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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A carriage in London
Competitive driving in Rennes, France
The National Coach Museum in Lisbon, Portugal

A carriage is a two- or four-wheeled horse-drawn vehicle for passengers. Second-hand private carriages were common public transport, the equivalent of modern cars used as taxis. Carriage suspensions are by leather strapping or, on those made in recent centuries, steel springs. Two-wheeled carriages are usually owner-driven.

Coaches are a special category within carriages. They are carriages with four corner posts and a fixed roof. Two-wheeled war chariots and transport vehicles such as four-wheeled wagons and two-wheeled carts were forerunners of carriages.[1][2]

In the 21st century, horse-drawn carriages are occasionally used for public parades by royalty and for traditional formal ceremonies. Simplified modern versions are made for tourist transport in warm countries and for those cities where tourists expect open horse-drawn carriages to be provided. Simple metal sporting versions are still made for the sport known as competitive driving.

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Coach of a noble family, c. 1870

The word carriage (abbreviated carr or cge) is from Old Northern French cariage, to carry in a vehicle.[3] The word car, then meaning a kind of two-wheeled cart for goods, also came from Old Northern French about the beginning of the 14th century[3] (probably derived from the Late Latin carro, a car[4]); it is also used for railway carriages and in the US around the end of the 19th century, early cars (automobiles) were briefly called horseless carriages.


Early history

Some horse carts found in Celtic graves show hints that their platforms were suspended elastically.[5] Four-wheeled wagons were used in Bronze Age Europe, and their form known from excavations suggests that the basic construction techniques of wheel and undercarriage (that survived until the age of the motor car) were established then.[6][7]

First prototyped in the 3rd millennium BC, a bullock cart is a large two-wheeled cart pulled by oxen or buffalo. It includes a sturdy wooden pole between the oxen, a yoke connecting a pair of oxen, a wooden platform for passengers or cargo, and large steel rimmed wooden wheels.[8][9]

Two-wheeled carriage models have been discovered from the Indus valley civilization including twin horse drawn covered carriages resembling ekka from various sites such as Harappa, Mohenjo Daro and Chanhu Daro.[10] The earliest recorded sort of carriage was the chariot, reaching Mesopotamia as early as 1900 BC.[1][failed verification] Used typically for warfare by Egyptians, the Near Easterners and Europeans, it was essentially a two-wheeled light basin carrying one or two standing passengers, drawn by one to two horses. The chariot was revolutionary and effective because it delivered fresh warriors to crucial areas of battle with swiftness.

Roman carriage

Reconstruction of a Roman traveling carriage richly decorated with bronze fittings, Romisch-Germanisches Museum, Cologne

First century BC Romans used sprung wagons for overland journeys.[11] It is likely that Roman carriages employed some form of suspension on chains or leather straps, as indicated by carriage parts found in excavations. In 2021 archaeologists discovered the remains of a ceremonial four wheel carriage, a pilentum, near the ancient Roman city of Pompeii. It is thought the pilentum may have been used in ceremonies such as weddings. The find has been described as being "in an excellent state of preservation".[12]

Ancient Chinese carriage

Though the exact date of when the Chinese started to use carriages is largely unknown, early oracle bone inscriptions discovered in Henan province show that the carriage had already developed into many different forms. The earliest archaeological evidence of chariots in China, a chariot burial site discovered in 1933 at Hougang, Anyang in Henan province, dates to the rule of King Wu Ding of the late Shang dynasty (c. 1250 BCE). Oracle bone inscriptions suggest that the western enemies of the Shang used limited numbers of chariots in battle, but the Shang themselves used them only as mobile command-vehicles and in royal hunts.[13]

During the Shang dynasty, members of the royal family were buried with a complete household and servants, including a chariot, horses, and a charioteer. A Shang chariot was often drawn by two horses, but four-horse variants are occasionally found in burials.

Jacques Gernet claims that the Zhou dynasty, which conquered the Shang ca. 1046 BCE, made more use of the chariot than did the Shang and "invented a new kind of harness with four horses abreast".[14] The crew consisted of an archer, a driver, and sometimes a third warrior who was armed with a spear or dagger-axe. From the 8th to 5th centuries BCE the Chinese use of chariots reached its peak. Although chariots appeared in greater numbers, infantry often defeated charioteers in battle.

Massed-chariot warfare became all but obsolete after the Warring-States Period (476–221 BCE). The main reasons were increased use of the crossbow, use of long halberds up to 18 feet (5.49 m) long and pikes up to 22 feet (6.71 m) long, and the adoption of standard cavalry units, and the adaptation of mounted archery from nomadic cavalry, which were more effective. Chariots would continue to serve as command posts for officers during the Qin dynasty (221–206 BCE) and the Han dynasty (206 BCE–220 CE), while armored chariots were also used during the Han dynasty against the Xiongnu Confederation in the Han–Xiongnu War (133 BC to 89 CE), specifically at the Battle of Mobei (119 BCE).

Before the Han dynasty, the power of Chinese states and dynasties was often measured by the number of chariots they were known to have. A country of a thousand chariots ranked as a medium country, and a country of ten thousand chariots ranked as a huge and powerful country.[15][16]

Medieval carriage

Horse-drawn wagon, c. 1455
A two-tiered carriage drawn by four elephants

The medieval carriage was typically a four-wheeled wagon type, with a rounded top ("tilt") similar in appearance to the Conestoga Wagon familiar from the United States. Sharing the traditional form of wheels and undercarriage known since the Bronze Age, it very likely also employed the pivoting fore-axle in continuity from the ancient world. Suspension (on chains) is recorded in visual images and written accounts from the 14th century ("chars branlant" or rocking carriages), and was in widespread use by the 15th century.[17] Carriages were largely used by royalty, aristocrats (and especially by women), and could be elaborately decorated and gilded. These carriages were usually on four wheels and were drawn by two to four horses depending on their size and status. Wood and iron were the primary materials needed to build a carriage and carriages that were used by non-royalty were covered by plain leather.

Another form of carriage was the pageant wagon of the 14th century. Historians debate the structure and size of pageant wagons; however, they are generally miniature house-like structures that rest on four to six wheels depending on the size of the wagon. The pageant wagon is significant because up until the 14th century most carriages were on two or three wheels; the chariot, rocking carriage, and baby carriage are two examples of carriages which pre-date the pageant wagon. Historians also debate whether or not pageant wagons were built with pivotal axle systems, which allowed the wheels to turn. Whether it was a four- or six-wheel pageant wagon, most historians maintain that pivotal axle systems were implemented on pageant wagons because many roads were often winding with some sharp turns. Six wheel pageant wagons also represent another innovation in carriages; they were one of the first carriages to use multiple pivotal axles. Pivotal axles were used on the front set of wheels and the middle set of wheels. This allowed the horse to move freely and steer the carriage in accordance with the road or path.


One of the great innovations in carriage history was the invention of the suspended carriage or the chariot branlant (though whether this was a Roman or medieval innovation remains uncertain). The "chariot branlant" of medieval illustrations was suspended by chains rather than leather straps as had been believed.[18][19] Suspension, whether on chains or leather, might provide a smoother ride since the carriage body no longer rested on the axles, but could not prevent swinging (branlant) in all directions. It is clear from illustrations (and surviving examples) that the medieval suspended carriage with a round tilt was a widespread European type, referred to by any number of names (car, currus, char, chariot).[citation needed]

In 14th century England carriages, like the one illustrated in the Luttrell Psalter, would still have been a quite rare means of aristocratic transport, and they would have been very costly until the end of the century. They would have had four six-spoke six-foot high wheels that were linked by greased axles under the body of the coach, and did not necessarily have any suspension. The chassis was made from oak beam and the barrel shaped roof was covered in brightly painted leather or cloth. The interior would include seats, beds, cushions, tapestries and even rugs. They would be pulled by four to five horses.[20]

Under King Mathias Corvinus (1458–90), who enjoyed fast travel, the Hungarians developed fast road transport, and the town of Kocs between Budapest and Vienna became an important post-town, and gave its name to the new vehicle type.[21][22] The earliest illustrations of the Hungarian "Kochi-wagon" do not indicate any suspension, a body with high sides of lightweight wickerwork, and typically drawn by three horses in harness. Later models were considerably lighter and famous for a single horse being able to draw many passengers.[23]

"The Grand Gala Berlin", a coach constructed in Rome for pontiff Leo XII in the years 1824–1826. Gregory XVI requested some important modifications.
A Gala Coupé, ca. 1750–1770; Royal Museums of Art and History, Brussels

The Hungarian coach spread across Europe, initially rather slowly, in part due to Ippolito d'Este of Ferrara (1479–1529), nephew of Mathias' queen Beatrix of Aragon, who as a very junior Archbishopric of Esztergom developed a taste for Hungarian riding and took his carriage and driver back to Italy.[24] Then rather suddenly, in around 1550, the "coach" made its appearance throughout the major cities of Europe, and the new word entered the vocabulary of all their languages.[25] However, the new "coach" seems to have been a fashionable concept (fast road travel for men) as much as any particular type of vehicle, and there is no obvious technological change that accompanied the innovation, either in the use of suspension (which came earlier), or the adoption of springs (which came later). As its use spread throughout Europe in the late 16th century, the coach's body structure was ultimately changed, from a round-topped tilt to the "four-poster" carriages that became standard everywhere by c.1600.[17]

Later development of the coach

The London-Farringdon coach, 1835

The coach had doors in the side, with an iron step protected by leather that became the "boot" in which servants might ride. The driver sat on a seat at the front, and the most important occupant sat in the back facing forwards. The earliest coaches can be seen at Veste Coburg, Lisbon, and the Moscow Kremlin, and they become a commonplace in European art. It was not until the 17th century that further innovations with steel springs and glazing took place, and only in the 18th century, with better road surfaces, was there a major innovation with the introduction of the steel C-spring.[26]

Many innovations were proposed, and some patented, for new types of suspension or other features. It was only from the 18th century that changes to steering systems were suggested, including the use of the 'fifth wheel' substituted for the pivoting fore-axle, and on which the carriage turned. Another proposal came from Erasmus Darwin, a young English doctor who was driving a carriage about 10,000 miles a year to visit patients all over England. Darwin found two essential problems or shortcomings of the commonly used light carriage or Hungarian carriage. First, the front wheels were turned by a pivoting front axle, which had been used for years, but these wheels were often quite small and hence the rider, carriage and horse felt the brunt of every bump on the road. Secondly, he recognized the danger of overturning.

A pivoting front axle changes a carriage's base from a rectangle to a triangle because the wheel on the inside of the turn is able to turn more sharply than the outside front wheel. Darwin suggested a fix for these insufficiencies by proposing a principle in which the two front wheels turn (independently of the front axle) about a centre that lies on the extended line of the back axle. This idea was later patented in 1818 as Ackermann steering. Darwin argued that carriages would then be easier to pull and less likely to overturn.

Carriage use in North America came with the establishment of European settlers. Early colonial horse tracks quickly grew into roads especially as the colonists extended their territories southwest. Colonists began using carts as these roads and trading increased between the north and south. Eventually, carriages or coaches were sought to transport goods as well as people. As in Europe, chariots, coaches and/or carriages were a mark of status. The tobacco planters of the South were some of the first Americans to use the carriage as a form of human transportation. As the tobacco farming industry grew in the southern colonies so did the frequency of carriages, coaches and wagons. Upon the turn of the 18th century, wheeled vehicle use in the colonies was at an all-time high. Carriages, coaches and wagons were being taxed based on the number of wheels they had. These taxes were implemented in the South primarily as the South had superior numbers of horses and wheeled vehicles when compared to the North. Europe, however, still used carriage transportation far more often and on a much larger scale than anywhere else in the world.

Tourists horse-drawn taxis in Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Esfahan.


Carriages and coaches began to disappear as use of steam propulsion began to generate more and more interest and research. Steam power quickly won the battle against animal power as is evident by a newspaper article written in England in 1895 entitled "Horseflesh vs. Steam".[27][28] The article highlights the death of the carriage as the main means of transportation.


Today, carriages are still used for day-to-day transport in the United States by some minority groups such as the Amish. They are also still used in tourism as vehicles for sightseeing in cities such as Bruges, Vienna, New Orleans, and Little Rock, Arkansas.

The most complete working collection of carriages can be seen at the Royal Mews in London where a large selection of vehicles is in regular use. These are supported by a staff of liveried coachmen, footmen and postillions. The horses earn their keep by supporting the work of the Royal Household, particularly during ceremonial events. Horses pulling a large carriage known as a "covered brake" collect the Yeoman of the Guard in their distinctive red uniforms from St James's Palace for Investitures at Buckingham Palace; High Commissioners or Ambassadors are driven to their audiences with the King and Queen in landaus; visiting heads of state are transported to and from official arrival ceremonies and members of the Royal Family are driven in Royal Mews coaches during Trooping the Colour, the Order of the Garter service at Windsor Castle and carriage processions at the beginning of each day of Royal Ascot.



George VI and Queen Elizabeth in a landau with footmen and a postillion, riding on the near wheel horse, controlling both teams of horses. Canada, 1939

Carriages may be enclosed or open, depending on the type.[29] The top cover for the body of a carriage, called the head or hood, is often flexible and designed to be folded back when desired. Such a folding top is called a bellows top or calash. A hoopstick forms a light framing member for this kind of hood. The top, roof or second-story compartment of a closed carriage, especially a diligence, was called an imperial. A closed carriage may have side windows called quarter lights (British) as well as windows in the doors, hence a "glass coach". On the forepart of an open carriage, a screen of wood or leather called a dashboard intercepts water, mud or snow thrown up by the heels of the horses. The dashboard or carriage top sometimes has a projecting sidepiece called a wing (British). A foot iron or footplate may serve as a carriage step.

A carriage driver sits on a box or perch, usually elevated and small. When at the front, it is known as a dickey box, a term also used for a seat at the back for servants. A footman might use a small platform at the rear called a footboard or a seat called a rumble behind the body. Some carriages have a moveable seat called a jump seat. Some seats had an attached backrest called a lazyback.

The shafts of a carriage were called limbers in English dialect. Lancewood, a tough elastic wood of various trees, was often used especially for carriage shafts. A holdback, consisting of an iron catch on the shaft with a looped strap, enables a horse to back or hold back the vehicle. The end of the tongue of a carriage is suspended from the collars of the harness by a bar called the yoke. At the end of a trace, a loop called a cockeye attaches to the carriage.

In some carriage types, the body is suspended from several leather straps called braces or thoroughbraces, attached to or serving as springs.


Beneath the carriage body is the undergear or undercarriage (or simply carriage), consisting of the running gear and chassis.[30] The wheels and axles, in distinction from the body, are the running gear. The wheels revolve upon bearings or a spindle at the ends of a bar or beam called an axle or axletree. Most carriages have either one or two axles. On a four-wheeled vehicle, the forward part of the running gear, or forecarriage, is arranged to permit the front axle to turn independently of the fixed rear axle. In some carriages a dropped axle, bent twice at a right angle near the ends, allows for a low body with large wheels. A guard called a dirtboard keeps dirt from the axle arm.

Several structural members form parts of the chassis supporting the carriage body. The fore axletree and the splinter bar above it (supporting the springs) are united by a piece of wood or metal called a futchel, which forms a socket for the pole that extends from the front axle. For strength and support, a rod called the backstay may extend from either end of the rear axle to the reach, the pole or rod joining the hind axle to the forward bolster above the front axle.

A skid called a drag, dragshoe, shoe or skidpan retards the motion of the wheels. A London patent of 1841 describes one such apparatus: "An iron-shod beam, slightly longer than the radius of the wheel, is hinged under the axle so that when it is released to strike the ground the forward momentum of the vehicle wedges it against the axle". The original feature of this modification was that instead of the usual practice of having to stop the carriage to retract the beam and so lose useful momentum the chain holding it in place is released (from the driver's position) so that it is allowed to rotate further in its backwards direction, releasing the axle. A system of "pendant-levers" and straps then allows the beam to return to its first position and be ready for further use.[31]

A catch or block called a trigger may be used to hold a wheel on an incline.

A horizontal wheel or segment of a wheel called a fifth wheel sometimes forms an extended support to prevent the carriage from tipping; it consists of two parts rotating on each other about the kingbolt or perchbolt above the fore axle and beneath the body. A block of wood called a headblock might be placed between the fifth wheel and the forward spring.

Fittings, furnishings and appointments

Originally, the word fittings referred to metal elements such as bolts and brackets, furnishings leaned more to leatherwork and upholstery or referred to metal buckles on harness, and appointments were things brought to a carriage but not part of it, however all of these words have blended together over time and are often used interchangeably to mean the smaller components or parts of a carriage or equipment.[32]: 7  All the shiny metal fittings on a vehicle should be one color, such as brass (yellow) or nickel (white), and should match the buckle color of any harness used with the vehicle.[32]: 130  Early bodies of horseless carriages were constructed by coachmakers using the same parts used in carriages and coaches, and some horse carriage terminology has survived in modern automobiles.

"We must not forget that the early railway carriages were basically mail-coaches on iron wheels, and the early motor-cars differed from the horse-drawn wagonette or coupe only in so far that there was no horse tied to it." —László Tarr in The History of the Carriage [1]: 295 

  • Upholstery: Seats might be upholstered using leather, broadcloth, or plush fabrics. Elegant carriages might have upholstery-lined walls and ceilings, and button-tucked velvet seats trimmed with gold braid.[33]: 6 
  • Carriage lamps: First used around 1700, oil-powered lamps were used throughout the 1800s, though abandoned in favor of candles in the late 1800s, as oil was messy. Lamps are mounted on lamp brackets and are removable for storage, daily wick trimming, or during daylight hours.[32]: 171–2 
  • Boot: Any of several box-like parts of a carriage used for storage of small items. A boot may be found under the coachman's seat, under the passenger's seat, or behind the body of the carriage between the rear wheels. This led to the use of the term boot in British English for the main storage compartment of an automobile.[32]: 32 [34]: 184 
  • Whip socket: Tubular holder for a whip usually mounted on the dashboard or to the right of the driver.[32]: 295 
  • Whip: A long whip composed of a stiff stick (called the stock), a long flexible thong, and a short lash. The length should be appropriate for the distance from the driver (who is also called a Whip) to the shoulder of the forwardmost horse. With a small pony and cart a whip of overall length of 7 or 8 feet might be appropriate, whereas driving a team of four horses might require an overall length of 17 feet. Driving whips are not "cracked" to make noise, but are a communication aid used by touching the lash on or near the shoulder of the horse.[32]: 294 [35]: 9 
  • Blankets: in cold weather, blankets for the driver and passengers and often horse blankets as well may be carried in a boot.

Carriage terminology

The carriage driver is called a whip. A person whose business was to drive a carriage was a coachman. A person dressed in livery is called a footman. An attendant on horseback called an outrider. A carriage starter directed the flow of vehicles taking on passengers at the curbside. A hackneyman hired out horses and carriages.

Upper-class people of wealth and social position, those wealthy enough to keep carriages, were referred to as carriage folk or carriage trade.

Carriage passengers often used a lap robe as a blanket or similar covering for their legs, lap and feet.

A horse especially bred for carriage use by appearance and stylish action is called a carriage horse; one for use on a road is a road horse. One such breed is the Cleveland Bay, uniformly bay in color, of good conformation and strong constitution. Horses were broken in using a bodiless carriage frame called a break or brake.

A carriage dog or coach dog is bred for running beside a carriage.

A roofed structure that extends from the entrance of a building over an adjacent driveway and that shelters callers as they get in or out of their vehicles is known as a carriage porch or porte cochere. An outbuilding for a carriage is a coach house, which was often combined with accommodation for a groom or other servants.

A livery stable kept horses and usually carriages for hire. A range of stables, usually with carriage houses (remises) and living quarters built around a yard, court or street, is called a mews.

A kind of dynamometer called a peirameter indicates the power necessary to haul a carriage over a road or track.

Competitive driving

A 'marathon wagon' at the 2017 FEI European Championships

In most European and English-speaking countries, driving is a competitive equestrian sport. Many horse shows host driving competitions for a particular style of driving, breed of horse, or type of vehicle. Show vehicles are usually carriages, carts, or buggies and, occasionally, sulkies or wagons. Modern high-technology carriages are made purely for competition by companies such as Bennington Carriages.[36] in England.

Terminology varies: the simple, lightweight two- or four-wheeled show vehicle common in many nations is called a "cart" in the US, but a "carriage" in Australia.

Internationally, there is intense competition in the all-round test of driving: combined driving, also known as horse-driving trials, an equestrian discipline regulated by the Fédération Équestre Internationale (International Equestrian Federation) with national organizations representing each member country. World championships are conducted in alternate years, including single-horse, horse pairs and four-in-hand championships. The World Equestrian Games, held at four-year intervals, also includes a four-in-hand competition.

For pony drivers, the World Combined Pony Championships are held every two years and include singles, pairs and four-in-hand events.

Carriage museums and collections

  • Muhfit (Museo Histórico Fuerte Independencia Tandil), Tandil.[37]
Permanent exhibit featuring carriages of the imperial era at the National Historical Museum of Brazil
Exhibit of carriages in Łańcut Castle, Poland
United Kingdom
United States

Types of horse-drawn carriages

Numerous varieties of horse-drawn carriages existed, Arthur Ingram's Horse Drawn Vehicles since 1760 in Colour lists 325 types with a short description of each. By the early 19th century one's choice of carriage was only in part based on practicality and performance; it was also a status statement and subject to changing fashions.

See also


  1. ^ a b c Tarr, László (1969). The History of the Carriage. New York: Arco Publishing Company. ISBN 0668018712. OL 5682797M.
  2. ^ Piggott, Stuart. Wagon, Chariot and Carriage: Symbol the Status in the History of Transport. Thames and Hudson, London, 1992
  3. ^ a b Oxford English Dictionary 1933: Car, Carriage
  4. ^ Wedgwood, Hensleigh (1855). "On False Etymologies". Transactions of the Philological Society (6): 71.
  5. ^ Raimund Karl (2003). "Überlegungen zum Verkehr in der eisenzeitlichen Keltiké" [Deliberations on Traffic in the Ironage Celtic Culture] (PDF) (in German). Universität Wien. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 April 2008. Retrieved 30 January 2008.
  6. ^ Piggott, Stuart (1983). The Earliest Wheeled Transport. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0801416043.
  7. ^ Pare, C.F.E (1992). Wagons and Wagon-Graves of the Early Iron Age in Central Europe. Oxford. ISBN 0947816356.
  8. ^ "Bullock carts". Singapore Infopedia. Retrieved 17 November 2021.
  9. ^ Wolpert, Stanley (1994). An Introduction to India. Penguin Books India. p. 5. ISBN 9780140168709. OL 24238499M.
  10. ^ Piggott, Stuart (1970). "Copper Vehicle-Models in the Indus Civilization". The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 102 (2): 200–202. doi:10.1017/S0035869X00128394. JSTOR 25203212. S2CID 163967541.
  11. ^ Jochen Garbsch (June 1986). "Restoration of a Roman travelling wagon and of a wagon from the Hallstadt bronze culture" (in German). Leibniz-Rechenzentrum München. Archived from the original (.HTML) on 24 April 2008. Retrieved 29 January 2008.
  12. ^ "Pompeii: Archaeologists unveil ceremonial chariot discovery". BBC News. 27 February 2021. Retrieved 27 February 2021.
  13. ^ Shaughnessy, Edward L. (1988). "Historical Perspectives on The Introduction of The Chariot Into China". Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies. 48 (1): 189–237. doi:10.2307/2719276. JSTOR 2719276.
  14. ^ Gernet, Jacques (1996). A History of Chinese Civilization (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 51. ISBN 0-521-49781-7.
  15. ^ [Mencius · Liang Hui Huang (King the Hui of Liang, Hui is a posthumous name) Volume One] 'The kingslayer of a country of ten thousands chariots, must be the house of thousand chariots. The kingslayer of a country of thousand chariots, must be the house of hundred chariots.' [Zhao Qi's note] Zhao Qi's note: ' Ten thousands chariots, is the son of heaven (King of Zhou).'
  16. ^ [Zhan Guo Ce·Zhao Ce] 'Nowadays, Kingdom of Qin is a country of ten thousands chariots, Kingdom of Liang (Kingdom of Wei, 'Da Liang' is the capital of Wei) is also a country of ten thousands chariots.'
  17. ^ a b Munby, Julian (2008), "From Carriage to Coach: What Happened?", in Bork, Robert; Kahn, Andrea (eds.), The Art, Science, and Technology of Medieval Travel, Ashgate, pp. 41–53
  18. ^ Léon marquis De Laborde. Glossaire français du Moyen Age. Labitte, Paris, 1872. p. 208.
  19. ^ Munby, Julian (2008), "From Carriage to Coach: What Happened?", in Bork, Robert; Kahn, Andrea (eds.), The Art, Science, and Technology of Medieval Travel, Ashgate, p. 45
  20. ^ Mortimer, Ian (2009). The time traveller's guide to medieval England : a handbook for visitors to the fourteenth century. London: Vintage. pp. 133–134. ISBN 978-1-84595-099-6.
  21. ^ "coach". HarperCollins. Retrieved 20 November 2021.
  22. ^ "Coach". Oxford English Dictionary (1st ed.). Oxford University Press. 1933.
  23. ^ "coach (horse-drawn vehicle)". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 20 November 2021.
  24. ^ Munby, Julian (2008), "From Carriage to Coach: What Happened?", in Bork, Robert; Kahn, Andrea (eds.), The Art, Science, and Technology of Medieval Travel, Ashgate, p. 51
  25. ^ Etymology for Coach in Oxford English Dictionary, Second Edition. Oxford University Press, 1989.
  26. ^ Straus, Ralph (1912). Carriages & Coaches: Their History & Their Evolution. London: Martin Secker. pp. 204 ff.
  27. ^ Mechanical Road Carriages: Horseflesh V. Steam. The British Medical Journal, Vol. 2, No. 1823 (7 December 1895), pp. 1434–1435. BMJ Publishing Group
  28. ^ "Mechanical Road Carriages: Horseflesh v. Steam". British Medical Journal. 2 (1823): 1434–1435. 7 December 1895. ISSN 0007-1447. PMC 2509017. PMID 20755870.
  29. ^ "Horse Carriage Parts Horse Drawn Vehicle". Great Northern Livery Company, Inc. 30 October 2003. Retrieved 30 January 2008.
  30. ^ "Basic Carriage Gear Horse Drawn Vehicles". Great Northern Livery Company, Inc. 2 November 2003. Retrieved 30 January 2008.
  31. ^ Patent 9020, 7 July 1841, awarded to Thomas Fuller, a coach-builder of Bath
  32. ^ a b c d e f Walrond, Sallie (1979). The Encyclopaedia of Driving. Country Life Books. ISBN 0600331822. OL 4175648M.
  33. ^ Delin Carriage Company (1911). Vehicles, Harness, Saddles: Direct to you—on approval. (catalog). Cincinnati: n.p. OL 26197453M.
  34. ^ Smith, D.J.M. (1988). A Dictionary of Horse Drawn Vehicles. J. A. Allen & Co. Ltd. ISBN 0851314686. OL 11597864M.
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Further reading

  • Bean, Heike, & Sarah Blanchard (authors), Joan Muller (illustrator), Carriage Driving: A Logical Approach Through Dressage Training, Howell Books, 1992. ISBN 978-0-7645-7299-9
  • Berkebile, Don H., American Carriages, Sleighs, Sulkies, and Carts: 168 Illustrations from Victorian Sources, Dover Publications, 1977. ISBN 978-0-486-23328-4
  • Boyer, Marjorie Nice. "Mediaeval Suspended Carriages". Speculum, v34 n3 (July 1959): 359–366.
  • Boyer, Marjorie Nice. Mediaeval Suspended Carriages. Cambridge, Mass.: The Mediaeval Academy of America, 1959. OCLC 493631378.
  • Bristol Wagon Works Co., Bristol Wagon & Carriage Illustrated Catalog, 1900, Dover Publications, 1994. ISBN 978-0-486-28123-0
  • Elkhart Manufacturing Co., Horse-Drawn Carriage Catalog, 1909 (Dover Pictorial Archives), Dover Publications, 2001. ISBN 978-0-486-41531-4
  • Hutchins, Daniel D., Wheels Across America: Carriage Art & Craftsmanship, Tempo International Publishing Company, 1st edition, 2004. ISBN 978-0-9745106-0-6
  • Ingram, Arthur, Horse Drawn Vehicles since 1760 in Colour, Blandford Press, 1977. ISBN 978-0-7137-0820-2
  • King-Hele, Desmond. "Erasmus Darwin's Improved Design for Steering Carriages—And Cars". Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London, 56, no. 1 (2002): 41–62.
  • Kinney, Thomas A., The Carriage Trade: Making Horse-Drawn Vehicles in America (Studies in Industry and Society), The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004. ISBN 978-0-8018-7946-3
  • Lawrence, Bradley & Pardee, Carriages and Sleighs: 228 Illustrations from the 1862 Lawrence, Bradley & Pardee Catalog, Dover Publications, 1998. ISBN 978-0-486-40219-2
  • Museums at Stony Brook, The Carriage Collection, Museums, 2000. ISBN 978-0-943924-09-0
  • Nelson Alan H. "Six-Wheeled Carts: An Underview". Technology and Culture, v13 n3 (July 1972): 391–416.
  • Richardson, M. T., Practical Carriage Building, Astragal Press, 1994. ISBN 978-1-879335-50-9
  • Ryder, Thomas (author), Rodger Morrow (editor), The Coson Carriage Collection at Beechdale, Carriage Association of America, 1989. OCLC 21311481.
  • Wackernagel, Rudolf H., Wittelsbach State and Ceremonial Carriages: Coaches, Sledges and Sedan Chairs in the Marstallmuseum Schloss Nymphenburg, Arnoldsche Verlagsanstalt GmbH, 2002. ISBN 978-3-925369-86-5
  • Walrond, Sallie, Looking at Carriages, J. A. Allen & Co., 1999. ISBN 978-0-85131-552-2
  • Ware, I. D., Coach-Makers' Illustrated Hand-Book, 1875: Containing Complete Instructions in All the Different Branches of Carriage Building, Astragal Press, 2nd edition, 1995. ISBN 978-1-879335-61-5
  • Westermann, William Linn. "On Inland Transportation and Communication in Antiquity". Political Science Quarterly, v43 n3 (September 1928): 364–387.
  • "Colonial Roads and Wheeled Vehicles". The William and Mary Quarterly, v8 n1 (July 1899): 37–42. OCLC 4907170562.

External links

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