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Carl Bernstein

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Carl Bernstein
Carl bernstein 2007.jpg
Bernstein in November 2007
Born (1944-02-14) February 14, 1944 (age 75)
EducationUniversity of Maryland
OccupationJournalist, writer
EmployerVanity Fair
Known forReporting on Watergate scandal
Spouse(s)
Carol Honsa
(m. 1968; div. 1972)

Nora Ephron
(m. 1976; div. 1980)

Christine Kuehbeck
(m. 2003)
Children2

Carl Bernstein (/ˈbɜːrnstn/ BURN-steen; born February 14, 1944) is an American investigative journalist and author.

While a young reporter for The Washington Post in 1972, Bernstein was teamed up with Bob Woodward; the two did much of the original news reporting on the Watergate scandal. These scandals led to numerous government investigations and the eventual resignation of President Richard Nixon. The work of Woodward and Bernstein was called "maybe the single greatest reporting effort of all time" by longtime journalism figure Gene Roberts.[1]

Bernstein's career since Watergate has continued to focus on the theme of the use and abuse of power via books and magazine articles. He has also done reporting for television and opinion commentary. He is the author or co-author of six books: All the President's Men, The Final Days, and The Secret Man, with Bob Woodward; His Holiness: John Paul II and the History of Our Time, with Marco Politi [it]; Loyalties; and A Woman in Charge: The Life of Hillary Rodham Clinton.[2] Additionally, he is a regular political commentator on CNN.

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  • ✪ Bob Woodward: 2016 National Book Festival
  • ✪ The Last of the President’s Men with Bob Woodward Alex Butterfield and Michael Bernstein --

Transcription

>> From the Library of Congress, in Washington, D.C. [ Applause ] >> Susan K. Siegel: Good afternoon. I have the privilege of welcoming to the stage our very special and talented interviewer for this program. He's one of the nation's leading philanthropists, a tireless advocate of reading and literacy, a great friend to the Library of Congress, and the individual most responsible for ensuring that there is a National Book Festival, year after year. David Rubenstein. [ Applause ] >> David M. Rubenstein: Thank you. Thank you very much. We have a special treat. We have, I think, the world's most famous journalist as our special guest, and just for those who might have been living under a rock for the past 35 or 40 years, briefly, Bob Woodward is the reporter who, with Carl Bernstein, broke the Watergate story. Ultimately, the Washington Post won a Pulitzer Prize for it. Bob has gone on to become the role model for journalists all over the world, but since he did that at the Washington Post, and he's still an associate of the Washington Post, he has written sixteen books, twelve of them New York Times bestseller, number one bestsellers. The only person who's ever written twelve New York Times number one bestsellers, total sixteen books, all of them, of course, bestsellers. His most recent book is, "The Last of the President's Men," which is about, a very interesting story about some person was involved in Watergate, and approached Bob not long ago, and Bob has written about it. We're going to talk about that book, talk about Bob's view on the campaign, and also talk about his other books in his career. So, without any further ado, let me introduce Bob Woodward. Bob. [ Applause ] So, thank you very much for coming. >> Bob Woodward: Thank you. >> David M. Rubenstein: So, most people would think that Watergate was kind of over in the 1970's, or so forth. President Nixon resigned, you wrote some books, there was a movie, you were played by Robert Redford. >> Bob Woodward: You have no idea how many women I've disappointed. [ Laughter ] >> David M. Rubenstein: Okay, I'm sure that's not true, but, so... >> Bob Woodward: I could tell you it's true. During that period, I would make a date with someone over the phone, and then go see them, and they'd open the door and go, huh? [ Laughter ] >> David M. Rubenstein: So... >> Bob Woodward: I know disappointment, because I've seen it [laughter]. >> David M. Rubenstein: So, we're going to talk a little bit later about what happened in early, in the days of Watergate, but I'd like to start about your new book, because most people, like me, would say, "Well, Watergate was kind of over." Anybody still involved in Watergate, we didn't really think they had any information left to talk about, but then you got some information from a very famous person involved in Watergate. Could you explain how that came about? >> Bob Woodward: Yes. Alexander Butterfield, who was the Nixon aide who disclosed the secret taping system, and I'd just met him, but I saw him at one of these conferences and said, you know, let's get together, and so we talked, and I visited him at is home in La Jolla, California. Always go to someone's home if you can. >> David M. Rubenstein: Because? >> Bob Woodward: If, if I was doing a book on you, I'd want to come to where you live. Because I went to his home, and I said, "Do you have any documents?" And he said, "Yeah, I have a few," and I said, "Well, can you get them out for me?" And so we filled 20 boxes [laughter] of documents that he had spirited out of the Nixon White House, and 73 new documents, top-secret documents, things that we hadn't seen, and foremost was a top-secret memo that Henry Kissinger, Nixon's national security advisor, had sent him, update on Vietnam, and then Nixon, in his own handwriting said, "Well, the bombing in Vietnam for 10 years has achieved zilch. Nothing. That it's a failure." And this totally contradicted the public position and showed a level of deceit on the warfront that was equivalent to the deceit of Watergate itself. >> David M. Rubenstein: Alex Butterfield had been a military officer, and when he left the military, he reconnected with, I think, Bob Haldeman, who had he had known in college, and his job was to work as an assistant to Bob Haldeman, but what was his main job in the White House, other than being an assistant to Haldeman? Was he supposed to trail Nixon, or what did he do? >> Bob Woodward: Well, he had the office adjacent to Nixon's Oval Office, and his job, essentially, was anxiety alleviation of the President, and of course, Nixon's anxieties could never be fully alleviated. So it was 24/7, and what Nixon did, he, you know, if he had something he wanted done, somebody screwed, somebody investigated, you know, Nixon essentially, we know from the tapes, and this book even in more detail, he used the Presidency as an instrument of personal revenge. >> David M. Rubenstein: So, Alexander Butterfield was, had the office next to the President, and, for those who may not remember, in the most dramatic part, I think, of the Watergate hearings in the Senate, Butterfield was called to testify, and he was asked a question about whether there were taping devices in the Oval Office, and what did he say? >> Bob Woodward: Well, he was going, he wasn't sure they were going to ask that, he thought they wouldn't. He resolved that if they asked a direct question, he couldn't lie, because even though he was not under oath, it's technically a violation to lie to the FBI. Of course, no one ever lies to the FBI [laughter], or says they can't remember, and, and no one, and it's a violation of law, technically, to not tell a Senate committee the truth, and so when he was asked about this, but, he knew it might be coming, and he was faced, and this is part of the drama of this story, which we haven't seen before, he was faced with a moral choice. Because Nixon's policy was, "Oh, the tapes are sacred. No one's going to know about them. No one's ever going to find out about them," and it was, you know, conceal, don't reveal. And so, when Butterfield was asked this, he said yes, there were listening devices, and of course that provided the thousands of hours of Nixon's tapes. It led to his downfall and resignation and then there are more and more that come out essentially each season, and we peer into the life and the soul of Nixon in a way we'd never seen in another President. >> David M. Rubenstein: When Alex Butterfield was asked in the Senate, do you know if there's a taping device, did the Senate investigator already know the answer to that, had he already told them prior to that? >> Bob Woodward: No. He had, well he had in a closed, closed-door hearing he had told them on the Friday before, but they called him on Monday. Now, somebody told me that weekend that Butterfield had come in and said there were these secret taping systems. I thought, wow, that's, that's one hell of a story, and I was unsure what to do. So I called Ben Bradley, the Editor of the Post, and said, "There's a secret taping system, and what do you think?" And Ben said, "Oh, well I wouldn't bust one on it, and I think it's kind of a B plus." So I didn't do anything, and then Butterfield testified on Monday, and it was explosive, and Ben, to his credit, came by and knocked on my desk and said, "Okay, it's more than a B plus" [laughter]. >> David M. Rubenstein: So, if there had been no tapes, do you think Nixon would have had to resign? >> Bob Woodward: No. I think, I think that the, what happened in the trajectory of Watergate, there were all the hearings, there were all the accusations, there were some documents, but Nixon denied everything, and when the investigators asked for the tapes, they had to go to court, and eventually the Supreme Court said, 8 to 0, because one of the Justices recused himself, said, "No, you have an obligation to turn over your tapes," within two weeks, Nixon had resigned. >> David M. Rubenstein: So when Butterfield testified, was he working the White House at the time? >> Bob Woodward: No, he was FAA Commissioner. >> David M. Rubenstein: And was his career essentially terminated by the people who were his supporters, because he had told this? >> Bob Woodward: Yes, I mean, he paid a price. He went to California, here he was kind of a Nixon guy, and he had broken omerta, the oath of silence, and it led to Nixon's downfall, and so he, Butterfield, was ostracized, and that is part of the story here of the penalty, you know, we think we have a culture of truth-telling. Actually, we don't. When somebody tells the truth, they, and it harms others, and it has political impact, the truth-tellers pay, and Butterfield did. >> David M. Rubenstein: So, he gave you twenty boxes of documents, he didn't say, don't write about this or that, he just said here, do what you want with them, more or less? >> Bob Woodward: Yeah, more or less, and I put them in the book. There were about 70 pages of the documents, so you can see Nixon's handwriting or, you know, what was going on, and it, it's, it is, to me, I thought we knew everything about Nixon, but this is a new layer of the deceit and the anger, which it just does not subside. >> David M. Rubenstein: Now, in your career, have you ever met, did you ever meet Richard Nixon? >> Bob Woodward: No. I was not on his Christmas card list. [ Laughter ] I was on another list though [laughter]. >> David M. Rubenstein: And, and did you ever try to get an interview with him when he went back to [inaudible]? >> Bob Woodward: Yes, yes, Carl Bernstein and I did many times, and he declined. >> David M. Rubenstein: Okay. So let's go talk about the current election campaign, if we could. You have, you're still covering this campaign, and you've covered many political kinds of leadership, leaders over the years. Right now, tell us your view on Hillary Clinton, do you think that she and Donald Trump, for example, both of them are older than most people who are elected President of the United States, generally. Do you think age is a factor in this campaign? >> Bob Woodward: You know, well, I don't know, but it's interesting. President Obama, who now will leave the Presidency at age 55, has said privately that the Office and being President has taken a psychological and physical toll on him that he did not anticipate, and physically, he was not getting enough exercise, not walking enough, and so he had a new treadmill installed in the White House residence, and each night he gets on it for about an hour or hour and a half, and the top aides who send him written material, memos, have to make sure it's in large type, so he can be on the treadmill and read at the same time, and he has indicated to people that because the Presidency is different now than it was during the Nixon era, it's 24/7, everything comes at you. I, I think Presidents have a concentration of power. Now Obama does much more than Nixon did, and if you were to say what is, this is the age of the American Presidency. We in this country, and in the world, get measured by how the President does. >> David M. Rubenstein: So this, what you just said is private, so nobody should talk about what you just said about the President's private habits. >> Bob Woodward: Yes, right, that's off the record. >> David M. Rubenstein: Off the record. Okay [laughter]. >> Bob Woodward: And, and you know what it means, off the record means you absolutely and totally cannot use it unless it's really good [laughter]. >> David M. Rubenstein: So, actually for some people [inaudible]. >> Bob Woodward: And that's not really, I mean, that's not surprising that, I mean, you see Obama, you know, Obama, you see him, has he aged? >> David M. Rubenstein: Well, I'd say he has more gray hair than he used to have. >> Bob Woodward: Well, how about you? >> David M. Rubenstein: Well, my hair is dark, I dye it gray. I want people to think I'm more mature. That's the reason. But... >> Bob Woodward: Does it work? >> David M. Rubenstein: Hasn't worked yet, but hope is, hope springs eternal. So, let me ask you, you have interviewed Donald Trump. >> Bob Woodward: Yes. >> David M. Rubenstein: Any impressions you would like to convey? >> Bob Woodward: This was five months ago. Bob Costa, reporter at the Post, and I interviewed him, and, first of all, he wanted to kind of do this on the phone, and we said no, we want do it in person. I've never really met anyone who has the capacity to measure, in the moment, the reaction he's generating among the people he's talking to. Other words, the reaction to himself. And so, he's, face-to-face, very careful, not hostile, not angry. But in the text of the interview, he said some things that, I mean, let me confess I thought afterwards, you know, maybe that these things are so raw that it will hurt him or maybe finish him, because one, one of the things he said was, "I bring out rage in people." And he said that with pride. Now, I mean, you worked for Jimmy Carter and, you know, you, Presidents have to bring people together. Camp David Accords was an example of, you, you can't be President and bring out rage in people, but he does, and he thinks it's a good thing. We asked him about the economy, and he said he thought we were going to have an awful recession. Asked him about Lincoln and Nixon, two Republicans, and why, we asked him, why did Lincoln succeed as President? And he went, gave a long rambling answer, and said, well, Lincoln succeeded because he did things that needed to be done. Now, if you were in high school, and you wrote that on an exam [laughter]... >> David M. Rubenstein: So... [ Applause ] >> Bob Woodward: I mean, look. I mean, that's, he did things that needed to be done. Like what? I get, we didn't, we were I think embarrassed to ask [laughter]. And so why did Nixon fail? And he went on a little bit, and he said, well, basically, because of his personality [laughter]. And we couldn't, I'm sorry, I couldn't help but say but yeah, but he was a criminal [laughter]. And, and Trump said, "Oh, that too" [laughter]. >> David M. Rubenstein: So, now, have you interviewed Hillary Clinton lately? >> Bob Woodward: No. She, I'm, on not the Christmas card list. >> David M. Rubenstein: So she won't...but you've interviewed her in previous times? >> Bob Woodward: Yes. >> David M. Rubenstein: And your impression? >> Bob Woodward: And my impression is, I interviewed her when she was First Lady, and she was so open and candid in describing how her husband decided to run for President. I asked how, and she said, oh, I know. And explained how was her idea that he run for President. And, I, I was astonished that she would take the credit for this, but it, we checked, and it's true. She was the one who said, in 1991, to him, "This, if you run, this will be your time." And he said, "Oh, no, it'll be a dry run," and she said, "No, you will win, but you're, it's going to be hard because the Republicans are going to come after you," and there will be what she called a "pain threshold" that we have to go, we're going to have to go through, and over. And, and I've seen her before, and she is a different person. I mean, whether it's that, I mean, you know, is she different in and what we see on television, from what you have seen? >> David M. Rubenstein: I'm going to ask the questions, because people want to hear your opinion [laughter]. >> Bob Woodward: No, I asked that question, and let it be noted that you didn't answer [laughter]. >> David M. Rubenstein: I think people want to hear your views on things, not mine. But let me start back. You come from a family in the Midwest, your father was a judge. Many people who are judges would probably like to have their children be lawyers, too, maybe judges. You went to Yale. School that probably produces more lawyers and business people than journalists. Did you know you wanted to be a journalist when you went to Yale? >> Bob Woodward: No. And I served in the Navy five years after college, and I was going to go to law school, and I thought, "Oh my God, I'll be, you know, 30 years old when I get out of law school. That's the end of life [laughter]. And so, I went into, to journalism, and I told my father, "I've got a job at this weekly paper in Montgomery County, Maryland, that pays 115 dollars a week, and I'm going to do that instead of going to law school." My father, who was a really open-minded person who didn't make judgments, said, "You're crazy." >> David M. Rubenstein: So, you did that for a while, and then you got a little bit of a tryout with the Washington Post. >> Bob Woodward: Which I failed. >> David M. Rubenstein: So you had two weeks or something, or... >> Bob Woodward: Yeah, two-week tryout, and I wrote lots of stories, none of which they published, and they said, you know, see, you don't know how to do this, which is true. And, and so I worked at the... >> David M. Rubenstein: Okay. >> Bob Woodward: Montgomery [inaudible]. >> David M. Rubenstein: You worked in Montgomery, and eventually the Post gave you another chance, and you went back, and that was 1971, or 2. >> Bob Woodward: Yes, yes. >> David M. Rubenstein: '71. So, when you get back there, and you're assigned to the metropolitan area? >> Bob Woodward: Right, to the night police beat. >> David M. Rubenstein: Right. So, which is not usually a way to advance your career, right, the night police beat? So, how did it actually happen that you, as opposed to any of the other 500 reporters there, were assigned to Watergate break-in? >> Bob Woodward: I'd been there nine months. I really loved it. I did the night police beat, I would come in during the day and do stories, do follow-up stories, and you can't, I can't really capture for you completely, being in the Navy where it's controlled, where you have no freedom. The Washington Post, at that time, and I think now, you know, it's a reporter's newspaper, and if you can find out something and do something, you, you're supported by the editors. And so, the morning of the Watergate burglary was this Saturday morning, June 17, '72 was one of the nicest days in Washington, by far, and the editors met, they, this burglary was, looked like a police story, and they said, who would be dumb enough to come in and work this morning? And immediately my name came up [laughter]. >> David M. Rubenstein: They called you to come in? >> Bob Woodward: Yeah, and they called me to come in, and I went to the arraignment, and the judge, and here are the five burglars in business suits. Now, I'd covered the police beat for nine months, and I'd never heard of a burglar with a business suit [laughter], let alone five of them, and they stood there, and the judge asked the head, James McCord, where did you work? And McCord went, [whispered] "CIA." And the Judge said, "Speak up." And he said, [louder whisper] "CIA." And the Judge said, "Speak up." And he said, "CIA," and I was sitting in the front row and I think I said out loud, "Holy shit!" [ Laughter ] >> David M. Rubenstein: Did the judge hear you say that? >> Bob Woodward: No, I don't think he did but, and, and, you know, this, and it turned out this guy was Head of Security at the CIA, the Head of Security of the Nixon Reelection Committee. >> David M. Rubenstein: But at that point, you didn't think this was a story that would really touch Nixon, I assume. >> Bob Woodward: Yeah, you just, you never knew. Bernstein knew. He had a nose for it, that quite frankly, I didn't. >> David M. Rubenstein: So, you began to develop the story, but for many months, people were skeptical this was anything more than a break-in by some, you know, rogues, let's say, and nobody thought, really, that it was Nixon behind it, is that correct? >> Bob Woodward: Other than Carl. >> David M. Rubenstein: Okay. So, but, you began to go do a lot of research, and you published stories, many of them were used stories that were, there were cited sources that wouldn't, you couldn't disclose. Was that a novel thing at the time, the, to not be able to disclose those sources? >> Bob Woodward: It happened a lot in diplomatic and political reporting, but we instituted a two-source rule, and, but at the same time, as you look back on this, it was very risky, not for Carl and myself, we were young. I could have maybe still gone to law school if it'd turned out not to be true. And, but the risk was borne by the editors, and particularly Ben Bradley, and the owner, Catherine Graham. >> David M. Rubenstein: So, when you began to write some stories that turned out not to be accurate, and was proven they weren't accurate, did you get in trouble? >> Bob Woodward: Yeah, well we got, we made some mistakes, but they were mistakes in form. Actually, the, if you looked at the coverage, the stories as people had, they were very conservative, and careful, and unintentionally understated. >> David M. Rubenstein: So, where were the other major newspapers? I mean, you and Carl Bernstein get a lot of credit, maybe all the credit, for breaking this story, but where were all the other major newspapers, what were they doing? >> Bob Woodward: Well, it was a police story. You had to go, and, and, quite frankly, it was Carl Bernstein who had the, "Well, these people won't talk, so we have to go see them at home, and knock on their doors, and that's what, what we did, and we got clues, and we had Mark Felt, who was Deep Throat, the number two in the FBI, guiding us in a very secret way, and we kept finding pieces of the puzzle that said, "No, wait a minute. Watergate isn't just one thing. It's a series of sabotage and espionage operations launched by Nixon." >> David M. Rubenstein: Now, in the movie, there's a famous thing about Deep Throat. And where that name come from, by the way? >> Bob Woodward: The Managing Editor of the Post, Howard Simons, if it was on deep background, and so, Howard says, "Oh yeah, your guy 'Deep Throat, '" and so the name stayed around. >> David M. Rubenstein: So, did you actually go into the garage and all that? >> Bob Woodward: Yeah. Exactly as... >> David M. Rubenstein: And he was not worried that you would disclose his name? Obviously not, I guess, but... >> Bob Woodward: I think he probably was worried but I, you know, we'd made an agreement, you know, you make those agreements with somebody and try to stick to them. >> David M. Rubenstein: So, Mark Felt, who was the Deputy Head of the FBI, but wanted to be the head of the FBI, presumed, what was his reason for talking to you? >> Bob Woodward: Complicated, like all human motivation. Some high road, some high purpose, that this was too corrupt, and at the same time, he was very upset that he did not get selected to be FBI Director. >> David M. Rubenstein: So, most people, let's say, were playing the parlor game for 20 or 30 years, Who is Deep Throat? So, when people would come up to you and say well, can you just tell me privately who it is, I'll just, I won't tell anybody? Did that happen a lot, and did people get accused of it, and they were being accused of it, and you knew they weren't it, but how did you handle all that? >> Bob Woodward: Sometimes, couple of people were accused and said, you know, I can't get a job unless you call the guy and say it wasn't me. And but, you know, it was, I mean, we agreed, and I told my wife, and Bradley knew, and it, I mean, I hate to be so practical about this, but when there was this parlor game, and I'd go interview people, and I remember going to see a Senator about a sensitive subject, and he said, "Oh, my wife said to me," you know, "He never told who Deep Throat was, so he's not going to tell who you are," and so, it, it helped in the work, that people knew. >> David M. Rubenstein: Well, what is the journalists' convention on this? Let's suppose Mark Felt had died, and once he's deceased, do you feel an obligation to protect his identity is no longer around? >> Bob Woodward: I think once somebody is deceased, they're not going to object [laughter]. >> David M. Rubenstein: Right [laughter]. So, how did, you know, the previous book you wrote talked about Mark Felt. You identified him, and how did that come about? At what age did he actually say, "Okay, you can use my name now?" >> Bob Woodward: He didn't. What happened, he, he unmasked himself in 2005 and, to Vanity Fair magazine, and so we had make sure that he was, because he was old and frail, and I wrote what had happened in book form to be published after he died, but it actually turned out to be a good thing, because it was a mystery, and people were confused by it. There was some doubt, and to remove that doubt, I thought, was important to the story, and to the history of this. >> David M. Rubenstein: So, you wrote a book called, "All the President's Men," and that was made into a movie, and we mentioned Bob Woodward played you, and so forth. But then you wrote another book about that period of time, which was, "The Last," "The Final Days," I guess. Now, can you describe what were the most surprising things that you learned about in the final days of Nixon's White House time? >> Bob Woodward: This was about his last year, while he was under investigation, and leading to the resignation. It, it showed how much it was a lawyering operation. It showed how emotional it was. The night before Nixon resigned, he had a meeting with Henry Kissinger when they got down on the floor and prayed, and you could see that, we published this in the book, and I remember Kissinger denied it, and then, and said oh, you know, there was this unfeeling account of that evening together with Nixon, which has showed Nixon out of control, and then Kissinger wrote his own version of that in his memoirs, and it's actually more searing. He said Nixon wasn't out of control, just he was shattered, and it was very sad and, you know, what we often forget in reporting is the emotional impact of these political events, and that was kind of the culmination. >> David M. Rubenstein: So how often does it happen that somebody calls you up when you're a reporter, and says, "I have a great scoop for you," and it turns out not to be much, or it turns out to be great. I mean, did somebody...? >> Bob Woodward: Never enough. David M. Rubenstein: Never enough? >> Bob Woodward: Right. >> David M. Rubenstein: But, do you ever get...? >> Bob Woodward: Somebody called me from the White House when you worked there, do you remember this? >> David M. Rubenstein: I do remember that. >> Bob Woodward: Do you want me to bring it up? >> David M. Rubenstein: I do remember, and it was painful, but... >> Bob Woodward: Okay, about a memo that David wrote to Carter about OPEC, the oil monopoly, and you suggested that the strategy for dealing with OPEC was what? >> David M. Rubenstein: To blame it on Bob Woodward? I don't remember, but... [laughter]. >> Bob Woodward: No, no [laughter]. >> David M. Rubenstein: No, what, actually what it was, was... >> Bob Woodward: Was to declare war on them, essentially, yes. >> David M. Rubenstein: At the time, he was stopping back from a trip to Japan, he was in Hawaii, and they were going to spend a couple days there, and I think that sense was that he should come back and deal with the energy problem, and deal with it directly. That, I think that was the essence of the memo, but I'm not sure the reporter got it right, but anyway [laughter]. >> Bob Woodward: Yes, I'm sure, and it was the language of, "Let's declare war on it, on OPEC." Which, you know, I mean we did a big banner story on it, and that made you famous. >> David M. Rubenstein: I don't know about that [laughter]. So, let me ask you about another related subject. After you did those two books, you were given access to a famous person, and you came out of it, it wasn't in the political world, it was John Belushi, and you wrote a book about John Belushi, and it seemed like it was a painful experience, because everybody who kind of knew him then said your book was not accurate. And, can you describe what that was about? >> Bob Woodward: Actually they never said it was not accurate. They said it didn't show the good side of him, the joyful side. You know, look. It, it was a drug overdose death. He was a drug addict. These people who were close to him knew he was a drug addict. They gave him money to buy drugs. They fed it, because that was part of the Belushi show, and they were, I don't think the term was used in the 80's, drug enablers, and they felt guilty about it, and what I did it all on the record. They were all confessional about, you know, what they did, and the end result was tragic and sad, and they didn't like it, and they, I think some of them thought they should blame me, the messenger. >> David M. Rubenstein: Your next book was about the Supreme Court, and that's a place that very few people, maybe nobody ever really got access to the Justices. How did you get access to the Justices, or their Clerks, and, and how did that come about, and what did you learn in that book that was really most interesting? >> Bob Woodward: It was sitting there, the, you know, the Court, how does it really function, and one of the Justices, Justice Stewart, kept wanting, I wanted to talk to him, I finally came to his house, and he outlined the brethren, and he was quite angry at Chief Justice Burger, and we realized this is an important story. We got five of the Justices to cooperate, 1 40 law clerks, boxes of documents, of drafts and memos, and it, it was kind of a shock to the legal community when it came out, and it was denounced, and now people acknowledge that it's the most severe critics say it was accurate. And, you know, it, it's, it's not a pretty story when you say the Supreme Court, that decides what the law is, or interprets the law, that personal animus and some of the things that drive most human beings one way or another, plays a role, and it does. >> David M. Rubenstein: So, another book you wrote dealt with the Iran Contra situation, and your, and Bill Casey, and do you think President Reagan knew about Iran Contra? >> Bob Woodward: There is no evidence, and I did a later book on that, and dealt with the lawyers who investigated Reagan, White House lawyers, and, and they concluded, and I think that's right, there was no evidence that he knew about illegal diversion of profits from the Iran arms sales to the Nicaraguan... >> David M. Rubenstein: Now, in that book you were criticized by some people for saying you had a lot of conversation with Bill Casey, and people said Casey couldn't really talk that much, and you visited him in the hospital. How did you respond to those critics? >> Bob Woodward: Well, there's a CIA Inspector General's report that they documented, that I talked to Casey in person or on the phone 48 times. And I wrote about seeing Casey in the hospital, and he spoke, I think, 19 words to me in four or five minutes, and then Bob Gates, who was his deputy who became the CIA director after Casey resigned, wrote in his own memoir that he talked to Casey at the same time, and that you could understand Casey. >> David M. Rubenstein: Let's talk about President Bush. You wrote a book about the war that we did in Kuwait, and that was "The Commanders." And in that war, what, who do you think the hero was that really came up with the strategy that won that war in Kuwait? Was it Colin Powell, was it Schwarzkopf, was it President Bush? And what went so well in that particular war? >> Bob Woodward: Well, when we look back, I was somewhat of a critic of the war and whether it was necessary at the time, but the genius of the war was, it was quick, lasted about 40 days, minimal US casualties, and it accomplished the mission of getting Saddam's Iraqi Republican Guard and forces out of Kuwait, and sending them, and they went back to a Iraq. So, the genius of it, or who's the hero in the end, was President Bush, who put it all together, used diplomacy, went to Congress to get authority, but also listened to Colin Powell, who was chairman of the Joint Chief, saying, we need 500,000 troops to do this. >> David M. Rubenstein: So, when you write books like the ones we just talked about, how long does it take you to do the research, and how long does it take you to do the writing, and do you do all the research and then write, or do you research, write, research, write? What's your style? >> Bob Woodward: You want to do a lot of research, and then start writing early. Sometimes I call it a premature draft, so you see what's missing, and then you go back and do more interviewing. >> David M. Rubenstein: Do you write it out longhand, do you use a computer? >> Bob Woodward: I use a computer. >> David M. Rubenstein: And when you use a computer, do you show it to an editor early on, or do you just keep it for a while until you're ready to show it? >> Bob Woodward: I show it to, my, I have an assistant or two, and to my wife, Elsa, who's the best editor around, and I, you know, it's a process of, you, you add to it and then I show it. Alice Mayhew at Simon & Schuster has been my editor on all 18 books. >> David M. Rubenstein: So, some people have a theory, it's maybe my theory, that if you're a journalist and you're writing for a daily publication, let's say the Washington Post, somebody might be less inclined to talk to you, because whatever they say might be in the newspapers the next day, but if you're talking to a book author, you figure, well, this will be coming out in a year or two, and I won't care about it. Do you think that's true or not? >> Bob Woodward: I think no, it's somewhat true, and they realize you're talking to other people, and it, it gets around. I mean, even the Obama White House, I've done two books on Obama, and people would say, okay, he's working on this, he's got these memos or documents, or the accounts of what happened at meetings. >> David M. Rubenstein: But the, do you ever say to people, "I'm talking to X, they've authorized me to say that they're talking to me," or do you never tell anybody who you've talked to? >> Bob Woodward: It depends, some people are willing to talk on the record, most just on background, except Presidents. When you interview a President, I don't think you can talk to a President on background. So when I've interviewed Bush or Obama it's always on the record. >> David M. Rubenstein: So, for people who may not be familiar with the journalist terms, "Off the record" means, again... >> Bob Woodward: You can't use it. >> David M. Rubenstein: You can't use it any time. >> Bob Woodward: Well, except it doesn't mean you can't find it out elsewhere, and because you can't, you know, flush it out of your mind, and so sometimes, people think off the record means it's, I'm never going to see this in print, and they're shocked when they do, and you have to explain, yeah, you told me about this, but I found out from somebody else, and then you want to find out more. So they know, okay, you got it... >> David M. Rubenstein: And that's off the record. What is background? >> Bob Woodward: Background means that you're going to use it and not say where it came from. >> David M. Rubenstein: What's deep background? >> Bob Woodward: Means you're really going to just kind of say it like it came out of the air. >> David M. Rubenstein: Okay, and on the record means that they can clean up the quotes, or they get to approve the quotes? >> Bob Woodward: No, it means, it's on the record, you're going to use it. Sometimes people want to go, want you to come back. I'm not really in love with that process, because you then get people wandering and cleaning up, and you want what they really said and meant. >> David M. Rubenstein: So when you interview somebody, do you write notes, or do you tape? >> Bob Woodward: I tape as much as I can with the person's knowledge, and it's amazing how all of a sudden, that tape recorder goes away, you would think it would cause people to freeze up, but it doesn't, because they know, okay, I'm not going to give that, I mean, I've got transcripts of interviews from people over decades that I've used in books, and if you look at these or listened, you might really be surprised at the clarity and the, forthrightness. >> David M. Rubenstein: When you're taping somebody, do you ever make the mistake I do, you push the wrong button and it doesn't, the tape doesn't work, or does it always work? >> Bob Woodward: Yeah, it's happened once. The tape ran, the battery ran out. >> David M. Rubenstein: Now, you've interviewed, you never interviewed Nixon. >> Bob Woodward: No. >> David M. Rubenstein: But you did interview President Ford? >> Bob Woodward: Yes. >> David M. Rubenstein: What was your impression of President Ford? >> Bob Woodward: You know, Gerald Ford turned out, I thought when he went, September 1974, he'd been President for one month, went on TV announcing, he, on a Sunday morning, giving Nixon a full pardon for Watergate, I didn't see that. I was asleep that morning, and Carl Bernstein called me up, and said, "Have you heard?" And I said, "I haven't heard anything, I was asleep," and Carl, truly the ability to say things with the fewest words and the most drama, said, "The son of a bitch pardoned the son of a bitch." >> David M. Rubenstein: [laughter] Okay. >> Bob Woodward: And even I was able to figure out what had happened [laughter]. And I thought, ah, it's the perfect corruption, of, you know, Nixon's the one behind all this, he gets a pardon. There was an aroma of a deal, I later for the book "Shadow," 25 years later, met Ford and interviewed him for the first time. Kept going back to him, and he really explained what, what happened, and what is important is I, I think what Ford did was really courageous rather than corrupt. He had to move on beyond Watergate. The only way to do it was pardon Nixon, because Nixon was going to be investigated, certainly charged, might go to trial, might go to jail, and as Ford said, we'd have two or three more years of Watergate. The country couldn't stand it. >> David M. Rubenstein: You think had he not pardoned Nixon, he would've been reelected? Or elected? >> Bob Woodward: Ford? You know, I don't, I mean, obviously that's, if history, you don't know but Ford, in having the luxury of time, I could go visit him at his home in Colorado, or in California, and I think we peeled the onion on that pretty completely, and what was a shock to me was how wrong I had it. I thought it was the absolute corruption, and the Kennedy library gave him the profiles in courage award for pardoning Nixon, and I watch that and I, it's true, it was a cold shower. And then I realized, you know, how humbling, how, to be honest, humiliating it was, because I was sure it was corrupt, and then you examine it 25 years later, and it's the precise opposite. It's courage, and so that puts a, puts you, your judgmental, the part of your head, in slow motion. Don't rush to judgments. You may have it absolutely wrong. >> David M. Rubenstein: Did you ever interview President Carter? >> Bob Woodward: Yes. >> David M. Rubenstein: And what was your impression of President Carter? >> Bob Woodward: Well, the first interview with him was his first month in office, when I found out that King Hussein of Jordan had been on the CIA payroll. And we called the White House, and I remember Jody Powell was the Press Secretary. I hadn't covered the campaign, and I said, there's a secret operation of paying King Hussein. The CIA does it, and the operation is called "No Beef." And I remember Jody Powell going, "No shit!" We didn't deal with stuff like that in Georgia, and then he said, "You and Bradley come see Carter tomorrow morning at 9 o'clock," and Carter, off the record, confirmed it, and, but Ben asked him, will it harm national security if we publish this? And Carter said no. And of course Brzezinski, who wasn't invited to the meeting, went nuts afterwards, and, and we published it, and Carter went up to the hill and and said some things that were not factual, and I was distressed that again, after all of Nixon's saying things that were not true, I was distressed that Carter kind of couldn't face up to what happened. >> David M. Rubenstein: Did you ever interview Reagan? >> Bob Woodward: No. No. He would never do an interview. >> David M. Rubenstein: And did you interview George Herbert Walker Bush? >> Bob Woodward: He would never do an interview. He had been Republican National Committee Chairman during Watergate, and I wasn't on his Christmas card list either [laughter]. >> David M. Rubenstein: Did you ever interview Bill Clinton? >> Bob Woodward: Oh yes. >> David M. Rubenstein: And your impression of Bill Clinton? >> Bob Woodward: Oh, Clinton, what an interesting interview. It was, I think he'd been, it was '94, I was doing the book, "The Agenda," on his economic policy. It was a background interview, but he's talked about it, and, and what you go into the Oval Office, and he drills you with this eye contact that is almost a gravitational force. I've never known it, I mean, he doesn't blink. Now, you blink all the time. I blink all the time. Well, I think, ever since he was five, he decided he wanted to be President, and realized, contribute every organ in the body to the task [laughter] including your eyes. >> David M. Rubenstein: Alright. Bob Woodward: And so, it creates that sense of intimacy, slows time down just a little bit, and did this interview, and I thought oh, because it's, you are the only person who exists, and it, no blink, focus, gives paragraph answers, and I was thinking, oh, he realizes how brilliant my questions are [laughter]. And I left the interview thinking, this, you know, what a great interview, such insight, I can use all this, and then I read, had a transcript made, and read the transcript without the eye contact, and it was mush [laughter]. But, but it sure felt good [laughter]. >> David M. Rubenstein: So did you ever interview George W. Bush? >> Bob Woodward: Oh yes, many times. >> David M. Rubenstein: Your impression of him? >> Bob Woodward: Four books. Bush was, he agreed to be interviewed extensively for hours, two, three hours, four hours, three of the four books I did on his wars, and there was always little pushback, but I have 300 pages of transcript of those interviews, which were almost all on the record, and I'm going to publish them someday, because you see, there, in his odd way, there's a lot of candor, there's some defensiveness, particularly about the Iraq war, but I think when people say that on the Iraq war that he lied, I spent a year and a half on this, and talked to everyone, and got notes and documents. I think he made a tragic mistake, I think the CIA, George Tenet, telling Bush it was a slam dunk that there were weapons of mass destruction in Iraq, the CIA made a terrible mistake, but I don't think it was a lie. I think it was a tragedy, and if you go through all the steps, you kind of come up, gee, you know, he should've realized it was not necessary to go to war, but there was a momentum and he, you know, he had the support of people like Joe Biden, and Hillary Clinton, who voted to give them the authority to go to war. >> David M. Rubenstein: So, have you interviewed President Obama? >> Bob Woodward: Yes. >> David M. Rubenstein: And what is your impression of President Obama? >> Bob Woodward: Very smart. Likes, you know, he, look at the world, media world, he lives in, the few questions and, and so forth a lot of softball interviews. I sent him a, I think, 12-page single-spaced memo of, I understand this is what happened, these were the meetings, the issues, the discussions, and I want to interview you, and he, he agreed, and I think he agreed because he knew he was going to get his say. And he gets his say, it doesn't mean that there isn't criticism of some of these things, he's very much on top of the job, I mean, I just, I have a little technique when I'm interviewing somebody. I take this finger and put it over this finger and dig it into the nail so it hurts, and it tells me to shut up when I'm asking questions. And just as the CIA, they say, "Let the silence suck out the truth," sometimes you just have to shut up, and so, with Obama, he likes to talk, and so I do this and shut up, and he will, would say things, like, just out of the blue he said, "Oh, what do you think I worry about the most?" Now what do you think Obama worries about the most? What's the big worry? >> David M. Rubenstein: Well, I think his biggest worry'd probably be seen as being, doing a good job as President of the United States, and bringing, making sure there's no... >> Bob Woodward: I mean, the one, kind of, thing that, you know, what he said, he said, "The thing I worry about is a nuclear weapon going off in an American city." He said that would be a game changer, and, and, and then he said, "Many of our intelligence programs are designed to prevent that," and I think that's true, I think, you know about, if you know about some of those intelligence programs, which over the years I've learned about, you don't write about them, because they buy a degree of security, and so that was kind of, okay, you know, he's worried about the thing that could devastate this country. >> David M. Rubenstein: So, you've written, as I said, sixteen books. >> Bob Woodward: Eighteen. >> David M. Rubenstein: I'm sorry, eighteen books [laughter]. Eighteen books. Twelve of them New York Times Bestseller number ones, and they all were bestsellers. What's your nineteenth book going to be? >> Bob Woodward: The Rubinstein Empire [laughter]. >> David M. Rubenstein: That's going to be a very small block. So, as you look... >> Bob Woodward: And, no, the title's going to be, "Why does he really give away all this money?" >> David M. Rubenstein: So, let me wrap up [laughter]. >> Bob Woodward: You know the Citizen Kane movie, Rosebud? >> David M. Rubenstein: Yes. >> Bob Woodward: What's rosebud? >> David M. Rubenstein: I just want to do a good interview of you, and have people buy your book and read it. >> Bob Woodward: Anyone who believes that, raise your hand [laughter]. >> David M. Rubenstein: So, your legacy. Obviously, as I said at the beginning, you're regarded as one of the greatest, maybe the best-known, and best journalist of the 20th Century, 21st Century. What would you like people to know about you? >> Bob Woodward: You know, I think that's, it's, the work is out there, and that speaks for itself, and the mistakes, I think the interesting legacy question is for journalism now. Yesterday I was talking down at the Museum to 250 people, and I asked the question, I said, how many of you think the media is doing a good to passable job of covering the Presidential campaign? Not a single hand went up, and, you know, you and I don't think we'd take a poll here, maybe we could. How many people, can I take a poll? >> David M. Rubenstein: Sure. >> Bob Woodward: How many people think the news media is doing a passable to good job of covering the Presidential campaign, raise your hands? Yeah, there're six people, out of, now, that's sincere. They're not making that up. Part of it is, it's kind of, it's fun to dump on the media, but we need to face the fact that we've lost the trust and confidence of a large majority, a vast majority of the public. It'd be like if you, if the Carlisle group, you know, was going, and you kept losing money, losing money, losing money, there comes a point where you have to say, hey, we're going to have to deal with this. We are going to have to deal with it in the news media. I do not have the answer to how we do that. The new owner of the Washington Post, Jeff Bezos has said, he said to me a year ago, said, make sure we, because he asked me. He said, could we have known about Nixon earlier? And I said I don't think so, but we could've done a better job, and he said, to his credit, he said, okay, we need to make sure that we provide in the Washington Post as much background on who these people really are, and then he said the goal is that no one can go to the polls in November and say, I couldn't find out who the final candidates were. And that's exactly the right goal, and he said to me, you tell Marty, Marty Baron, the Editor of the Post, this was Bezos, like a good CEO, was totally breaking the chain of command, and said pass on to Marty, he will have the resources to do this. And if you talk to Marty Baron, he'd say Bezos has delivered. We have many people, we have 40 people covering the national campaign one way or another, it's more than the New York Times, and we have had some fabulous stories. We've done a book on Trump. Now, are people going to get up and applaud? No. I mean, we still are distrusted. We're still on probation, and we need to figure out how to get out of probation, that is the monstrous problem we've got to confront. >> David M. Rubenstein: So, as a journalist, you have quite a legacy. You have two daughters. Do they want to be journalists? >> Bob Woodward: One, Tally, is, works at the Columbia Journalism School, administers the Masters program there. The other is a sophomore in college, and she couldn't run further from journalism [laughter]. >> David M. Rubenstein: Bob, I want to thank you for all the great books you've given everybody [applause]. And thank you for a great job. >> Bob Woodward: Thank you. [ Applause ] >> This has been a presentation of the Library of Congress. Visit us at LLC.gov.

Contents

Early life and career

Bernstein was born to a Jewish family[3] in Washington, D.C., the son of Sylvia (Walker) and Alfred Bernstein. He attended Montgomery Blair High School in Silver Spring, Maryland, where he worked as circulation and exchange manager[4] for the school's newspaper Silver Chips. He began his journalism career at the age of 16 when he became a copyboy for The Washington Star and moved "quickly through the ranks."[2] The Star, however, unofficially required a college degree to write for the paper. Because he had dropped out from the University of Maryland (where he was a reporter for the school's independent daily, The Diamondback[5]) and did not intend to finish, Bernstein left in 1965 to become a full-time reporter for the Elizabeth Daily Journal in New Jersey.[6] While there, he won first prize in New Jersey's press association for investigative reporting, feature writing, and news on a deadline.[2] In 1966, Bernstein left New Jersey and began reporting for The Washington Post, where he covered every aspect of local news and became known as one of the paper's best writing stylists.[7]

Watergate

On a Saturday in June 1972, Bernstein was assigned, along with Bob Woodward, to cover a break-in at the Watergate office complex that had occurred earlier the same morning. Five burglars had been caught red-handed in the complex, where the Democratic National Committee had its headquarters; one of them turned out to be an ex-CIA agent who did security work for the Republicans. In the series of stories that followed, Bernstein and Woodward eventually connected the burglars to a massive slush fund and a corrupt attorney general. Bernstein was the first to suspect that President Nixon was involved, and he found a laundered check that linked Nixon to the burglary.[8] Bernstein and Woodward's discoveries led to further investigations of Nixon, and on August 9, 1974, amid hearings by the House Judiciary Committee, Nixon resigned in order to avoid facing impeachment.

In 1974, two years after the Watergate burglary and two months before Nixon resigned, Bernstein and Woodward released the book All the President's Men. The book drew upon the notes and research accumulated while writing articles about the scandal for the Post and "remained on best-seller lists for six months." In 1975 it was turned into a movie starring Dustin Hoffman as Bernstein and Robert Redford as Woodward which later went on to be nominated in multiple Oscar (including Best Picture nomination), Golden Globe and BAFTA categories.[9] A second book, The Final Days, was published by Bernstein and Woodward in 1976 as a follow-up chronicling Nixon's last days in office.[10]

After Watergate

Bernstein left The Washington Post in 1977 and began investigating a secret relationship between the CIA and American media during the Cold War. He spent a year researching the article, which was published as a 25,000-word piece in Rolling Stone magazine.

He then began working for ABC News. Between 1980 and 1984, Bernstein was the network's Washington Bureau Chief and then a senior correspondent. In 1982, for ABC's Nightline, Bernstein was the first to report[citation needed] during the Israeli invasion of Lebanon that Ariel Sharon had "deceived the cabinet about the real intention of the operation—to drive the Palestinians out of Lebanon, not (as he had claimed) to merely establish a 25-kilometer security zone north from the border."[citation needed]

Two years after leaving ABC News, Bernstein released the book Loyalties: A Son's Memoir, in which he revealed that his parents had been members of the Communist Party of America. The assertion shocked some because even J. Edgar Hoover had tried and been unable to prove that Bernstein's parents had been party members.[8]

In 1992, also for Time, Bernstein wrote a cover story publicizing the alliance between Pope John Paul II and President Ronald Reagan. Later, along with Vatican expert Marco Politi, he published a papal biography entitled His Holiness. Bernstein wrote in the 1996 book that the Pope's role in supporting Solidarity in his native Poland, and his geopolitical dexterity combined with enormous spiritual influence, was a principal factor in the downfall of communism in Europe.[11]

In 1992, Bernstein wrote a cover story for The New Republic magazine indicting modern journalism for its sensationalism and celebration of gossip over real news. The article was entitled "The Idiot Culture".

Bernstein's biography of Hillary Rodham Clinton, A Woman In Charge: The Life of Hillary Rodham Clinton, was published by Alfred A. Knopf on June 5, 2007. Knopf had a first printing of 275,000 copies. It appeared on The New York Times Best Seller list for three weeks.[12] A CBS News end-of-year survey of publishing "hits and misses" included A Woman in Charge in the "miss" category and implied that its total sales were somewhere in the range of perhaps 55,000–65,000 copies.[13]

Bernstein is a frequent guest and analyst on television news programs, and most recently wrote articles for Newsweek/The Daily Beast, comparing Rupert Murdoch's News of the World phone-hacking scandal to Watergate.[14]

In 2012, Carl Bernstein spoke at a rally of People's Mujahedin of Iran, an opposition Iranian organization that had previously been listed as a Foreign Terrorist Organization by the United States, reportedly receiving a payment for his speech.[15]

Personal life

Bernstein has been married three times, first to a fellow reporter at The Washington Post, Carol Honsa; then to writer and director Nora Ephron from 1976 to 1980; and since 2003 to the former model Christine Kuehbeck.

During his marriage to Ephron, Bernstein met Margaret Jay, daughter of British Prime Minister James Callaghan and wife of Peter Jay, then UK ambassador to the United States. They had a much-publicized extramarital relationship in 1979. Margaret later became a government minister in her own right.[16] Bernstein and second wife Ephron already had an infant son, Jacob, and she was pregnant with their second son, Max, in 1979 when she learned of her husband's affair with Jay. Ephron delivered Max prematurely after finding out.[17] Ephron was inspired by the events to write the 1983 novel Heartburn,[16] which was made into a 1986 film starring Jack Nicholson and Meryl Streep.

While single, in the 1980s, Bernstein became known for dating Bianca Jagger, Martha Stewart and Elizabeth Taylor,[8] among others.

Bernstein currently resides in New York with his wife Christine.

Portrayals

Bernstein was portrayed by Dustin Hoffman in the film version of All the President's Men,[18] and by Bruce McCulloch in the 1999 comedy film Dick.[19]

Books authored

  • All the President's Men—with Bob Woodward (1974) ISBN 0-671-21781-X,
  • The Final Days—with Bob Woodward (1976) ISBN 0-671-22298-8
  • Loyalties: A Son's Memoir (1989)
  • His Holiness: John Paul II and the History of Our Time—with Marco Politi (1996)
  • The Secret Man: The Story of Watergate's Deep Throat—with Bob Woodward (2005) ISBN 0-7432-8715-0
  • A Woman in Charge: The Life of Hillary Rodham Clinton (2007) ISBN 0-375-40766-9

See also

References

  1. ^ Roy J. Harris, Jr., Pulitzer's Gold, 2007, p. 233, Columbia: University of Missouri Press, ISBN 9780826217684.
  2. ^ a b c "Carl Bernstein". The Huffington Post. Retrieved February 6, 2014.
  3. ^ Silbiger, Steve (May 25, 2000). The Jewish Phenomenon: Seven Keys to the Enduring Wealth of a People. Taylor Trade Publishing. p. 190. ISBN 9781589794900.
  4. ^ "Yes, kids, there is life after high school". Washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2017-02-15.
  5. ^ Michael Olesker (February 25, 1996). "Parking, paying and getting pilloried". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 2017-02-15.
  6. ^ Shepard, Alicia C. (May 2, 2008). Woodward and Bernstein. Chapter 1, "The Up and Comers", pp. 1–29. Wiley Publishing. Retrieved February 6, 2014.
  7. ^ "WATERGATE: Key Players: Carl Bernstein". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 6, 2014.
  8. ^ a b c "HE WENT FROM WATERGATE TO 'HEARTBURN,' FROM INVESTIGATIVE SUPERSTAR TO CELEBRITY DINNER GUEST. NOW BERNSTEIN'S BACK WITH AN EVOCATIVE BOOK ON HIS EMBATTLED CHILDHOOD, BUT HE'S Still Carl After All These Years". The Washington Post. March 19, 1989. Archived from the original on October 23, 2012. Retrieved August 16, 2007.
  9. ^ "University of Texas". Hrc.utexas.edu. 2008-03-21. Retrieved 2017-02-15.
  10. ^ Google Books [1], accessed September 7, 2011
  11. ^ Cathnews. "Carl Bernstein on John Paul II's great victory". Cathnews. Archived from the original on July 26, 2011. Retrieved May 6, 2011.
  12. ^ "Hawes Publications Adult New York Times Best Seller Lists for 2007". Hawes.com. Retrieved 2017-02-15.
  13. ^ Italie, Hillel (December 18, 2007). "Books: Hits And Misses In 2007". CBS News. Retrieved October 27, 2016.
  14. ^ Newsweek.com [2], published July 9, 2011
  15. ^ "Watergate Journalist Carl Bernstein Spoke at Event Supporting Iranian 'Terrorist' Group". ProPublica. 2012-08-31. Retrieved 2017-02-15.
  16. ^ a b "Baroness Jay's political progress". BBC News. July 31, 2001. Retrieved August 16, 2007.
  17. ^ "Get real – ageing's not all Helen Mirren". London: The Times. March 4, 2007. Archived from the original on March 7, 2007. Retrieved May 18, 2017.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  18. ^ "All the President's Men (1976)". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
  19. ^ "Bruce McCullough". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved February 4, 2017.

External links

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