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Carolyn Maloney

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Carolyn Maloney
Carolyn Maloney, official portrait, 116th congress.jpg
Chair of the House Oversight Committee
Assumed office
November 20, 2019
Acting: October 17, 2019 – November 20, 2019
Preceded byElijah Cummings
Vice Chair of the Joint Economic Committee
In office
January 3, 2019 – January 16, 2020
Preceded byMike Lee
Succeeded byDon Beyer
Member of the
U.S. House of Representatives
from New York
Assumed office
January 3, 1993
Preceded byBill Green (Redistricting)
Constituency14th district (1993–2013)
12th district (2013–present)
Member of the New York City Council
In office
January 1, 1983 – January 3, 1993
Preceded byRobert Rodriguez
Succeeded byAndrew Sidamon-Eristoff
Constituency8th district (1983–1991)
4th district (1992–1993)
Personal details
Born
Carolyn Jane Bosher

(1946-02-19) February 19, 1946 (age 75)
Greensboro, North Carolina, U.S.
Political partyDemocratic
Spouse(s)
(m. 1976; died 2009)
Children2
EducationGreensboro College (BA)
WebsiteHouse website

Carolyn Bosher Maloney (née Carolyn Jane Bosher, February 19, 1946) is an American politician serving as the U.S. Representative for New York's 12th congressional district since 2013, and for New York's 14th congressional district from 1993 to 2013. The district includes most of Manhattan's East Side, Astoria and Long Island City in Queens, Greenpoint, Brooklyn, as well as Roosevelt Island. Maloney is a member of the Democratic Party.

Maloney was the first woman to represent New York City's 7th Council district (where she was the first woman to give birth while in office).[1] On October 17, 2019, Speaker Nancy Pelosi chose Maloney to become acting chair of the House Oversight Committee after the death of Elijah Cummings.[2][3] She won the election to succeed Cummings on November 20.[4]

Early life, education and career

Carolyn Jane Bosher was born in Greensboro, North Carolina, on February 19, 1946,[5] the daughter of Christine Elizabeth (née Clegg) and Ralph George Bosher.[6][additional citation(s) needed] She attended Greensboro College. After graduating, she visited New York City in 1970, and decided to stay.[7]

For several years, she worked as a teacher and an administrator for the New York City Board of Education.[8] In 1977, she obtained a job working for the New York State Legislature, and held senior staff positions in both the State Assembly and the State Senate.[8] In 1976 she married Clifton Maloney, an investment banker.

New York City Council

Maloney was elected to the New York City Council in 1982, defeating incumbent Robert Rodriguez[9] in a heavily Spanish-speaking district based in East Harlem and parts of the South Bronx. She served as a council member for 10 years.[10] On the council, she served as the first chair of the Committee on Contracts, investigating contracts issued by New York City in sludge and other areas. She authored legislation creating the city's Vendex program, which established computerized systems tracking information on city contracts and vendors doing business with the city.[11] Maloney also introduced the first measure in New York to recognize domestic partnerships, including those of same-sex couples.[12] She was the first person to give birth while serving as a council member, and the first to offer a comprehensive package of legislation to make day care more available and affordable.[8]

U.S. House of Representatives

Elections

In 1992, Maloney ran for Congress in what was then the 14th district. The district had previously been the 15th, represented by 15-year incumbent Bill Green, a progressive Republican. She won with 51% of the vote. The district, nicknamed the "silk stocking district", had been one of the few in the city in which Republicans usually did well; in fact, they held the seat for all but eight of the 56 years between 1937 and Maloney's victory. But it had been made significantly friendlier to Democrats by redistricting. The old 15th had been more or less coextensive with the Upper East Side, but the new 14th included Long Island City, portions of the Upper West Side, and a sliver of Brooklyn. Maloney also benefited from Bill Clinton's strong showing in the district.[13]

Maloney faced significant opposition from Republican City Councilman Charles Millard in 1994, the year of the Republican Revolution. But she turned back his challenge fairly easily, taking 64% of the vote.[14] She has not faced credible opposition since, and has been reelected eight more times with an average of 77% of the vote. Millard was the last Republican to garner even 30% of the vote in the district.

Even as Maloney consolidated her hold on the district, Republicans continued to hold most of the State Senate, Assembly, and City Council seats on Manhattan's East Side for nearly another decade. Since 2002, Democrats have dominated the area, and now hold all of the area's seats in the state legislature and City Council.[15]

In 2004, Maloney faced a potential Democratic primary challenge from Robert Jereski, a former Green Party political candidate and unsuccessful candidate for delegate to the 2004 Democratic National Convention on the slate of Dennis Kucinich. Jereski opposed the Iraq War while Maloney had initially voted for the resolution to authorize force; she later forcefully renounced the war, including most memorably at a town hall meeting in her district[16] with antiwar Congressman John Murtha. But Jereski failed to qualify for the ballot because his petition was found to have invalid signatures, leaving him four short of the 1,250 required.

In December 2008, Maloney hired a public-relations firm to help bolster her efforts to be named by Governor David Paterson as Hillary Clinton's successor in the U.S. Senate. She toured parts of the state, but was overshadowed by Caroline Kennedy's promotional tour for the same seat. Maloney interviewed with Paterson for 55 minutes. Public opinion polls placed Maloney's support for the Senate seat in the single digits, trailing the front-runner, then-State Attorney General Andrew Cuomo, although her bid was endorsed by the National Organization for Women Political Action Committee, the Feminist Majority Political Action Committee,[17] New York Times columnist Nicholas Kristof,[18] and other columnists[19] and editorial boards.[20]

On January 23, 2009, Paterson chose Representative Kirsten Gillibrand.[21] Many urged Maloney to run against Gillibrand in 2010.[22][23]

Although she had been leading Gillibrand in both the Rasmussen[24] and the Quinnipiac polls,[25] Maloney ruled out a run for the Senate and instead retained her congressional seat.[26] Maloney was the sole member of Congress to endorse Gillibrand's 2020 presidential campaign.

In the Democratic primary for Congress on September 14, 2010, Maloney defeated a well-funded opponent, Reshma Saujani, a 34-year-old Indian-American hedge fund lawyer, by 62 percentage points. Her success was due in large part to a substantial grassroots effort, with volunteers and a motivated field team reaching out to registered voters across the district.[27] That night, Saujani said, "I'm definitely running again",[28] but three months later announced publicly that she would not challenge Maloney again.[29]

In 2012 Maloney's Republican challenger was Christopher Wright, who took a leave of absence from J. P. Morgan to campaign. Maloney won with 80.9% of the vote, a margin of over 120,000 votes.[30]

In 2014 she was challenged by Republican Nicholas Di Iorio who was a "financial contractor with Pfizer."[31] Maloney won with 80% of the vote.[32] In the 2016 Democratic primary, she defeated challenger Pete Lindner with 90.1% of the vote, and won the general election against Republican Robert Ardini with 83.2% of the vote.[33]

In the 2018 Democratic primary, Maloney defeated progressive candidate Suraj Patel with 59.6% of the vote. In the general election she defeated Republican nominee Eliot Rabin with 86.4% of the vote.[34]

In the 2020 Democratic primary, Patel challenged Maloney again, as did progressive Democrat Lauren Ashcraft[35] and housing activist Peter Harrison. Erica Vladimer, a co-founder of New York State's Sexual Harassment Working Group, withdrew from the race before the primary.[36][37] By July 29, 2020, it was revealed that Maloney led Patel by about 4% and 3,700 votes.[38][39] On August 4, 2020, local election officials declared Maloney the winner of the primary.[40][41]

As of April 14, 2021, Maloney is 21st in seniority in the House.

Tenure

In 2009, the National Journal's annual ranking placed Maloney as the 114th-most liberal (or 314th-most conservative) member of Congress, with more liberal scores on foreign policy than on economic and social policy. Her score of 75.5 ranked her as modestly more liberal than the New York Congressional delegation as a whole.[42]

In 2011, a Daily News survey found that Maloney ranked first among New York's 28 representatives for activity with 36 proposed bills, resolutions, and amendments.[43] In the 2013 legislative session, Govtrack.us scored her third among House Democrats for "Leadership," third among all representatives for "Powerful Co-sponsors," third-highest in the New York delegation for "Working with the Senate," and fifth-highest among all representatives for "Bills Sponsored."[44] During the 2014 election cycle, the New York Daily News ran a story that said, "Maloney has proposed more legislation than any other House member, according to records", and called her "James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act, giving compensation to Ground Zero workers who have fallen ill, as big a bill for the New York area as any in the last decade."[45]

For the 2015 legislative session, Govtrack.us scored Maloney first for "Leadership" among House Democrats, based on sponsoring the most bills. It scored her second among all representatives for having the most co-sponsors, second for "Working with the Senate" and fourth among House Democrats for having powerful cosponsors. She was ranked in the top 10% of all representatives for bills introduced ("Maloney introduced 26 bills and resolutions in 2015").[46]

As a U.S. Representative, Maloney was a superdelegate at presidential conventions. In the 2016 election cycle she was an early supporter of former Secretary of State and Senator Hillary Clinton.[47] According to her 2018 GovTrack Report card Maloney ranked in the 80th percentile among House members for getting bicameral support for the bills she has introduced; she ranked sixth among House Democrats.[48]

For her tenure as chair of the House Oversight and Reform Committee in the 116th Congress, Maloney earned an "A" grade from the nonpartisan Lugar Center's Congressional Oversight Hearing Index.[49]

9/11-related issues

Maloney speaks at a press conference with members of the 9/11 Commission and 9/11 families in 2004
Maloney speaks at a press conference with members of the 9/11 Commission and 9/11 families in 2004

Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, Maloney worked to ensure that the Bush administration lived up to its promise to "Never Forget" and maintained its commitment to New York's recovery and security efforts. Her efforts prompted Wayne Barrett of the Village Voice to write that Maloney was "like a tiger in the House on every dollar due New York."[50]

On February 25, 2019, she introduced her Never Forget the Heroes Act, HR1327 in the 116th Congress—a bill to establish Permanent Authorization of the September 11 Victim Compensation Fund Act.[51] The $10.2 billion authorization was signed into law, establishing that both the World Trade Center Health Program and September 11 Victim Compensation are effectively permanent, with the WTCHP authorized to operate until 2090 and the VCF until 2092.[52]

National security issues

After the 9/11 Commission published its findings, Maloney co-founded the bipartisan House 9/11 Commission Caucus[53] and helped write and secure the enactment into law of many of its recommendations to reform the nation's intelligence agencies[54][55] Congressional Quarterly wrote in its annual guide, 2006 Politics in America: "In the 108th Congress, Maloney reached out beyond her usual roles as a liberal gadfly and persistent Bush administration critic, helping win enactment of a sweeping bill to reorganize U.S. intelligence operations."[56]

Following the Dubai Ports World controversy, Maloney helped secure the passage and enactment of her bill to reform the system for vetting foreign investments in the United States.[57][58] She has supported Scientology's "New York Rescue Workers Detoxification Project".[59]

Maloney with State Counsellor of Myanmar and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Aung San Suu Kyi in September 2016
Maloney with State Counsellor of Myanmar and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Aung San Suu Kyi in September 2016

On October 1, 2020, Maloney co-signed a letter to Secretary of State Mike Pompeo that condemned Azerbaijan’s offensive operations against the Armenian-populated enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh, denounced Turkey’s role in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, and criticized "false equivalence between Armenia and Azerbaijan, even as the latter threatens war and refuses to agree to monitoring along the line of contact."[60]

Maloney, who chairs the House Oversight and Reform Committee, called on FBI Director Christopher A. Wray to open a probe into social media platform Parler, writing, "The company was founded by John Matze shortly after he traveled in Russia with his wife, who is Russian and whose family reportedly has ties to the Russian government."[61]

Gun control

In response to a number of high-profile incidents of gun violence, Maloney sponsored two bills to address the issue. The Gun Trafficking Prevention Act of 2013 would make gun trafficking a federal crime for the first time and substantially stiffen the penalties for "straw buyers" who knowingly help convicted felons, domestic abusers, the violently mentally ill and others, obtain guns.[62] A second bill, reintroduced in 2014 and 2015, would require gun owners to maintain liability insurance, just as most car owners must do.

In 2014, she joined Senator Ed Markey in sending President Barack Obama a letter asking him to insert $10 million into the budget for the Center for Disease Control and Prevention to resume research on gun violence and "conduct scientific research on the causes and prevention of gun violence."[63]

Government transparency

In 2008, after reports of corruption among military contractors in Iraq and Afghanistan, Maloney secured House passage of her bill to create a database to better monitor all federal contracts, the key provisions of which were adopted into law as part of the defense budget.[64][65]

In 2010, the Project On Government Oversight, a government watchdog group, presented Maloney with its Good Government Award for her contributions to government transparency and oversight, including her investigations into corruption and mismanagement in the Minerals Management Service and her support of a Federal Contractor Misconduct Database similar to POGO's.[66]

In 2019, Maloney introduced a bill that would require corporate entities to disclose the identities of beneficial owners to FinCEN, making it harder for bad actors to hide assets and avoid taxes through a series of limited liability companies.[67]

Health care

Maloney has taken several actions on health care issues. Her measure to provide Medicare coverage for annual mammograms was included in the Fiscal Year 1998 federal budget.[68] She was a leading advocate for providing federal support for medical monitoring and health care for rescue and recovery workers who were exposed to toxic smoke and dust at the Ground Zero site after the 9/11 attacks.[69] Maloney authored the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act and led the fight for years to push for its passage. In 2010 Obama signed the bill into law. It provides $4.3 billion in federal funds to provide 9/11 responders and survivors with treatment and compensation for their injuries. In June 2012, it was announced that the program would be expanded to cover care for a variety of cancers of the lung, trachea, stomach, colon, rectum, liver, bladder, kidney, thyroid and breast.[70]

In 2015 when roughly 33,000 responders and survivors were battling an assortment of ailments, Maloney led the effort to extend the bill permanently. After a prolonged and very public push, a total of $8.5 billion in funding was included in the Omnibus Spending bill that passed in 2015 and extended the life of the monitoring and health insurance coverage for 75 years.[51] In the 111th Congress, Maloney introduced The Breastfeeding Promotion Act to protect breastfeeding in the workplace under civil rights law and make it illegal for women to lose their jobs or otherwise be discriminated against for expressing milk during lunchtime or on breaks.[71] She has advocated for international women's health and family planning programs supported by the United Nations Population Fund.[72]

A co-founder and co-chair of the Congressional Working Group on Parkinson's Disease,[73] Maloney serves on the board of the Michael Stern Parkinson's Research Foundation[74] and previously served as an honorary board member of the Fisher Center for Alzheimer's Research Foundation.[75]

Maloney has promoted scientifically discredited claims of a link between vaccines and autism.[76] On several occasions, she has introduced legislation that would direct the federal government to conduct studies into the alleged links between autism and vaccines.[77][78][79][76][80] In a 2012 congressional hearing, Maloney equated concerns over a link between autism and vaccines to concerns over a link between smoking and cancer.[76] She said that it was "common sense that [smoking] was bad for your health... The same thing seems to be here with the vaccinations."[76]

Financial and economic issues

Maloney serves on the Committee on Financial Services and the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, and is the Ranking Democratic member of the Joint Economic Committee. She previously chaired the Democratic Task Force on Homeland Security. From 2009 to 2011, Maloney chaired the Joint Economic Committee, the first woman to do so.

Maloney was the author of the Credit Cardholders' Bill of Rights, or the Credit CARD Act of 2009, while serving as chair of the Subcommittee on Financial Institutions and Consumer Credit, in the 110th Congress. A 2014 Social Science Research Network study estimated that since its passage, the CARD Act has saved consumers $11.9 billion per year.[81] Credit card companies fiercely opposed the measure, but it drew praise from editorial boards and consumer advocates.[82][83] The bill was passed as the Credit Card Accountability Responsibility and Disclosure Act by both houses of the 111th Congress, prompting Money magazine to dub Maloney the "best friend a credit card user ever had."[84] Obama signed the Credit Card Bill of Rights into law in a Rose Garden ceremony Maloney attended on May 22, 2009.[85]

Days after voting against cancellation of a $1 billion, 10-year subsidy plan for U.S. sugar farmers within the 2007 U.S. Farm Bill, Maloney hosted a fundraising event that netted $9,500 in contributions from sugar growers and refiners, according to Federal Election Commission records. Her election attorney, Andrew Tulloch, called the timing of the July 31 fundraiser "pure coincidence." The bill passed the House by a 282-144 vote.[86] The Sunlight Foundation pointed out that among the 435 members of the House, Maloney has the ninth-highest amount of investment in oil stocks.[87] She received a perfect 100 rating from the Defenders of Wildlife Action Fund in 2007,[88] a perfect 100 rating from Environment America in 2008[88] and a perfect 100 from the League of Conservation Voters in 2008.[89] And in 2008, Maloney introduced the Minerals Management Service Improvement Act (HR 7211) as a House companion to Integrity in Offshore Energy Resources Act (S. 3543). The legislation would impose dramatically tougher ethics rules for the Minerals Management Service, which was at the center of a major corruption scandal stemming from its employees' relationships with oil company representatives.[90]

Women's, children's and family issues

Maloney, Debbie Wasserman Schultz, and Joe Crowley speak out on the need to keep birth control safe and legal in 2005
Maloney, Debbie Wasserman Schultz, and Joe Crowley speak out on the need to keep birth control safe and legal in 2005
Maloney with President George W. Bush at the proclamation signing for Women's History Month in 2008
Maloney with President George W. Bush at the proclamation signing for Women's History Month in 2008

Maloney has been active on many other issues involving women, children and families since the beginning of her career.[10] A former co-chair of the House Caucus on Women's Issues, she authored and helped secure the enactment into law of a measure to provide federal funding to clear the backlog of rape kits for which evidence had been collected, but never entered into law enforcement DNA databases. The Rape Abuse and Incest National Network called it "the most important anti-rape legislation ever considered by Congress".[91] Maloney's bill, included in the Justice for All Act of 2005, was named the Debbie Smith Act in honor of Debbie Smith, a rape survivor. The effort to enact the bill was later the subject of a Lifetime Television movie, A Life Interrupted: The Debbie Smith Story,[92] in which Maloney was played by Lynne Adams. Maloney also co-authored and helped secure passage of bipartisan legislation to curb the demand for sex trafficking.[93]

Maloney introduced the Child Care Affordability Act of 2007 to increase access to child care by providing tax credits.[94] Her amendment to a foreign aid bill succeeded in securing $60 million in funding for programs for Afghan women and girls and to help establish an Afghan commission on human rights.[95] She is the chief House sponsor of the Equal Rights Amendment.[96] In 2008 and again in 2009, Maloney authored, and secured House passage of, a bill to provide four weeks of paid parental leave to federal employees.[97][98]

In 2011, Maloney sponsored the Campus Sexual Violence Elimination Act, known as the Campus SaVE Act. It became part of the reauthorization of the Violence Against Women Act of 2013. The measure guarantees counseling, legal assistance, and medical care on campuses for victims of sexual assault, establishes minimum, national standards for schools to follow in responding to allegations of sexual assault and sexual violence, and makes explicit that schools must provide to both the alleged perpetrator and the alleged victim the same rights, including access to advisers, written notifications, as well as appeals processes during campus disciplinary proceedings.[99]

District issues

Maloney has helped secure funding for major mass transit projects, resulting in the commitment of billions of federal dollars for New York State.[100][101] She has been hailed as a champion of the Second Avenue Subway.[101][102]

Maloney co-sponsored the 2009 reintroduction of the Fair Copyright in Research Works Act (H.R. 801, originally introduced as H.R. 6845 in 2008) and the Research Works Act (H.R. 3699) introduced in 2011. Both bills aim to reverse the NIH's Public Access Policy,[103] which mandates open access to NIH-funded research.[104] Some scientists criticized the Association of American Publishers-backed Research Works Act. In a New York Times op-ed, Michael Eisen said the bill would force the public to pay $15–$30 per paper to read the results of research they had already paid for as taxpayers.[105] (Such results must now be published in Pubmed Central (PMC) after an embargo period of up to 12 months; this embargo period was imposed to minimize financial harm to publishers who were concerned that their readership would diminish if the results appeared concurrently in PMC, though authors of the paper are required to submit their papers to PMC as soon as their paper gets accepted for publication by a peer-review journal.) Some have suggested that Maloney supports the measure because she is the recipient of campaign contributions from Elsevier, the largest scholarly publishing company.[105][106] On February 27, 2012, following a boycott of the organization, Maloney wrote to her constituents, "it is important to be mindful of the impact of various industries on job creation and retention. New York State is home to more than 300 publishers that employ more than 12,000 New Yorkers, many of whom live in or around New York City in my district. New York City scientific publishers represent a significant subset of the total, and more than 20 are located in Manhattan, publishing thousands of scientific journals and employing thousands of New Yorkers."[107] Elsevier withdrew its support for the legislation.[108][109]

In 2021, Maloney protested the expansion of the New York Blood Center, a nonprofit biomedical research facility, from a three story-headquarters to a 16-story tower on Manhattan's Upper East Side.[110]

Committee assignments

Caucus memberships

Controversies

Wearing burqa on House floor

Carolyn Maloney gives a speech while donning an Afghan burqa on October 16, 2001
Carolyn Maloney gives a speech while donning an Afghan burqa on October 16, 2001

On October 16, 2001, Maloney wore an Afghan burqa while giving a speech in the United States House of Representatives in support of Afghan women's rights and American military involvement against the Taliban.[120][121] It was the first time an Islamic veil had been worn on the House floor, and was technically not allowed under an unenforced 1837 hat ban.[122]

In a 2018 Foreign Policy article, Rafia Zakaria, a Pakistani-American feminist author and journalist, called Maloney's display "theatrical" and an example of "American feminist exceptionalism, in which American women—intrepid and veil-free—are beacons of freedom with a duty to evangelize their particular brand of empowerment, even if it means using bombs."[123] Rana Abdelhamid, a Muslim community activist and congressional candidate in 2022, noted that it fueled post-9/11 islamophobia and cited her experience two years after the incident when a man tried grabbing her hijab in Queens.[124] Abdelhamid told The Guardian that "[Maloney] wore a burqa on the House floor as a costume. When you look at the time in which she did that, as hijab-wearing women, we were afraid to walk down the street”.[125]

Use of the N-word

On July 20, 2009, Maloney apologized after saying the ethnic slur "nigger" while quoting a phone call she had received about U.S. Senator Kirsten Gillibrand in an interview with City Hall News.[126] At the time, she was a week away from announcing an official campaign against Gillibrand in the 2010 United States Senate Democratic Primary election in New York.[127] The quote, as reported by The Atlantic,[128] was:

"In fact, I got a call from someone from Puerto Rico, said [Gillibrand] went to Puerto Rico and came out for English-only [education]. And he said, 'It was like saying n—-——r to a Puerto Rican,'"

Civil rights activist Al Sharpton criticized the remark and called Maloney's casual use of the word "alarming" but said he did not believe she was racist.[129][127] She apologized and dropped out of the race on August 7, 2009, reportedly for different reasons.[130]

Personal life

Maloney and her husband, Clifton Maloney, raised two daughters, Christina and Virginia. Her husband, who ran the New York City Marathon 20 times, was believed at the time to be the oldest American ever to summit an "eight-thousander",[131] a mountain over 8,000 meters in altitude. He died on a climbing expedition on September 25, 2009, after descending over 4,000 feet from the summit of the world's sixth-tallest peak, Cho Oyu in Tibet.[132][133] Maloney is a member of The Junior League of the City of New York.

Scores by interest groups

Maloney's ratings from various interest groups include the following:[134]

See also

References

  1. ^ "About Congresswoman Carolyn B. Maloney". Congresswoman Carolyn Maloney. October 17, 2019.
  2. ^ "Maloney to be acting House oversight chair after Cummings death aide". Reuters. October 17, 2019.
  3. ^ "'There can be no slowdown': Dems keep up impeachment push while mourning Cummings". Politico. October 17, 2019. Retrieved October 18, 2019.
  4. ^ Ferris, Sarah (November 20, 2019). "Rep. Carolyn Maloney wins election to chair House Oversight Committee". Politico. Retrieved November 20, 2019.
  5. ^ "MALONEY, Carolyn Bosher 1946–". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved April 14, 2021.
  6. ^ "Miss Bosher, Clifton Maloney Marry in South". The New York Times. May 16, 1976. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 14, 2021.
  7. ^ Janofsky, Michael (December 26, 1992). "For Maloney, a New Arena, but the Same Style". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 14, 2021.
  8. ^ a b c "About Congresswoman Carolyn B. Maloney - Early Career". Congresswoman Carolyn Maloney. December 11, 2012.
  9. ^ "website as viewed on 9/29/2009". Ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved January 11, 2012.
  10. ^ a b Janofsky, Michael (December 26, 1992). "For Maloney, a New Arena, but the Same Style". The New York Times. Retrieved January 11, 2012.
  11. ^ Lyall, Sarah "2 Run on Records in Silk Stocking District". Retrieved August 7, 2018. The New York Times October 25, 1992
  12. ^ Lee, Felicia R., "Bill Would Give Unwed Couples Equal Benefits", The New York Times, November 21, 1990.
  13. ^ Lyall, Sarah (November 10, 1992). "In Redrawn District, What Went Wrong for Green in Election". The New York Times. New York City, NY. Retrieved June 1, 2019.
  14. ^ "The 1994 Election: New York State; New York Congressional Results". The New York Times. November 9, 1994.
  15. ^ Sargent, Greg; Benson, Josh (November 17, 2002). "Here's One Place GOP Curled Up: Our Fair Island". New York Observer. Archived from the original on October 4, 2008. Retrieved June 27, 2008.
  16. ^ Smith, Chad, "After Supporting War, Maloney Calls for Pullout", The Villager, April 12–18, 2006 [1] Archived August 15, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  17. ^ "Women's Groups Endorse Carolyn Maloney for Clinton's Senate Seat," National Organization for Women "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 25, 2009. Retrieved September 23, 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  18. ^ Kristof, Nicholas, "For Senate, Caroline or Carolyn?", The New York Times, December 17, 2008 [2]
  19. ^ Baldwin, Alec, "Paterson Must Appoint A Woman", The Huffington Post, December 11, 2008 [3]
  20. ^ "Maloney Is Best Choice for U.S. Senate", Queens Gazette editorial, December 3, 2008 [4].
  21. ^ "Sources: Gillibrand to get Clinton's Senate seat", NBC News, January 23, 2008
  22. ^ "It's Called Democracy: Democrats Should Welcome All Comers Intro Primary for U.S. Senate," New York Daily News editorial, June 17, 2008 [5][permanent dead link]
  23. ^ "Run, Carolyn, Run", New York Post editorial, July 3, 2009.
  24. ^ "kernel (20) - Rasmussen Reports™". September 12, 2012. Archived from the original on September 12, 2012. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  25. ^ Quinnipiac University - Office of Public Affairs (June 24, 2009). "New York Governor's Disapproval Bottoms Out At 2 - 1, Quinnipiac University Poll Finds; Cuomo Holds 3 - 1 Lead In Dem Primary Race For Gov". Quinnipiac University. Archived from the original on July 26, 2011. Retrieved January 11, 2012.
  26. ^ Hernandez, Raymond, "Recognizing Long Odds, Maloney Drops Her Senate Bid", The New York Times, August 7, 2009 "Maloney Drops Out".
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