Statistical Area. As of the 2010 census, the population was 23,719.[1] Its county seat is Yanceyville.[2]


Early history

The area was first inhabited by Native Americans possibly as long as 12,000 years ago.[3] The tribes encountered by early Spanish explorers included the Occaneechi and other Siouan-speaking groups.[4]

In 1665, Charles I of England gave all of what is now North Carolina and South Carolina (named for him) to eight of his noblemen. Caswell County was originally part of the land grant belonging to Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon.[5]

Settlement by Protestant immigrants of English and German descent began in the mid-17th century and continued into the 19th century. The majority of the initial settlers were yeoman farmers who owned their own small farms, and few had any slaves. Slaveholders were primarily planters in the area who specialized in growing tobacco as a cash crop on large plantations.[6] The gradual emphasis on tobacco production corresponded with significant increases in the number of planters and slaves in the region.[7]

Caswell County was formed from a northern portion of Orange County in 1777. The newly formed county was named for Richard Caswell who was the first governor of North Carolina after the Declaration of Independence in 1776. Caswell was also a delegate at the First and Second Continental Congresses and a senior officer of militia in the Southern theater of the  Revolutionary War. He led the Provincial Congress' force at the Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge in 1776.[8]

During the prelude to the Battle of Guilford Courthouse in 1781, Lord Cornwallis brought his British forces through Caswell County in pursuit of General Greene, whose "retreat", called the "Race to the Dan", was a calculated ploy. Greene's objective was to extend Cornwallis far beyond his supply base in Camden, South Carolina so that his fighting power would be significantly diminished.

After taking command of the Southern theater in 1780, Cornwallis raided plantations in the Carolinas and Virginia and freed thousands of slaves, with many gaining safe haven as loyalists assisting the British army.[9][10] As he pursued Greene to the Dan River, his troops marched through the Camp Springs area, through Leasburg, which was the first county seat, and through the Red House Church area in Semora, where the fresh grave of Reverend Hugh McAden was vandalized.[11]

By the war's end in 1783, Caswell County had made significant contributions in personnel and materiel. However, it was only marginally a site of actual combat. County natives famous for their Revolutionary War contributions include Lieutenant Colonel Henry ("Hal") Dixon, Captain John Herndon Graves, Dr. Lancelot Johnston, and Starling Gunn.[12]

Nine years after the war in 1792, the eastern half of Caswell County became Person County. After the division, the seat of Caswell County's government was moved to a more central location. The community hosting the new county seat first was called Caswell Court House. In 1833, the name was changed to Yanceyville.[13]

Political leaders

Caswell County has produced notable political leaders throughout its history. These include Donna Edwards, John H. Kerr, John W. Stephens, Anderson Mitchell, Romulus Mitchell Saunders, Archibald Debow Murphey, and Bartlett Yancey, Jr.

At one time it was said that all successful North Carolina legislation had to make its way through Caswell County legislators. For example, Bartlett Yancey was Speaker of the North Carolina Senate from 1817 to 1827, and during part of this time, Romulus Mitchell Saunders was Speaker of the North Carolina House of Commons.

Civil War period

In May of 1861, North Carolina joined the Confederacy, which by then was five weeks into the war against the Union.[14] One of the first acts of the Caswell County Court after secession in July 1861 was to levy a tax "to furnish the [military] volunteers in the county and to support the indigent families of the same."[15] A motion was granted to appoint an appropriations committee for this purpose. The county had already spent $5000 ($154,372.73 in 2021 inflation-adjusted dollars) preparing for the war and authorized obtaining a loan of $10,000 ($308,745.45 in 2021 inflation-adjusted dollars) from either the Bank of Yanceyville or the State Bank of North Carolina, which had a branch in Milton.[16][17]

Residents of the county soon adapted to the realities of war. Men quickly volunteered for service, and by early summer 1861, six companies were in training camps. Later conscription acts took into service some who were less eager to fight.[18]

After four years of bloodshed, the Civil War effectively ended with  Robert E. Lee's surrender at Appomattox in April 1865.[19] The war devastated the South, including and especially Caswell County.[20] In its aftermath, the pattern of life completely changed in the region. For African Americans, it meant freedom from slavery, a brief period of jubilation, and the resumption of hard work coupled with discrimination.[21] For former slaveholders, it meant the loss of the familiar plantation lifestyle and subsequent economic uncertainty. The previously poor small farmer fell into even deeper poverty.[22]

Industrialization and growth

Between the turn of the 19th century and the Civil War, Caswell County witnessed an unprecedented period of industrialization and growth. Around 1830 it began what is called the "Boom Era." During this time, the county saw the development of various flour and lumber mills. It saw the creation of the Milton Cotton Factory and the furniture output of Thomas Day. It saw the Yarbrough Foundry and the Yanceyville Silk Company. It was in Caswell County that the Slade family discovered the bright-leaf tobacco curing process in 1839, which revolutionized the tobacco industry.[23][24]

The tobacco-based economy, and the industries supported by tobacco, enriched many locals. The newly wealthy built impressive homes and sent their children to private academies.[25] Streets were improved and were given names by 1841. Yanceyville became sufficiently wealthy to have its own bank, the Bank of Yanceyville. Fewer banks in the state were better capitalized.[26] The majority of the populace did not share in this wealth, however, as slavery was the basis for much of the prosperity.

By 1856, tobacco overshadowed all other forms of enterprise in the county. Due to the growth of the tobacco industry, which created an expanding need for manual labor, the local slave population grew to 9,355 in 1860 from a total of 4,299 in 1810 and 2,788 in 1800. The white population declined from a peak of 8,399 in 1850 to 6,587 in 1860. This was due to the western migration of smaller farmers who were unable to compete with the larger planters.[27] In 1858, at the tail end of the opulent Boom Era, the construction of Caswell County Courthouse began. It was completed during the onset of the Civil War in 1861.

After the war during the Reconstruction era, the area faced in contrast a decreased standard of living, abandoned land, and insufficient public revenue for services that governments ordinarily provided. In 1870, the Ku Klux Klan began a campaign of intimidation and murder to prevent the area's freed slaves from voting. Wyatt Outlaw's lynching and John W. Stephens's assassination culminated with Governor William W. Holden imposing martial law during the Kirk-Holden War. Confusion, terror, looting, and disorder ensued. Many of the county's leading citizens were arrested for suspected Klan membership by the governor's forces.[28]

When Democrats regained control of the state legislature in 1871, they impeached Holden and removed him from office. He was the first governor in American history to suffer such a fate. The Democratic Party subsequently established white supremacy in 1876. When federal troops left the next year, ending Reconstruction, the stage was set for the passage of Jim Crow laws. Consequently, African Americans went from being free to being economically and socially restricted.[29]

In the years that followed, Caswell County continued its dependence on tobacco and was reluctant to diversify agriculturally. The Second Industrial Revolution in varying degrees passed it by. Other than a few tobacco mills, there was an absence of industry and no railroad. Its population significantly diminished until 1910 when an upward trend began. By then Yanceyville had phone service.[30] In the 1920s, the   Caswell County Board of Education initiated school improvement projects.[31] Nevertheless, it took the Great Depression of the 1930s and its New Deal programs, World War II, and the boom years of the 1950s to substantially reawaken the county.[32]

The economic upswing of the 1950s saw new businesses entering the area. This included the opening of a meatpacking operation in 1956 in Caswell County's southwest corner. The county also attracted textile mills to Yanceyville, which provided needed jobs. Such growth helped the county broaden its tax base, which had been mainly tied to agriculture previously.[33]

During the last half of the 20th century and into the 21st, the economy of Caswell County continued to modernize and experience growth away from traditional tobacco. Entrepreneurship also increased due to its business properties and land primed for development.[34]

Civil rights movement

By the end of the 1960s, Caswell County's public schools were beginning to fully  integrate. A decade and a half earlier in 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Brown v. Board of Education that  racial segregation in public schools was unconstitutional. In later arguments before the Court in 1955 known as Brown II, school districts were given the ambiguous order to desegregate "with all deliberate speed."[35] Like many school boards in  the South, the   Caswell County Board of Education interpreted the Court's ambiguity in a manner that served to delay, obstruct, and slow the process of integrating Black and white students.[36]

The Board of Education's resistance to integration was further emboldened by North Carolina's passage of the Pupil Assignment Act in 1955. The legislation gave local school boards full school placement authority. Driven by the act's power, "all deliberate speed", and the prevailing anti-integration sentiment of the white community, the school district continued assigning children to schools in a segregated manner.[37]

In response to these developments, a contingent of 15 African American parents began protesting school placement on the basis of race. They sent petitions to the school district in 1955 that the board then ignored.[38] This prompted a series of legal actions. The NAACP subsequently filed a  federal lawsuit in 1956 petitioning for integration to begin at previously all-white schools in Caswell County.[39]

In August 1957, 43 students and their families, many of whom were plaintiffs in the federal court case, applied for admission to public schools that were closer to their homes than the segregated ones they had been assigned.[40] The school board denied their applications and continued to reject them through 1962.[41] Nevertheless, the integration lawsuit kept moving forward.

In December 1961, U.S. District Court Judge Edwin M. Stanley ruled that two brothers, Charlie and Fred Saunders, could promptly attend Archibald Murphey Elementary School, a now-closed formerly all-white school near  Milton. When the new semester began in January, however, they did not present themselves for enrollment. The Ku Klux Klan had sent a threatening letter to the Saunders family not that long before.[42]

According to the father's affidavit, the KKK's threats caused him to miss a board hearing on school reassignment that the judge had ordered in August 1961 prior to his final judgment. In his sworn statement, Saunders also conveyed that he would be agreeable to a transfer if his children's protection at Murphey Elementary could be assured.[43]

A year later in December 1962, Judge Stanley found that the school district had been improperly administering the Pupil Assignment Act. He told the school boards of Caswell County and the city of  Durham to allow every schoolchild complete freedom of choice in school assignments.[44] On January 22, 1963, 16 African American schoolchildren enrolled in four of the county's previously all-white schools.[45]

On their first day of school, a group of white men harassed and threatened one of the parents, Jasper Brown, who was a local civil rights  leader and farmer. He was pursued and menaced by the men as he drove home. After a rear-end collision, the other vehicle's driver emerged with a firearm. Fearing for his life, Brown shot and wounded two of the men in an exchange of fire before turning himself in to police.[46][47] Due to the circumstances, Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy was soon informed of the incident.[48]

Several months later, Brown was convicted of assault with a deadly weapon and served 90 days in jail. While awaiting trial, white men bombed his yard.[49] His four children and the 12 others who integrated the county's schools were physically threatened and emotionally abused throughout the semester. Despite requests from the NAACP and concerned families, no police protection was provided. Furthermore, the Board of Education refused to arrange school bus transportation.[50][51]

By late 1967, only 57 African American children out of a Black student population of approximately 3,000 were attending integrated public schools in Caswell County.[52][53] While there had been some faculty integration, the less than two percent enrollment rate in essence preserved segregation. The school district's integration plan had not fostered sufficient desegregation.[54]

The Board of Education's "freedom of choice" plan put the onus of integration on individual African American students and parents, who had to opt to cross the color line themselves.[55] If they did so, they faced social stigma, severe discrimination, and other hardships. Consequently, many families, though supportive of integration efforts, chose to keep their children safe in valued Black schools such as Caswell County High School.[56][57]

The school district's low integration rate resulted in the U.S. Office of Education citing the county in 1966 as one of seven in the state that were not in compliance with its civil rights  Title IV guidelines. The bureau began taking steps to cut off federal funding.[58] The school district was not in full compliance with federal integration standards until 1969.[59] In that year, the Board of Education implemented a plan for complete desegregation after Judge Stanley ordered the school district in August 1968 to integrate starting in the 1969-1970 school year.[60][61][62]

When school integration and consolidation subsequently occurred, Bartlett Yancey High School became the only public high school in the county after Caswell County High School's closure in 1969.[63] The old high school building's educational use was promptly reconfigured. The new integrated facility was named N. L. Dillard Junior High School in honor of the former high school's principal. Integrated elementary schools were established based on zoning.[64]

Depiction in the arts

Writers including Alex Haley and artists such as Maud Gatewood have commented on Caswell County's history in their work. The county was briefly referenced in Haley's 1977 television miniseries Roots. It was cited as the location of champion cock fighter Tom Moore's (Chuck Connors) plantation.[65] When Gatewood designed the county seal in 1974, she added two large tobacco leaves as a symbol of the crop's long prominence in the area.[66]


According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 428 square miles (1,110 km2), of which 425 square miles (1,100 km2) is land and 3.3 square miles (8.5 km2) (0.8%) is water.[67] The Dan River flows through a part of the county. Hyco Lake is an important water source.[68]

Adjacent counties


Historical population
Census Pop.
2018 (est.)22,618[69]−4.6%
U.S. Decennial Census[70]
1790-1960[71] 1900-1990[72]
1990-2000[73] 2010-2013[1]

As of the census[74] of 2000, there were 23,501 people, 8,670 households, and 6,398 families residing in the county. The population density was 55 people per square mile (21/km2). There were 9,601 housing units at an average density of 23 per square mile (9/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 61.07% White, 36.52% African American, 0.19% Native American, 0.15% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.17% from other races, and 0.86% from two or more races. 1.77% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 8,670 households, out of which 31.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.20% were married couples living together, 14.20% had a female householder with no husband present, and 26.20% were non-families. 23.20% of all households were made up of individuals, and 10.20% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.01.

In the county, the population was spread out, with 23.20% under the age of 18, 7.70% from 18 to 24, 30.10% from 25 to 44, 26.00% from 45 to 64, and 13.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.30 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $35,018, and the median income for a family was $41,905. Males had a median income of $28,968 versus $22,339 for females. The per capita income for the county was $16,470. About 10.90% of families and 14.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.30% of those under age 18 and 21.10% of those age 65 or over.


The economy of Caswell County is rooted in agriculture, which continues to modernize and experience growth away from traditional tobacco. There has been a rich history of entrepreneurship in the county due to its business properties and land primed for development.[75]

Caswell County produces agricultural products such as tobacco, soybeans, corn, wheat, oats, barley, hay, alfalfa, beef cattle, sheep, swine, and chickens. Manufactured goods include clothing, textiles, and electronics. The county also produces several minerals, such as mica, microcline, beryl, graphite, corundum, and soapstone.[76]

Caswell County is also home to two industrial parks: Pelham Industrial Park located in Pelham and Caswell County Industrial Park located in Yanceyville.[77] CoSquare, a coworking space that offers several business possibilities for entrepreneurs, is located in Yanceyville's downtown historic district.[78]

The county benefits from its proximity to the greater Piedmont Triad area, Danville, Virginia, and the Research Triangle. Residents have access to a host of goods, services, attractions, and employment in the region. Caswell County receives economic activity in kind from these neighboring areas.

Government and politics

Caswell County's government consists of 28 departments, an elected board of commissioners, a clerk to the board, and an appointed county manager.[79] The county has additional central administration, Cooperative Extension, E-911, and Juvenile Crime Prevention Council staff.[80] Caswell County is a member of the Piedmont Triad Regional Council.[81]

Presidential elections results
Presidential elections results[82]
Year Republican Democratic Third parties
2020 58.8% 7,089 40.3% 4,860 0.9% 102
2016 54.4% 6,026 43.3% 4,792 2.3% 252
2012 50.7% 5,594 48.5% 5,348 0.9% 97
2008 48.0% 5,208 51.1% 5,545 1.0% 109
2004 51.6% 4,868 48.1% 4,539 0.3% 30
2000 50.7% 4,270 48.6% 4,091 0.7% 61
1996 40.6% 3,310 52.9% 4,312 6.6% 536
1992 33.4% 2,793 56.5% 4,725 10.1% 845
1988 43.9% 3,299 55.8% 4,189 0.3% 21
1984 48.8% 3,992 50.9% 4,157 0.3% 25
1980 37.3% 2,156 61.1% 3,529 1.6% 92
1976 32.1% 1,761 67.5% 3,707 0.4% 21
1972 59.7% 2,983 38.4% 1,922 1.9% 96
1968 17.2% 1,036 35.5% 2,137 47.3% 2,851
1964 41.6% 1,793 58.4% 2,513
1960 31.0% 1,272 69.0% 2,832
1956 32.8% 1,204 67.2% 2,468
1952 27.3% 973 72.8% 2,597
1948 14.6% 351 68.8% 1,651 16.6% 397
1944 20.4% 492 79.6% 1,923
1940 13.1% 351 86.9% 2,335
1936 7.7% 207 92.3% 2,493
1932 8.3% 169 91.4% 1,858 0.3% 6
1928 44.5% 749 55.6% 936
1924 30.2% 467 69.5% 1,075 0.3% 4
1920 29.0% 505 71.0% 1,239
1916 28.5% 338 71.5% 849
1912 17.0% 154 78.0% 705 5.0% 45


Primary and secondary education

The Caswell County public school system has six schools ranging from pre-kindergarten to twelfth grade. The school district operates one high school (Bartlett Yancey High School), one middle school, and four elementary schools.[83]

Higher education

Piedmont Community College has an extension site at the Public Safety Training Center in Yanceyville.[84]


Outdoor recreation

The Caswell County Parks and Recreation Department offers a variety of sports and activities, especially for children.

The county's recreational areas include:[85]

  • Caswell County Rec & Parks
  • Maud Gatewood Memorial Park
  • S.R. Farmer Lake
  • Caswell Community Arboretum
  • Caswell Pines Golf Course
  • Caswell Gamelands Camping and Archery
  • Animal Park at the Conservators Center
  • Hyco Lake
  • South Hyco Creek

The Cherokee Scout Reservation operates a nationally accredited Boy Scouts camp near S.R. Farmer Lake.[86]

Cultural attractions

Caswell County hosts two major festivals a year: the "Bright Leaf Hoedown" and the "Spring Fling".[87] The "Hoedown" is a one-day outdoor festival held in late September in downtown Yanceyville. It features local food vendors, live entertainment, crafts, and non-profit organizations, usually drawing more than 5,000 guests.[88][89] The "Spring Fling" is a two-day event and is held on a weekend in late April or early May on the grounds of the Providence Volunteer Fire Department.[90]

The Caswell County Historical Association hosts its annual Heritage Festival in Yanceyville every May. The festival celebrates county history through tours, living history reenactments, games, vendors, and live music.[91]

Downtown Yanceyville's  historic district features  an antebellum courthouse designed by William Percival and several other antebellum houses and buildings.

Caswell County's cultural attractions also include:[92][93]

  • Union Tavern, the workshop of  Thomas Day, a  free Black furniture craftsman and cabinetmaker who worked in Milton
  • Bartlett Yancey House
  • Richmond-Miles Museum
  • Yanceyville Museum of Art
  • Caswell Council for the Arts
  • Yanceyville Pavillion
  • Gunn Memorial Public Library
  • Thomas Day House Annual Heritage Tour of Homes
  • The Milton Old-Fashioned Fourth of July Celebration


The Caswell County Civic Center in Yanceyville has a full-size professionally equipped stage, a 912-seat auditorium, and meeting and banquet facilities for up to 500. The Civic Center also has accessories for concerts, theatre, and social functions as well as a lobby art gallery.[94]

The Caswell County Senior Center in Yanceyville has recreational and fitness facilities that were built in 2009.[95]


Map of Caswell County, North Carolina with municipal and township labels
Map of Caswell County, North Carolina with municipal and township labels


Unincorporated communities


  • Anderson
  • Hightowers
  • Leasburg
  • Locust Hill
  • Providence
  • Milton
  • Pelham
  • Stoney Creek
  • Yanceyville




Major highways


Danville Amtrak station, located 13.9 miles (22 km) north of Yanceyville

Public transit

  • Caswell County Area Transportation System (CATS)[96]


Notable people

See also


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  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on 2011-05-31. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
  3. ^ "North Carolina's First Colonists: 12,000 Years Before Roanoke". Retrieved July 11, 2021.
  4. ^ "Caswell County". Retrieved July 11, 2021.
  5. ^ "Caswell County: The First Century, 1777-1877" (PDF). Retrieved August 2, 2021.
  6. ^ "Agricultural Economy of Antebellum Life". Retrieved July 14, 2021.
  7. ^ "Caswell County: The First Century, 1777-1877" (PDF). Retrieved August 2, 2021.
  8. ^ "Caswell, Richard". Retrieved July 11, 2021.
  9. ^ "Abandoned to the Arts & Arms of the Enemy: Placing the 1781 Virginia Campaign in Its Racial and Political Context" (PDF). Retrieved August 4, 2021.
  10. ^ "African Americans and the Revolution". Retrieved August 4, 2021.
  11. ^ "History of Caswell County". Retrieved August 4, 2021.
  12. ^ "History of Caswell County". Retrieved August 4, 2021.
  13. ^ "Caswell County". Retrieved July 10, 2021.
  14. ^ "North Carolina in the Civil War". Retrieved July 10, 2021.
  15. ^ "Civil War (1861-1865)". Retrieved July 10, 2021.
  16. ^ "Civil War (1861-1865)". Retrieved July 10, 2021.
  17. ^ "Inflation Calculator". Retrieved July 14, 2021.
  18. ^ "Civil War (1861-1865)". Retrieved July 11, 2021.
  19. ^ "Why the Civil War Actually Ended 16 Months After Lee Surrendered". Retrieved July 11, 2021.
  20. ^ "Civil War (1861-1865)". Retrieved July 7, 2021.
  21. ^ "Black Codes, 1866". Retrieved July 10, 2021.
  22. ^ "Civil War (1861-1865)". Retrieved July 7, 2021.
  23. ^ "Bright Leaf Tobacco". Retrieved July 8, 2021.
  24. ^ "History of Caswell County". Retrieved August 3, 2021.
  25. ^ "History of Caswell County". Retrieved August 3, 2021.
  26. ^ "Historical Sketch". Retrieved August 4, 2021.
  27. ^ "Caswell County: The First Century, 1777-1877" (PDF). Retrieved August 2, 2021.
  28. ^ "Caswell County: The First Century, 1777-1877" (PDF). Retrieved August 4, 2021.
  29. ^ "Reconstruction in North Carolina". Retrieved August 4, 2021.
  30. ^ "A Telephone Map of the United States Shows Where You Could Call Using Ma Bell in 1910". Retrieved August 3, 2021.
  31. ^ "National Register of Historic Places: Caswell County Training School" (PDF). Retrieved August 3, 2021.
  32. ^ "History of Caswell County". Retrieved July 7, 2021.
  33. ^ "History of Caswell County". Retrieved July 10, 2021.
  34. ^ "Business and Entrepreneurship". Retrieved 2021-07-13.
  35. ^ "Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka". Retrieved July 11, 2021.
  36. ^ The "Brown II," "All Deliberate Speed" Decision ~ Civil Rights Movement Archive
  37. ^ "Caswell County History, Web Log - Caswell County, North Carolina: School Integration". Retrieved July 26, 2021.
  38. ^ "Caswell County History, Web Log - Caswell County, North Carolina: School Integration". Retrieved August 1, 2021.
  39. ^ "43 Negroes Seek Entry into Schools", The Charlotte Observer (Charlotte, NC), August 6, 1957, p4-A
  40. ^ "43 Negroes Seek Entry into Schools", The Charlotte Observer (Charlotte, NC), August 6, 1957, p4-A
  41. ^ "Caswell County History, Web Log - Caswell County, North Carolina: School Integration". Retrieved July 11, 2021.
  42. ^ "Caswell Negroes Appeal Step Taken", The Charlotte Observer (Charlotte, NC), January 31, 1962, p12-A
  43. ^ "Caswell Negroes Appeal Step Taken", The Charlotte Observer (Charlotte, NC), January 31, 1962, p12-A
  44. ^ "Judge Rules on School Integration", The Charlotte Observer (Charlotte, NC), December 22, 1962, p1
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  46. ^ "Caswell County History, Web Log - Caswell County, North Carolina: School Integration; Jasper Brown Family". Retrieved July 26, 2021.
  47. ^ "Two Area Men Wounded: Caswell Scene Now Calm", The Daily Times-News(Burlington, NC), January 23, 1963, p1
  48. ^ "Two White Men Wounded in Caswell Integration", The News and Observer (Raleigh, NC), January 23, 1963, p1
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  50. ^ "Suit Claims Pupil Abuse in Caswell", The News and Observer (Raleigh, NC), March 19, 1963, p9
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