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Mapes in 1939
Mapes in 1939

Carl Edgar Mapes (December 26, 1874 – December 12, 1939) was a politician from the U.S. state of Michigan.

Mapes was born on a farm near Kalamo, Michigan, to Selah W. and Sarah Ann (Brooks) Mapes. His father was born in New York and came with his parents at the age of seven to Kalamo Michigan, where he became a county district schoolteacher and held various township offices. He was also president of the Barry and Eaton County Farmers Mutual Fire Insurance Company and the Michigan Tornado and Cyclone Insurance Company. Sarah Ann was from Washtenaw County and was married to Selah Mapes on April 12, 1887. Selah and Sarah Ann moved to Olivet in 1887.

Carl Mapes attended the common schools of Olivet and graduated from Olivet College in 1896. He graduated from the law department of the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor in 1899, was admitted to the bar that same year and commenced the practice of law in Grand Rapids. In 1901, he became assistant prosecuting attorney of Kent County, serving until January 1, 1905, when he began a term in the Michigan House of Representatives, representing the 1st district in Kent County. He was an unsuccessful candidate for re-nomination in 1906. In 1908, he was elected to the Michigan Senate from the 16th district, and served from 1909 to 1912.

In 1912, Mapes defeated incumbent Democrat U.S. Representative Edwin F. Sweet to be elected as a Republican from Michigan's 5th congressional district to the 63rd United States Congress. He was re-elected to the thirteen succeeding Congresses, serving from March 4, 1913, until his death in New Orleans, Louisiana on December 12, 1939. During the 66th Congress, he served as chairman of the Committee on the District of Columbia.

Mapes married Miss Julia Pike, the daughter of Abram and Eliza (Roberts) Pike of Grand Rapids on August 14, 1907. They had four children, Robert W., John Pike, Jane Elizabeth, and Ruth. Mapes belonged to the Park Congregational Church and was a member of the Freemasons, Odd Fellows and Woodmen. He is interred in Oak Hill Cemetery, Grand Rapids, Michigan. He was interred at Oak Hill Cemetery in Grand Rapids.

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[MUSIC PLAYING] [APPLAUSE] THOMAS MILES: Please be seated. Members of the Class of 2018, family, friends, welcome to the 20th annual hooding ceremony of the University of Chicago Law School. Today is a day to celebrate the achievements of you, the Class of 2018. And you have accomplished a great deal. It was not long ago that you first came to the Law School and had your first class. That class may have been your first class in any form of graduate education and was likely your first encounter with the Socratic method. You may remember approaching that first class with a sense of excitement, curiosity, even some nerves. In that first class, or shortly thereafter, you encountered two ships with the same name bound for Liverpool, the staff of a commission shoe salesman seeking to avoid a state tax and a woman on a train platform that also had a set of scales. Your encounters with these cases, and many others, were then the focus of your close study and perhaps were sources of confusion, even anxiety. Now these cases prompt a nod of recognition and perhaps even a touch of nostalgia. These cases have become old friends. For those of you who are earning your LLM or MLS or JSD today, you may have learned these in other cases at another law school. But each of you had your first day here full of excitement and nerves. Your first class may have been your first class in the United States. It may have been your first class in English. It may have even been your first class encountering the Socratic method. But however and whenever you began with us, all of you leave here today as graduates of-- and we're very proud to say-- products of your education at the Law School. The fact that these cases have become old friends, and the Socratic method no longer makes you nervous, indicates how far you have grown and how much you have learned at the Law School. You learned a good deal of the law itself, good old legal doctrine. And between now and the bar exam-- July 24 in most states or 25th in some other states, in case you forget-- you'll surely learn a lot more of the content of law. But much more of your learning at the Law School wasn't about specific points of doctrine. It was about how to interpret legal texts, how to engage in common law reasoning, how to disentangle thorny legal questions. You learned to approach legal questions with rigorous thought and careful reasoning, examining these questions from multiple perspectives. This analytical approach requires an openness to ideas and a commitment to subject those ideas to careful scrutiny. This dedication to and, indeed, joy in serious analytical inquiry has long been the hallmark of a University of Chicago lawyer. Now, in a few moments, you will receive your degree and your academic hood, and you will also become a University of Chicago lawyer. But to the extent you have already dedicated yourself to that serious analytical inquiry into law-- and the fact that you're sitting here today suggests you have-- you've already been transformed into a University of Chicago lawyer. You're no longer the student who was apprehensive or confused about the two ships or the shoe salesman or the train platform. You're now a lawyer, equipped to think about and to tackle the hardest cases. Now, this transformation didn't happen overnight. It happened over many days and nights of study and discussion with your faculty and with your classmates. All of the hours that you spent in the classroom, in the clinics, in dialogue with the faculty, the hours you spent in library carrels and in conference rooms, in the Green Lounge, in journal offices, studying, outlining, writing, rewriting, rewriting again, discussing, arguing, and ultimately, thinking, are what transformed you. It was hard work. You did it. Congratulations. [APPLAUSE] But it is also worth remembering that you didn't do it alone. There were two groups of people who helped you. First, nearly all of you had the support of family and friends. Sometimes, family and friends helped you in very tangible ways. Maybe they sent you mittens when the weather got cold. Maybe they sent you cookies as the deadline for the brief approached. Maybe they paid your rent. But they also helped you in intangible ways. They cheered you up when you thought you wouldn't ever finish law school because you were frustrated by those two ships or the shoe salesman or the train platform. They gave you a rest when all the hard work of law school left you tired. And they were a patient ear when you were so excited by what you were learning you couldn't stop talking about it. In tangible and in intangible ways, they helped you get here. This afternoon, when they congratulate you, remember to thank them. And a second group of people also helped you get here today. They're the people sitting all around you, your classmates. At times, they also helped you in very direct ways. They worked side by side with you, drafting a motion in the clinic. They were your partner in the moot court competition. They proofread a paper for you. They were your partner in the New Social Venture Challenge. They gave you detailed feedback on your comment draft. At other times, they helped you in less direct ways. In class, they gave an answer to a cold call that was so great you took notes on it, and it helped you understand the material better. Or they asked a question that was so insightful, you wished you had thought of it. You may have noticed that serious analytical inquiry at the University of Chicago is not a solo enterprise. It's a collective endeavor, a form of joint production, the result of teamwork. Your classmates helped you get here, and so you, too, have helped them. So here you are. Through your own hard work, through the support of family and friends and of your classmates, and maybe with a little input from the faculty, you are about to graduate. You're about to have "University of Chicago lawyer" forever attached to your professional life. And although you leave us physically, your association with the Law School is permanent. It's what you wanted when you enrolled here, and it's what we wanted when we admitted you. Now, in the years ahead, our mutual association will continue to grow and deepen. The faculty stands ready to do its part to make sure that the hallmark of the University of Chicago lawyer continues to be dedication to and, really, joy in serious analytical inquiry. When the JD Class of 2021 and the LLM Class of 2019 matriculate in the autumn, we will introduce them to the two ships and the shoe salesman and the train platform, just as we did for you. Now, you must also do your part to maintain this hallmark. Most people's impression of the Law School comes not from the sensational scholarship of the faculty. It comes from encountering one of our graduates and observing their professionalism and the quality of the work that they do. Now that you are a graduate, you will help shape what it means to be a University of Chicago lawyer. Your careers may take many paths, clerkships, public interest, big law, small law, or leaving the practice of law altogether for government service or business or some other grand adventure. All of these paths are worthwhile. All of them need rigorous, analytical minds and your sound judgment. Whatever your path, it's unlikely that your professional work will directly involve two ships or a shoe salesman or a train platform. Your professional work is likely to involve larger and thornier problems. But the distinctive characteristics of the University of Chicago lawyer should serve you well in tackling them. Continue to learn and think hard and analyze thorny problems closely. Your education doesn't end when you walk out of this chapel, and it doesn't end when you walk out of the bar exam on July 25 or 26. Continue to collaborate with your colleagues, just as you did with your classmates. Keep in touch with your law school classmates. They are the lawyers who know you best. And stay connected to the Law School. Stay in touch with the faculty who are going to be excited to hear about the work you do and your professional successes and the challenges that you face. Today, we celebrate your accomplishment. We are proud of you. Now go out into the world, and make us proud again. Congratulations. [APPLAUSE] It is now my great honor to introduce this year's distinguished Graduate of the Year, Hilary Krane, member of the Class of 1989. Hilary Krane is executive vice president, chief administrative officer, and general counsel of Nike, Incorporated. Ms. Krane was an undergraduate at Stanford University and then attended our law school. Like many of you, she took Elements of the Law from David Strauss. Upon graduating from the Law School, she launched a tremendous career that combined law and business and positions of extraordinary leadership and responsibility. She began with a clerkship with another graduate of our law school, Judge Milton Shadur, member of the Class of 1949, a judge then on the Northern District of Illinois. Ms. Krane then became an associate from Skadden, Arps, where she focused on complex commercial litigation. She then went, as the saying goes, "in house" to join the counsel's office at PricewaterhouseCoopers, a professional services and global accounting firm. From there, she became general counsel and senior vice president for the apparel company, Levi Strauss. Along the way, Ms. Krane developed specialties in corporate governance, brand protection, government relations, and my favorite, securities regulation. In 2010, she joined Nike as its vice president and general counsel. Now, many of you may know Nike is a global company with approximately $35 billion in revenue, 75,000 employees globally, and a market capitalization of more than $120 billion. Today, Ms. Krane is its primary legal and administrative officer. In addition to these responsibilities, Ms. Krane serves on several outside boards, including the Board of Directors of the Federal Reserve of San Francisco. She has received numerous accolades for professional accomplishments and pro-bono service, including membership in the American Law Institute and the Legal Momentum's Women of Achievement Award. Despite all of these accomplishments, she has yet to give me a pair of shoes. I'm holding out. But we are delighted to welcome her back to the Law School. Please join me in welcoming Hilary Krane, our distinguished Graduate of the Year. [APPLAUSE] HILARY KRANE: Thank you so much, Dean Miles, for that generous introduction. And I'll work on the shoes. I want to recognize my current and soon-to-be fellow alumni, members of this esteemed faculty, and distinguished guests. Good morning, all. It is a great honor and privilege to be with you today. Let's start with a huge congratulations for the Class of 2018. [APPLAUSE] Echoing Dean Miles, I also want to recognize the family and friends in the audience today. Your lifetime of support has surely been as important to our graduates' success as their intellect and hard work. You should all be proud of yourselves today. What an enormous accomplishment. Now, one receives much advice when preparing for a speech like this. And when you work at Nike, a lot of it is about what shoes to wear. So I hope you all appreciated my kicks on the walk in. The faculty seemed to like them. But if you missed them, take a look on the way out. But putting aside wardrobe-related matters, I'll be honest. Most of the advice I got was more panic inducing than helpful. Be serious. Be funny. Be both but not too much of either. Be substantive, but whatever you do, don't lecture. They've had three years of that. And the best, when you're writing, keep in mind that this generation of lawyers will have to save the republic. Oh, great, no pressure there. My favorite advice, however, came from my own father, who is here today. He said, Hilary, just stick to the three B's. Be prepared, be brief, and be seated. So now you all know that there is at least one member of the audience who is disappointed I'm not already wrapping this up. But alas, before I take my seat, there are a few things I want to share from my experience that I hope may be helpful to you along the way. Top of the list, value the people you are sitting with today. You and they are the leaders of tomorrow. And the array of contributions you all will make is too vast for you to imagine today. When I sat in your seat, not only did I not expect to be where I am today, and I'm pretty sure the faculty and my colleagues didn't, either, but I assure you I did not anticipate everything my colleagues would accomplish, either. They are partners in law firms and investment banks, law school professors and public school teachers, prosecutors, public defenders, pro-bono leaders. They are general counsel to large public companies and cutting-edge startups and leading universities. We have federal and state court judges, including a state Supreme Court justice, senior government advisors, from the chief of policy to the city of Chicago to the chief of staff for a former vice president of the United States. From my world of sports, we have the CEO of the Women's World Cup and the vice president of LA's 2028 Olympic games. The list just goes on and on. And that's just the women. [APPLAUSE] So while the first-rate education and professional training you've received here will serve you well, your classmates are an unparalleled asset that will continue to give you pride, support, and inspiration throughout your careers. So continue to invest in each other. You'll find that there is no greater return on investment out there, except, of course, the ones made with family. Speaking of which, this university is special to me not just because I once sat where you sit, as did my father before that and does my nephew this morning, but also because my husband and two of my children were or are currently being educated here. One difference, however, all three of them chose to study philosophy. So to avoid embarrassing them by my lack of erudition, or worse, being scorned for being too practical, which I assure you all is a daily event in my life, I'm just going to go ahead and quote Aristotle and get it out of the way. He wrote in the Nicomachean Ethics, "Excellence is an art won by habituation and training. We do not act rightly because we have virtue or excellence, but rather we have these because we have acted rightly." This thought has since been simplified as follows. "We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act but a habit." Each of you have been given an education, along with your natural ability, that give you the potential for greatness, whatever path you choose to follow. Whether or not you achieve that greatness will be decided by what you do tomorrow and each day thereafter. This phenomenon is perhaps most easily demonstrated in the world of sport. One thing all of the world's great athletes have in common is work ethic and the knowledge that consistent, everyday attention to the work has as much to do with greatness as innate ability. Now, I'm not going to argue that natural gift is not important. Surely, it as. We all know that. But while helpful, it alone is insufficient. When Michael Jordan first went out for his high school basketball team, he got cut. Instead, imagine this, MJ on the JV. When I was lucky enough to ask him how he went from the JV squad to six NBA championships, he said without hesitation, I made it my business to be great every single day. And when I followed up eagerly with a, so that's how you brought it when it mattered? He scolded me and said, you missed my point entirely, Hilary. It was every day that mattered. See what I did there, casually mentioning that I'm on a first-name basis with Michael Jordan? It's shameful, I know, but I just couldn't resist it. In the same vein, Serena Williams has said, failure to treat every trip-- [LAUGHTER] --every trip onto the court as totally vital is to sacrifice the ability to summon that power when you need it most. As it turns out, like in sport, muscle memory really matters in professional life. So keep that in mind when you are called upon to do some of the difficult and less-than-thrilling work that defines the earliest stages of lawyering, or just about anything else, for that matter. Failing to read that last case or chase that last minor fact, or tolerating a typo or a misquote in the course of a mind-numbing assignment may seem small, but it isn't. Bringing your best to the small things will make you better at the big things. What's more, sometimes you do not even know when a big thing is upon you. It's only when you look in the rear-view mirror that you recognize a moment as being totally defining. Sometimes, it's super easy to tell when something's important. The neon lights are flashing, the endorphins are firing, and you bring all your focus. It's a Supreme Court argument or a huge presentation or the closing of a massive deal. But more often, I've found, it's in the course of the everyday hurly-burly. You're asked to make a judgment here or answer a question there that may even seem mundane, only to learn later that that moment, unaccompanied by any fanfare, was the decisive moment. When you look back on it, you will either be grateful for your habit of excellence or despairing of your failure to develop it. I strongly recommend the former. Now, for those of you out there thinking, I've got this excellence thing nailed. I got a perfect score on the LSAT. I can cite every case we ever studied. I can do multivariable calculus in my head. And trust me, I know you're out there. I went to school here, too. The kind of excellence I'm talking about requires more than the ability to get precise things right. It requires judgment, courage, and even humility, and it should go without saying, the highest standards of ethics. It turns out that most things in life defy right answers. The challenges of today's world are exquisitely complex. And more often than not, solutions must be judged as better or worse, not right or wrong. The accelerating pace of change in society, technology, and global affairs only adds difficulty to solving the problems that you will likely confront. To address these challenges requires asking uncomfortable questions and delivering unwelcome messages. It requires nuanced thinking and the ability to see things not as they are now but as they will be in the future. In this challenging environment, there is nothing more dispiriting, and in the end, less effective, than people who see where the collective thought is moving and hasten to agree. There may be short-term gratification in agreeing with group think, but again, I warn against it. Ask the questions no one will ask. Speak truth to power, even when it's scary. Having the courage to bring your unique perspective, especially when it challenges static assumptions about the future, will serve you, your clients, and our society well. Equally challenging as the people lacking personal conviction are those too intellectually stubborn to even acknowledge a possible chink in their intellectual armor. So in addition to excellence and courage, I encourage you to practice diplomacy as you practice the law. Cultivate your own style of disagreeing without being disagreeable. And what's perhaps hardest of all, at least for me, is learn to lose gracefully, well, everywhere but in court. There, zealous advocacy will require you to leave it all on the field every single time. But outside of court, no matter how sure you are, how much you've studied the issue, there are times when you will not win the day, no matter the depth of your conviction. In fact, there are times you might not even be right. I had the pleasure, as Dean Miles noted, to clerk for an esteemed alum of this school, the honorable Milton I. Shadur, Class of '49. I learned an impossible number of important things from him. But my favorite was when he told me this. If I was at a party, and one person told me I was drunk, I could stay. But if I was ever at a party, and three people told me I was drunk, I should go home and lie down. Now, given the time of my life when he knew me, it might be fair to assume he was actually talking about my social life. But he wasn't. He was talking about my own intellectual stubbornness, my inability to step out of myself and look at an issue in a way other than how I first perceived it. He was rightly pointing out that I was more interested in winning the argument than in making sure I had thought through all the angles. He was encouraging me to see people disagreeing with me as an opportunity to learn rather than a challenge to my rectitude. It may well be the most valuable advice I ever received. And so it may not surprise you to learn that one of my favorite books is called Being Wrong, Adventures in the Margin of Error by Kathryn Schulz, which is all about the human capacity to be wrong about things, large and small, and be totally unself-aware about it. I enjoy giving the book to lawyers who work for me. And as you might imagine, when I give them a book called Being Wrong, they often respond in an understandably discomforted way. My favorite was a woman who thanked me by saying, with tongue-in-cheek indignation, subtle, Hilary, and walked away. These reactions only remind me of our collective need to open our minds to our own limitations as a way of unleashing our potential to be our best selves. The bottom line, none of us have all the answers. We must cultivate the necessary skills to benefit from diversity of thought and experience from deeply considering perspectives other than our own. We must not only challenge others but surround ourselves with people who will challenge us even when it's unwelcome. In our increasingly fractured society, recognizing that the same question looks different to people with different life experience is probably the most profound challenge and opportunity we have before us. In the end, graduates, my advice to you is this. Run straight at that challenge. Seek out those who think differently from you, and learn from them. You've done this here, both in class and, I suspect perhaps more frequently, at Jimmy's. Keep it up. Doing so will give you huge opportunities for personal and professional growth. It was Woodrow Wilson who said once, "I like to use all the brains I have and all that I can borrow." In order to make that come alive, other people need to be willing to share their brains with you. Do what you can to make that easy and desirable for them. You and whatever mission you are on will be better for it. So unlike what you may have heard at other graduations, I believe life is not as much about finding yourself as it is about creating yourself. And I believe that's especially true in professional life. I encourage you all to go out and create your greatness, valuing each other with a habit of excellence, a courageous spirit, and an air of humility. I know you will all do amazing things. Congratulations, and godspeed. [APPLAUSE] THOMAS MILES: Thank you, Hilary. It is now my great pleasure to introduce our faculty speaker, Tom Ginsburg. Professor Ginsburg is the Leo Spitz Professor of International Law, the Ludwig and Hilda Wolfe Research Scholar, and also professor in our political science department. Professor Ginsburg received his BA, his JD, and PhD degrees from the University of California at Berkeley. Professor Ginsburg's scholarship focuses on comparative and international law and draws on an interdisciplinary perspective. He is a leading figure in comparative constitutionalism, which is the study of the origins and consequences of constitutional choices. With his co-authors, professor Ginsburg's Comparative Constitutions Project has collected and analyzed constitutional texts for all independent nation states since 1789. He has examined such questions as, which constitutions are most likely to endure? Do constitutional amendment rules matter? Why do countries adopt judicial review? His scholarship thus tackles big, bold questions with an interdisciplinary approach and combines large data and doctrinal analysis to tease out subtle distinctions. At the Law School, Professor Ginsburg is a much admired teacher and colleague. He served with distinction from 2014 to 2016 as our deputy dean. He regularly teaches a wide range of courses, including international human rights, comparative legal institutions, and international investment law. In fact, I looked at his student evaluations to get a sense of what our graduates think of Professor Ginsburg's teaching. And they had comments such as this. I totally loved it. I was very inspired by Professor Ginsburg. Or this, a wonderful class, the discussion was so engaging. It was completely worth getting up early to go to this 8:30 AM class. Or this, Professor Ginsburg is a national treasure. Or, regarding whether I would recommend this class to other students, I wish there were a higher rating category than Strongly Agreed. Now, somehow, in the midst of all of this, Professor Ginsburg also finds the time to be a winemaker. Indeed, some of you may have taken the seminar he sometimes offers on wine and the law. Now, some of you may know that the wines he produces are universally known as Gin's Burgundy, regardless of the type of grape or the fact that his vineyards are not in France. Those who have tasted his wines have described them this way, bold with subtle nuance, scintillating and multifaceted, notes of earthiness balanced with a cerebral flair. In other words, Professor Ginsburg's wine had the same stellar characteristics of his scholarship and his teaching. So please join me in welcoming our faculty speaker, Professor Tom Ginsburg. [APPLAUSE] TOM GINSBURG: Class of 2018, friends, family, spouses, children, it's a tremendous honor for me and for all the faculty to be here today to join you in this momentous occasion. We call it commencement. And we call it a commencement for a reason, which is, today, after many years of schooling, you are commencing your professional careers and entering the learned profession of law. That phrase, learned profession, is old fashioned. But I want to spend a little time talking about it today, because I think it offers us important values and important considerations for our current moment. Let's start with the learned. All professions, by definition, involve the application of specialized knowledge to particular problems, and so must be learned. Learning the law, in particular, is very much like learning a foreign language, in part because we lawyers apply novel meanings to ordinary words. Venue is not just where you go to a concert. A tort is not, as I used to think, an excellent Austrian cake. A party is not just where we are going after graduation. Franz Kafka captured this when he noted that a lawyer is the only kind of person who can write a 10,000-word document and call it brief. Besides learning these new meanings for old words, you've also learn new words in the English language, like curtilage, demurrer, joinder, estoppel. If nothing else, your Scrabble game has improved in these three years. And of course, I'm sure you've all been impressing your family and friends with Latin phrases ad infinitum, including res ipsa loquitur, mens rea, de novo, de jure, de minimis. If some of you are getting nervous because you don't recognize all these terms, don't worry. You've got six weeks to study them in the bar review class, learning them all over again. And that brings me to another term you need to assign a new meaning to, bar review. Unbeknownst to many of you, this is actually a period of intensive study before the bar exam. Now, those of you who have actually studied a foreign language know that there's a steep learning curve. At first, you're excited by all the new terms you're learning. Slowly, haltingly, you learn to put phrases together. You struggle with new grammar and vocabulary. You have plateaus. You have breakthroughs. You advance. And then, one day, eventually, you're ready to step out of class and go out and walk on the streets of a foreign city, talking to taxi drivers and street vendors to communicate. And it is here that the real learning happens. Today is that day for you. You've spent three years learning a new language here, and now you're ready to go out into the world to try it out. In doing so, you will find that you know a lot of things. But there's also much more, of course, that you don't know. And you'll need to continue to learn. As the Chinese sage Confucius observed 2,500 years ago, the essence of knowledge is, if you have it, to apply it, and if you do not have it, to confess your ignorance. Part of being a professional is to admit what you don't know and to be responsible for your own continuing education. By this, I don't mean the bar-mandated continuing legal education classes, though I do recommend that you attend those in accordance with the rules of your jurisdiction. I mean that you're now the designer of your own curriculum. You choose what to read, who to listen to, who to ignore, what skills to acquire. Discernment and judgment about these things are particularly important in our moment, in our era, which we're drowning in information, drowning in things to read, drowning in data. There's a kind of ethics to sorting out the information we come across nowadays. And it's an ethics not taught in the MPRE classes and not really taught in the Law School. We don't teach you about it, because no one does. But these ethics of sorting out and acquiring information are essential for your own continued education and may, in fact, be relevant for all of us, for our shared democratic future. The legal profession, it has long been observed, has a special relationship with democracy. Tocqueville saw the profession as an American aristocracy, a keeper of civic virtue, an important safeguard against the tyranny of the majority. His observation that scarcely any issue arises in the United States that does not eventually end up in the courtroom is truer now than it was even in his day. And this means that what you are walking out of here with is not just a degree but a social power to do things that other people cannot. It's extraordinary. And you're graduating at an extraordinary time in which to use it. The words that we use to describe our moment are familiar to you. We're swimming in outrage, polarization, mutual distrust. There's widespread concern for our civic discourse and even for the health of our democracy here in the United States and around the world. But the moment is also one of great opportunity for articulation, for mobilization, and for recommitment to our highest ideals of a learned profession in the service of democracy. To highlight that democracy should not be taken for granted, I want to note that today, June 9, is the anniversary of two events, both relatively obscure to us now, separated by more than 2,400 years. On this very day in 411 BC, in Athens, one of the first experiments with democracy came to an end temporarily. There was a coup. And an oligarchic group of citizens established something called the Council of 400 to end, temporarily, Athenian democracy. Like many oligarchies, they fought among themselves, and their regime did not last. But it did disrupt Athenian governance for the better part of a decade until democracy was fully restored. Today is also the anniversary of a date in 1954, when at a televised hearing in the Senate, Army lawyer Joseph N. Welch asked Senator Joseph McCarthy a famous rhetorical question. Senator, you've done enough. Have you no sense of decency, sir? At long last, have you no sense of decency? This exchange marked a major turning point in the downfall of Senator McCarthy, and thus, a key moment in the history of American democracy. It also marked a turning point in the downfall of his chief counsel, Roy Cohn, a man ultimately disbarred many years later for ethical violations. And the story of Joseph Welch shows us the power of a lawyer, not in filing a motion, not in winning a case, but in another setting, in speaking a simple truth at a time of great peril. It reminds us that professional ethics entails much more than simply following the relevant bar rules of the jurisdiction. It's not merely about avoiding the commingling of client funds or keeping communications confidential. It extends beyond acting in a traditional legal capacity. It involves acting with integrity, taking on unpopular causes, saying no when a client asks you to do something you cannot, treating adversaries with respect at all times. It involves demanding decency in public and in private. And each time you do these things as you go out, you're acting as an ethical professional. Each of these individual acts may seem small. But in sum, repeated over the course of your career and all of your careers, they not only preserve the integrity of the profession, but in my view, they protect the rule of law and democracy itself. As you go forth as learned professionals in this extraordinary time of challenge and of opportunity, I'd like to suggest the sum of the values of the university may be valuable touchstones in this regard. Now, I know you've heard us talk a lot about values at the University of Chicago. We talk about them a lot. And we have to admit, like the country itself, we don't always achieve them. But that doesn't mean that they're not still valuable and not still worth remembering and not still important and valid. The first value, of course, is that of rigorous and vigorous questioning of ideas. We talk a lot about how debate helps to get to the truth, and this is valuable and good. But it has another quality that is particularly important in our era. When you are debating to learn, your opponent becomes not just an adversary but a source of information, even a source of empathy. As you fight in the courtroom or across the table over contract terms, you would do well to see your opponent's point of view. And this will make you, of course, a more effective advocate for your own side. A second value of the university, which has already been mentioned, is the great Midwestern virtue of hard work. We like to think that University of Chicago is no longer the place where fun goes to die. That's why I had to explain to you the other meaning of the term "bar review." But the university is a place where we do work hard. And each of you has done so. You put in countless hours and shown by getting here today that you're in the 99th percentile of work ethic. It is a value that serves you well, whatever you do. Some of you will go be mergers and acquisitions lawyers. Some of you will work on immigration cases. Some of you will work for federal judges. Some of you will go back to your home countries and practice law. But all of you will be Chicago Law graduates, with the values of working hard for what you believe and working hard for your professional accomplishments. The third value I want to mention is the importance of integrating ideas and practice. The law is called a learned profession because it's both a practical skill but also grounded in ideas. You need both to be effective. Justice, the rule of law, equality, decency, these are, really, bottom abstract concepts that only come to life through everyday engagement of lawyers who put the ideals into practice in their actions. I think the task of a lawyer in this regard is something similar to that of a citizen in a democracy and was best summed up by a non-lawyer, Shirley Chisholm. For those who don't know, she was the first African-American woman ever elected to the US Congress, the first woman to run for the Democratic Party, a nomination for the presidency. And she said, "You don't make progress by standing on the sidelines, whimpering and complaining. You make progress by implementing ideas." And I love that line. Today, you leave the university with the tools to go out and implement ideas. Your education as a learned professional does not come to an end. You will set your own path in your education from this point forward. You have the work ethic and the values to do so, and you speak the local language. Finally, if you ever get lost along the way, just remember, follow the Maroonbook road. Thank you, and congratulations. [APPLAUSE] THOMAS MILES: Thank you, professor Ginsburg. We will now proceed to the conferral of degrees and the distribution of academic hoods. [MUSIC PLAYING] RICHARD BADGER: Dean Miles, it is my honor to present these students who have completed the program of studies prescribed by the faculty of the Law School. They have been awarded the degree of Master of Laws by the board of trustees. THOMAS MILES: I congratulate these graduates on the successful completion of a program of advanced study in the Law School culminating in the degree Master of Laws. RICHARD BADGER: Will the graduates please come forward to receive your diploma and your academic hood as I call your name. Ingo Albert. Ines Amar. Vinícius Azambuja de Oliveira. Pavel Bachleda. Sampada Bannurmath. Julio César Moreira Barboza. Luis Eduardo Bologna Tierno. Beatrice Bottini. Lauriane Caroline Francoise Chauvet. Yu Cheng. Erick Emmanuel Clavel Benítez. Viviane De Azevedo Rodrigues. Nino De Lathauwer. Kasper De Rycke. Chad Gerard De Souza. Eugénie Delval. Amber Doyle. Frederic Maximilian Dreher. Grégoire Durand. Christoph Julius Emde. Jackson De Freitas [? Ferreira. ?] Kylin Elizabeth Fisher. Ruben Foriers. Adrienne Sydney Funk. Kei Furuichi. [? Meghal ?] [? Chinmaya ?] [? Gajaria. ?] Xi Gao. Elettra Maria Gaspari. Luis Filipe Gentil Pedro. Alessandro Pezzolo Giacaglia. Romain Goncalves. Rory Goodson. Zhiyuan Gu. Laura Hellwig. Lucas Johannes Theodor Hertneck. Yuxing Huang. María Jesús Ibáñez. Akira Iizuka. Wakako Inaba. Deesha Dinesh Kanabar. Rikita Karakawa. Makiko Kawamura. Toshimasa Kawashima. Bryan Michael Kernitsky Barnatan. Caio Lages Balestrin Andrade. Cristóbal Larrain Baraona. Mengyi Li. Laura Clara Loaiza. Jing Luo. Marcello Magri. Daniel Augusto Malatesta. Rose Samantha McDonnell. Lennard Michaux. Giorgia Antoniazzi Nagalli. Juan Nascimbene. Catalina Noreña Gutiérrez. Gustavo Alfredo Peralta Figueredo. Renata Guimaraes Thomaz Pereira. Johannes Persche. Caroline Aguiar. Jean-Sébastien Rombouts. Rafael Gutnik Romiti. Laura Kim Rothmann. Jessica Rowlands. Julien Sad. José Francisco Salem Ojeda. Louisa Leonore Victorine Salger. Júlia Maira Benvenuto Dos Santos. Luis Andres Schrader Mindreau. Rakshit Sharma. Sindoori Sriram. Natalie Viviane Stauber. Adriana Tudela. Andrea Vainer. Laurence Van Mullem. Nicolas Vande Velde. Flávia Villas Boas Kleinhappel. Luis Ignacio Villasmil Bolinaga. Lukas Von Ditfurth. Hanzhi Wang. Dominic Andreas Wyss. Ye Zeng. Yue Zhang. Yuting Zheng. Shakoh Zulqurnain. Congratulations to the LLM Class of 2018. [APPLAUSE] Dean Miles, it is my honor to present the student who has completed the program of studies prescribed by the faculty of the Law School. This student has been awarded the degree of Master of Legal Studies by the board of trustees. THOMAS MILES: I congratulate the graduate on the successful completion of a program of study in the Law School culminating in the degree Master of Legal Studies. RICHARD BADGER: Will the graduate please come forward to receive your diploma and then your academic hood as I call your name. Braden Fisher Dauzat. Congratulations to the MLS Class of 2018. [APPLAUSE] Dean Miles, the students I now present have attained scholarly distinction in advanced studies and have prepared a dissertation which contributes to knowledge in a particular field of research. On behalf of the faculty of the Law School, I have the honor to present the recipients of the degree of Doctor of Jurisprudence as conferred by the board of trustees. THOMAS MILES: I congratulate these graduates on the successful completion of a program of advanced study in the Law School culminating in the degree Doctor of Jurisprudence. RICHARD BADGER: Will the graduates please come forward to receive your diploma and then your academic hood as I call your name? Silvia Beltrametti. Parmudya Azhar Oktavinanda. Congratulations to the JSD Class of 2018. [APPLAUSE] SHANNON BARTLETT: Dean Miles, it is my honor to present these students who have fulfilled all of the requirements prescribed by the faculty of the Law School to qualify them for the profession of law. They have been awarded the degree of Doctor of Law by the board of trustees. THOMAS MILES: I congratulate these graduates on the successful completion of a program of study in the Law School culminating in the degree Doctor of Law. SHANNON BARTLETT: Will the graduates please come forward to receive your diploma and then your academic hood as I call your name. Bijan Michael Aboutorabi. Teresita Acedo Betancourt. Phillip A. Acevedo. Adam Rolando Aquino. Carolyn Auchter. Demetrius David Baefsky. Mallika Balachandran. Jennifer L. Beard. Jared Michael Beim. Henry Samuel Bergman will be hooded by his grandfather, Howard Krane, Law School Class of 1957. Holly Frances Balsley Berlin. Kristin L. Bisely. Christopher Nicholas Bobby. Alexander Xavier Bolden. Roberto José Borgert. Kirstie Ann Brenson. Grace Marie Bridwell. Samantha B. Bronner. Samantha will be hooded by her father, David Bronner, Law School Class of 1973. Sofia C. Brooks. Mark Brown Buente. Ashley D. Burman. Mark Christopher Burnside. Devin J. Carpenter. Julius C. Carter. Laura Noelle Casselberry. Laura will be hooded by her aunt, Ann Adams, Law School Class of 1993. Gabriel P. Chammas. Bianca Gabriela Chamusco. Chinwe T. Chuckwuogo. Eric J Clamage. Madison Renée Clark. La'nese S. Clarke. Taylor Bryce Coles. John Corfman. Lauren Elizabeth Ivy Croft. Clayton James Cromer. Cade Matthew Cross. Andrew Jason Czaja. Michelle Mixue Dang. Joshua Thomas Davids. Linnet R. Davis-Stermitz. Matthew J. Deates. Hope Michaela Delap. Marisa Katryna Demko. Sarah Denise Dobrofsky. Andrew Geyer Duble. Róisín L. Duffy-Gideon. Jacqueline Taylor Duhl. Mattison D. Enloe. Therese Lenczewski Erickson Meyer. Elizabeth N. Ertle. Lisa L. Fan. Wallace H. Feng. Katerina Fishchuk. Riley Patrick Foley. Stephen Douglas Ford, Jr. Alison Elizabeth Frost. James Dahle Frost IV. Patrick J. Fuster. Michael Anthony Galdes. Thomas M. Garvey, Jr. Amelia R. Garza-Mattia. Douglas Wilson Gates. Ryan Michael Gaylord. Hannah Elise Gelbort. Makar Levon Gevorkian. Carly Gibbs. Alison Noel Giest. Robert Francis Golan-Vilella. Aleksey Graboviy. Nicholas William Greiner. Taylor M. Grode. Kathrine L. Gutierrez. Janice Emmeline Han. Ian Macaulay Hansen. Joshua Hiram Harris. Alan Scott Hassler. R. Harrison Hawkes. Jandi Reneé Heagen. Jandi will be hooded by her husband, Joshua Wilson, Class of 2017. Nicole A. Heise. Nicole will be hooded by her mother, [? Joan ?] [? Chutko, ?] Class of 1986. Zachary L. Henderson. Jordan V. Hill. Matthew T. Holloway. Dana Putney Horst. Andrew J. Hosea. Allison K. Hugi. Dallin R. Jack. Dallin will be hooded by his brother, Nathan Jack, Law School Class of 2014. Amanda Paige Johnson. Danielle E. Johnson. Mary Eselle Johnson. Samuel J. Johnson. Victoria Evans Jones. Kyle Russel Jorstad. Julius Isaac Kairey. Zoe Celeste Kam. Carina Kan. Eian Katz. Kevin Patrick Keating. Christopher Nicholas Keen. Michael Alexander Killingsworth. Sara Kim. Loren Adriana Kole. Loren will be hooded by her father, James Kole, Law School Class of 1987. Matthew Russell Lagrone. Jun Oh Lee. Thomas Leo. Maura T. Levine. Joyce Vicki Li. Gabriella Ruth Libin. Jinn-Min Lin. Jacqueline Hsiang Liu. Tahura Sultana Lodhi. Maria Michele Maciá. Ryan P. Maher. Eric Joseph Maier. Abigail Eden Majane. Madison Ann Mapes. Nabihah Sohail Maqbool. Christopher James Marth. Kathleen Anne Martini. Paul Carl Mathis IV. John Patrick McAdams. Christina Carey McClintock. Benjamin Joseph Meyer. Blair Chukwuma Mgbada. Garrett George Miller. Thomas Murphy Molloy, Jr. Benjamin Henry Moss. Devin Scott Muntz. Kurt Andrew Naro. Isabella S. Nascimento. Christina M. Norman. Noel D. Ottman. Grace Paek. Chan Ik Park. Christopher Parker. Yogini Paresh Patel. Piper Molly Pehrson. Andreas M. Petasis. Lauren Ann Piette. Sean Samuel Planchard. Eileen Ross Prescott. Abhinaya Nirmala Prithivi. Darien Pun. Jorgen Myre Rehn. Andrew Clark Richnerm Jr. John S. Rizner. Patrick J. Rodriguez. Daniel Nicholas Rojas. Blaise Talon Ross. Kathryn Anderson Running. Mila Borisova Rusafova. Kathleen M. Ryan. Olivia Sanchez. Harrison G. Scheer. Stephanie Anne Schlitter. Sophia Ruth Schloen. Daniel R. Shearer. Cary J. Sheperd. Chaelin Shin. Hope Sydney Silberstein. Shelbi Jo Smith. Nina Alicja Sobierajski. Justin Jeffery Sorensen. William John Soule. Andrew Reilly Sowle. Luke Laursen Sperduto. Margaret Anne Steindorg. Taryn Alicia Strohmeyer. Daniel [? H. ?] Sullivan. Irene Hickey Sullivan. Anagha Sundararajan. Ayla Syed. Madeleine Paula Moss Tardig. Joseph Brown Thomas. Phillip Douglas Thomas. John Henry Tab Thompson. John William Tienken. Tianyu Tong. Alexander M. Vogler. Joel Fung Wacks. Nathan Thomas Wages. Nicholas Alexander Weber. Lael Daniel Weinberger. Brett James Wierenga. Evan Michael Williams. Brian F. Williamson. Tate Joseph Wines. Mary Caroline Wood. Stephanie Wanjing Xiao. Paul Youchak. Daniel Ling Zhang. Jincheng Zhi. Frances Ann Ziesing. Congratulations to the JD Class of 2018. [APPLAUSE] THOMAS MILES: This concludes our 20th diploma and hooding ceremony. So I now invite you back to the Law School for a reception in honor of our graduates. Please keep in mind that another ceremony for another unit of the university comes into this chapel after we exit. So when you exit, if you would please proceed directly to the Law School so that they can enter for their ceremony. And I also ask that all of our guests please stay in your seats until our recessional has passed, until all of the graduates have exited. So please, another round of applause to thank the class of 2018. [APPLAUSE] [MUSIC PLAYING]

See also


  • United States Congress. "Carl E. Mapes (id: M000119)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
  • Carl Edgar Mapes Late a Representative from Michigan. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. 1941.
  • Carl E. Mapes at The Political Graveyard
  • Fisher, Ernest B. (2005) [1918]. "Biographical". Grand Rapids and Kent County, Michigan : historical account of their progress from first settlement to the present time. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan Library. pp. 247–248. Retrieved 2007-02-25.

External links

U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
Edwin F. Sweet
United States Representative for the 5th Congressional District of Michigan
1913 – 1939
Succeeded by
Bartel J. Jonkman
This page was last edited on 12 March 2019, at 14:50
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