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Caribbean Community

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Caribbean Community
Anthem: "Celebrating CARICOM"[1]
  Full members
  Associate members
Seat of SecretariatGeorgetown, Guyana
Largest cityPort-au-Prince, Haiti
Official languagesEnglish[2]
Working language[3][2]
Other languages
Ethnic groups In full member states:
Demonym(s)Caribbean people
TypeSupranational union[6]
Member states
Carla Barnett
• Chairman
Roosevelt Skerrit[7]
4 July 1973
• Revised Treaty of Chaguaramas
• Total
458,480 km2 (177,020 sq mi)
• 2019 estimate
18,482,141 (in full member states)[8]
239,251,864[8] (in all states)
• Density
40.3/km2 (104.4/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2020 estimate
• Total
$145.3 billion[9]
• Per capita
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$81.987 billion
• Per capita
HDI (2018)Increase 0.730[10]

The Caribbean Community (CARICOM or CC) is an intergovernmental organisation that is a political and economic union of 15 member states (14 nation-states and one dependency) throughout the Americas and Atlantic Ocean. They have primary objectives to promote economic integration and cooperation among its members, ensure that the benefits of integration are equitably shared, and coordinate foreign policy. The organisation was established in 1973,[11] with its four founding members signing the Treaty of Chaguaramas. Its primary activities involve:

  • Coordinating economic policies and development planning.
  • Devising and instituting special projects for the less-developed countries within its jurisdiction.
  • Operating as a regional single market for many of its members (Caricom Single Market).
  • Handling regional trade disputes.

The secretariat headquarters is in Georgetown, Guyana. CARICOM is an official United Nations Observer beneficiary.[12]

CARICOM was established by the English-speaking parts of the Caribbean and currently includes all the independent Anglophone island countries plus Belize, Guyana and Montserrat, as well as all other British Caribbean territories and Bermuda as associate members. English was its sole working language into the 1990s. The organisation became multilingual with the addition of Dutch-speaking Suriname in 1995 and the French and Haitian Creole-speaking Haiti in 2002. Furthermore, it added Spanish as the fourth official language in 2003.[3] In July 2012, CARICOM announced they considered making French and Dutch official languages.[13] In 2001, the heads of government signed a revised Treaty of Chaguaramas[14] that cleared the way to transform the idea of a common market CARICOM into the Caribbean (CARICOM) Single Market and Economy. Part of the revised treaty establishes and implements the Caribbean Court of Justice.

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CARICOM, originally the Caribbean Community and Common Market, was established by the Treaty of Chaguaramas[15] which took effect on 1 August 1973. The first four signatories were Barbados, Jamaica, Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago.

CARICOM superseded the 1965–1972 Caribbean Free Trade Association (CARIFTA) organised to provide a continued economic linkage between the English-speaking countries of the Caribbean after the dissolution of the West Indies Federation, which lasted from 3 January 1958 to 31 May 1962.

A revised Treaty of Chaguaramas established the Caribbean Community including the CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME) and was signed by the CARICOM Heads of Government of the Caribbean Community on 5 July 2001 at their Twenty-Second Meeting of the Conference in Nassau, The Bahamas.[16] The revised treaty cleared the way to transform the idea of a common market CARICOM into the Caribbean (CARICOM) Single Market and Economy.

Haiti's membership in CARICOM remained effectively suspended from 29 February 2004 through early June 2006 following the 2004 Haitian coup d'état and the removal of Jean-Bertrand Aristide from the presidency.[17][18] CARICOM announced that no democratically elected government in CARICOM should have its leader deposed. The fourteen other heads of government sought to have Aristide fly from Africa to Jamaica and share his account of events with them, which infuriated the interim Haitian prime minister, Gérard Latortue, who announced he would take steps to take Haiti out of CARICOM.[19] CARICOM thus voted on suspending the participation of Haitian officials from the councils of CARICOM.[20][21] Following the presidential election of René Préval, Haitian officials were readmitted and Préval himself gave the opening address at the CARICOM Council of Ministers meeting in July.[22][23]

Since 2013 the CARICOM-bloc and with the Dominican Republic have been tied to the European Union via an Economic Partnership Agreements signed in 2008 known as CARIFORUM.[24] The treaty grants all members of the European Union and CARIFORUM equal rights in terms of trade and investment. Under Article 234 of the agreement, the European Court of Justice handles dispute resolution between CARIFORUM and European Union states.[25]


As of 2016 CARICOM has 15 full members, five associate members and eight observers. All associate members are British Overseas Territories, and it is currently not established what the role of the associate members will be. The observers are states which engage in at least one of CARICOM's technical committees.[26][page needed]

CARICOM members
Status Name Join date Notes
Full member  Antigua and Barbuda 4 July 1974
 The Bahamas 4 July 1983 Not a part of the customs union
 Barbados 1 August 1973 One of the four founding members
 Belize 1 May 1974
 Guyana 1 August 1973 One of the four founding members
 Haiti 2 July 2002 Provisional membership on 4 July 1998
 Jamaica 1 August 1973 One of the four founding members
 Montserrat 1 May 1974 British overseas territory
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 26 July 1974 Joined as Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla
 Saint Lucia 1 May 1974
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1 May 1974
 Suriname 4 July 1995
 Trinidad and Tobago 1 August 1973 One of the four founding members
Associate  Anguilla July 1999 British overseas territory
 Bermuda 2 July 2003
 British Virgin Islands July 1991
 Cayman Islands 16 May 2002
 Turks and Caicos Islands July 1991
Observer  Aruba Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
 Curaçao Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
 Dominican Republic
 Puerto Rico Unincorporated territory of the United States
 Sint Maarten Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands

Relationship with Cuba

In 2017 the Republic of Cuba and the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) signed the "CARICOM-Cuba Trade and Economic Cooperation Agreement"[27] to facilitate closer trade ties.[28] In December, 2022 President of the Republic of Cuba, H.E. Miguel Díaz-Canel met in Bridgetown, Barbados with the Heads of State and Government of CARICOM. On the occasion of the 8th CARICOM-Cuba Summit to commemorate the 50th Anniversary of establishing diplomatic relations with the independent States of CARICOM and Cuba and the 20th Anniversary of CARICOM-Cuba Day. Cuba also accepted CARICOM's offer to deepen bilateral cooperation and to join robust discussions in the bloc's regional 'Joint Ministerial Taskforce on Food production and Security'.

Organizational Structure

Structures comprised by the overall Caribbean Community (CARICOM).[29]

Under Article 4 CARICOM breaks its 15 member states into two groups: Less Developed Countries (LDCs) and More Developed Countries (MDCs).[16]

The countries of CARICOM which are designated as Less Developed Countries (LDCs) are:[16]

  • Antigua and Barbuda
  • Belize
  • Commonwealth of Dominica
  • Grenada
  • Republic of Haiti
  • Montserrat
  • Federation of St. Kitts and Nevis
  • St Lucia
  • St Vincent and the Grenadines

The countries of CARICOM which are designated as More Developed Countries (MDCs) are:[16]

  • Commonwealth of The Bahamas
  • Barbados
  • Co-operative Republic of Guyana
  • Jamaica
  • Republic of Suriname
  • Republic of Trinidad and Tobago


The post of Chairman (Head of CARICOM) is held in rotation by the regional Heads of State (for the republics) and Heads of Government (for the realms) of CARICOM's 15 member states. These include Antigua and Barbuda, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Haiti, Montserrat, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, The Bahamas, Barbados, Guyana, Jamaica, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago.

Heads of government

CARICOM contains a quasi-Cabinet of the individual Heads of Government. These heads are given specialised portfolios of responsibility for regional development and integration.[30]


The Secretariat of the Caribbean Community is the Chief Administrative Organ for CARICOM. The Secretary-General of the Caribbean Community is the chief executive and handles foreign and community relations. Five years is the term of office of the Secretary-General, which may be renewed. The Deputy Secretary-General of the Caribbean Community handles human and Social Development. The General Counsel of the Caribbean Community handles trade and economic integration.

The goal statement of the CARICOM Secretariat is: "To contribute, in support of Member States, to the improvement of the quality of life of the People of the Community and the development of an innovative and productive society in partnership with institutions and groups working towards attaining a people-centred, sustainable and internationally competitive Community."[31]

Organs and bodies

Principal organs
Organ Description
CARICOM Heads of Government Consisting of the various heads of Government from each member state
Standing Committee of Ministers Ministerial responsibilities for specific areas, for example the Standing Committee of Ministers responsible for Health will consist of Ministers of Health from each member state

Community Council

The Community Council comprises ministers responsible for community affairs and any other Minister designated by the member states at their discretion. It is one of the community's principal organs; the other is the Conference of the Heads of Government. Four other organs and three bodies support it.

Secondary organs
Secondary organ Abbreviation
Council for Finance and Planning COFAP
Council for Foreign and Community Relations COFCOR
Council for Human and Social Development COHSOD
Council for Trade and Economic Development COTED
Body Description
Legal Affairs Committee provides legal advice
Budget Committee examines the draft budget and work programme of the Secretariat and submits recommendations to the Community Council.
Committee of the Central Bank Governors provides recommendations to the COFAP on monetary and financial matters.


The following institutions are founded by or affiliated to the Caricom:[32]

Caricom Institutions

Institution Abbreviation Location Country
Caribbean Center for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency CCREEE Bridgetown Barbados
Caricom Development Fund CDF Bridgetown Barbados
Caribbean Telecommunications Union CTU Port of Spain Trinidad and Tobago
Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre CCCCC Belmopan Belize
Caricom Regional Organisation for Standards and Quality[33] CROSQ Bridgetown Barbados
Caribbean Meteorological Organisation CMO Port of Spain Trinidad and Tobago
Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism CRFM Belize City Belize
Caricom Implementation Agency for Crime and Security IMPACS Port of Spain Trinidad and Tobago
Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology CIMH Bridgetown Barbados
Caribbean Examinations Council CXC Bridgetown Barbados
Caribbean Court of Justice CCtJ/CCJ Port of Spain Trinidad and Tobago
Caricom Competition Commission CCC Paramaribo Suriname
Caribbean Disaster Emergency Management Agency CDEMA Saint Michael Barbados
Caribbean Agricultural Health and Food Safety Agency CAHFSA Paramaribo Suriname
Caribbean Aviation Safety and Security Oversight System CASSOS Kingston Jamaica
Caribbean Public Health Agency CARPHA Port of Spain Trinidad and Tobago
Caribbean Centre for Development Administration CARICAD Saint Michael Barbados
Caribbean Agriculture Research and Development Institute CARDI Saint Augustine Trinidad and Tobago
Caribbean Organisation of Tax Administrators COTA Georgetown Guyana

Functional cooperation

Institution Abbreviation Location Country
Caribbean Tourism Organization CTO Saint Michael Barbados
Caribbean Council of Legal Education CLE several
Caribbean Export Development Agency Caribbean Export Saint Michael Barbados
Caribbean Regional Information and Translation Institute CRITI Paramaribo Suriname


Institution Abbreviation Location Country
Caribbean Congress of Labour CCL Saint Michael Barbados
Caricom Private Sector Organization CPSO Saint Michael Barbados
University of the West Indies UWI several
University of Guyana UG Georgetown Guyana
Caribbean Law Institute CLI Saint Michael Barbados
Caribbean Development Bank CDB Saint Michael Barbados

Administration and staff

Institution Abbreviation Location Country
Secretariat of the Caribbean Community CCS Georgetown Guyana
Caricom heads of government PCC variable
Conference of Heads of Governments HGC variable
Assembly of Caribbean Community Parliamentarians ACCP variable
Caribbean Community Administrative Tribunal CCAT Port of Spain Trinidad and Tobago


The following institutions have been cancelled or merged into other ones:

Institution Abbreviation Location Country
Regional Educational Programme for Animal Health Assistants REPAHA New Amsterdam Guyana
Caribbean Food Corporation CFC Saint Augustine Trinidad and Tobago
Caribbean Environmental Health Institute CEHI Castries Saint Lucia
The Caribbean Epidemiology Centre CAREC Port of Spain Trinidad and Tobago
Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute CFNI Kingston Jamaica
Caribbean Health Research Council CHRC Saint Augustine Trinidad and Tobago
Caribbean Regional Drug Testing Laboratory CRDTL Georgetown Guyana



The flag of the Caribbean Community was chosen and approved in November 1983 at the Conference of Heads of Government Meeting in Port of Spain, Trinidad. The original design by the firm of WINART Studies in Georgetown, Guyana was substantially modified at the July 1983 Meeting of the Conference of Heads of Government.[34] The flag was first flown on 4 July 1984 in Nassau, The Bahamas at the fifth Meeting of the Conference of Heads of Government.[35]

The flag features a blue background, but the upper part is a light blue representing sky and the lower, a darker blue representing the Caribbean Sea. The yellow circle in the centre represents the sun on which is printed in black the logo of the Caribbean Community, two interlocking Cs. The two Cs are in the form of broken links in a chain, symbolising both unity and a break with the colonial past. The narrow ring of green around the sun represents the vegetation of the region.[34]


For CARICOM's 40th anniversary, a competition to compose an official song or anthem for CARICOM was launched in April 2013[36] to promote choosing a song that promoted unity and inspired CARICOM identity and pride. A regional panel of judges comprising independent experts in music was nominated by member states and the CARICOM Secretariat. Three rounds of competition condensed 63 entries to a final three, from which judges chose Celebrating CARICOM by Michele Henderson of Dominica[36] in March 2014.[37] Henderson won a US$10,000 prize.[38] Her song was produced by her husband, Roland Delsol Jr., and arranged by Earlson Matthew. It also featured Michael Ferrol on drums and choral input from the St. Alphonsus Choir. It was re-produced for CARICOM by Carl Beaver Henderson of Trinidad and Tobago.[37]

A second-place entry titled My CARICOM came from Jamaican Adiel Thomas[36] who won US$5,000,[38] and a third-place song titled One CARICOM by Carmella Lawrence of St. Kitts and Nevis,[36] won US$2,500.[38] The other songs from the top-ten finalists (in no particular order) were:

  • One Region one Caribbean from Anguilla,
  • One Caribbean Family from Jamaica,
  • CARICOM’s Light from St. Vincent & the Grenadines,
  • We Are CARICOM from Dominica,
  • Together As one from Dominica,
  • Blessed CARICOM from Jamaica,
  • Together We Rise from Jamaica.[37]

The first official performance of Celebrating CARICOM by Henderson took place on Tuesday 1 July 2014 at the opening ceremony for the Thirty-Fifth Regional Meeting of the Conference of Heads of Government in Antigua and Barbuda.[36]



The celebration of CARICOM Day is the selected day some Caribbean Community (CARICOM) countries officially recognise the commemorative date of signing of the Treaty of Chaguaramas, the agreement that established CARICOM on July 4, 1973. The Treaty was signed in Chaguaramas, Trinidad & Tobago by then leaders of: Barbados, Guyana, Jamaica, and Trinidad and Tobago. CARICOM Day is recognised as an official public holiday in Guyana where the secretariat is based, and is observed on the first Monday of July. The government of Antigua and Barbuda has also implemented CARICOM Day as a holiday.

The day features activities that are organised by government entities such as parades, pageants, and campaigns to educate people about CARICOM.

Caribbean Festival of Arts – CARIFESTA

Caribbean Festival of Arts, commonly known as CARIFESTA, is an annual festival for promoting arts of the Caribbean with a different country hosting the event each year. It was started to provide a venue to "depict the life of the people of the Region, their heroes, morals, myths, traditions, beliefs, creativity and ways of expression"[39] by fostering a sense of Caribbean unity, and motivating artists by showing the best of their home country. It began under the auspices of Guyana's then President Forbes Burnham in 1972, who was inspired by other singular arts festivals in the region.


Population and economic statistics of full and associate members
Member Membership Land area (km2)[40] Population (2019) GDP (PPP) Millions USD (2017)[41] GDP Per Capita (PPP) USD (2017) Human Development Index (2018)[42]
 Anguilla associate 91 15,174 175.4 12,200
 Antigua and Barbuda full member 442.6 104,084 2,390 26,300 0.776
 The Bahamas full member 10,010 385,340 9,339 25,100 0.805
 Barbados full member 430 287,010 4,919 17,500 0.813
 Belize full member 22,806 398,050 3,230 8,300 0.720
 Bermuda associate 54 63,779 5,198 85,700
 British Virgin Islands associate 151 32,206 500 42,300
 Cayman Islands associate 264 64,420 2,507 43,800
 Dominica full member 751 74,679 851 12,000 0.724
 Grenada full member 344 108,825 1,590 14,700 0.763
 Guyana full member 214,970 786,508 6,367 8,300 0.670
 Haiti full member 27,560 11,242,856 19,880 1,800 0.503
 Jamaica full member 10,831 2,728,864 26,200 9,200 0.726
 Montserrat full member 102 5,220 43.8 8,500
 Saint Kitts and Nevis full member 261 56,345 1,528 26,800 0.777
 Saint Lucia full member 606 180,454 2,384 13,500 0.745
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines full member 389 109,803 1,281 11,600 0.728
 Suriname full member 156,000 573,085 7,928 13,900 0.724
 Trinidad and Tobago full member 5,128 1,359,193 42,780 31,200 0.799
 Turks and Caicos Islands associate 948 37,910 632 29,100
Full members members only 432,510 18,400,316 130,711 15,247 0.730

Thousands of Caricom nationals live within other member states of the Community.

An estimated 30,000 Jamaicans legally reside in other CARICOM member states,[43] mainly in The Bahamas (6,200),[44] Antigua & Barbuda (estimated 12,000),[45] Barbados and Trinidad & Tobago).[43] Also, an estimated 150 Jamaicans live and work in Montserrat.[45] A November 21, 2013 estimated put 16,958 Jamaicans residing illegally in Trinidad & Tobago, as according to the records of the Office of the Chief Immigration Officer, their entry certificates would have since expired.[46] By October 2014, the estimated Jamaicans residing illegally in Trinidad and Tobago was 19,000 along with an estimated 7,169 Barbadians and 25,884 Guyanese residing illegally.[47] An estimated 8,000 Trinidadians and Tobagonians live in Jamaica.[48]

Exclusive Economic Zones of the member states of the CARICOM. Considering them, the total area reaches the 2 300 297 km².

Barbados hosts a large diaspora population of Guyanese, of whom (in 2005) 5,032 lived there permanently as citizens, permanent residents, immigrants (with immigrant status) and Caricom skilled nationals; 3,200 were residing in Barbados temporarily under work permits, as students, or with "reside and work" status. A further 2,000–3,000 Guyanese were estimated to be living illegally in Barbados at the time.[49] Migration between Barbados and Guyana has deep roots, going back over 150 years, with the most intense period of Barbadian migration to then-British Guiana occurring between 1863 and 1886, although as late as the 1920s and 1930s Barbadians were still leaving Barbados for British Guiana.[50]

Migration between Guyana and Suriname also goes back a number of years. An estimated 50,000 Guyanese had migrated to Suriname by 1986[51][52] In 1987 an estimated 30–40,000 Guyanese were in Suriname.[53] Many Guyanese left Suriname in the 1970s and 1980s, either voluntarily or by expulsion. Citing a national security concern, over 5,000 were expelled in January 1985 alone.[54] In the instability Suriname experienced following independence, both coups and civil war.[52] In 2013, an estimated 11,530 Guyanese had emigrated to Suriname and 4,662 Surinamese to Guyana.[55]

Relationship to other supranational Caribbean organisations

Organisation of Eastern Caribbean StatesCaribbean CommunityAssociation of Caribbean StatesMontserratAntigua and BarbudaDominicaGrenadaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesThe BahamasBarbadosBelizeGuyanaHaitiJamaicaSurinameTrinidad and TobagoColombiaCosta RicaCubaDominican RepublicGuatemalaHondurasMexicoNicaraguaPanamaEl SalvadorVenezuela
A clickable Euler diagram showing the relationships between various Supranational Caribbean Organisations and agreements.
Antigua and BarbudaArgentinaBahamasBarbadosBelizeBoliviaBrazilCanadaChileColombiaCosta RicaCubaDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEl SalvadorGrenadaGuatemalaGuyanaHaitiHondurasJamaicaMexicoMontserratNicaraguaPanamaParaguayPeruSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSurinameTrinidad and TobagoUnited StatesUruguayVenezuelaInter-American Treaty of Reciprocal AssistanceCommunity of Latin American and Caribbean StatesLatin American Economic SystemUnion of South American NationsAmazon Cooperation Treaty OrganizationAndean CommunityMercosurCaribbean CommunityPacific AllianceALBACentral American Integration SystemCentral American ParliamentOrganisation of Eastern Caribbean StatesLatin American Integration AssociationCentral America-4 Border Control AgreementUnited States–Mexico–Canada AgreementForum for the Progress and Integration of South AmericaAssociation of Caribbean StatesOrganization of American StatesPetrocaribeCARICOM Single Market and Economy
A clickable Euler diagram showing the relationships between various multinational organisations in the Americas.vde

Association of Caribbean States

CARICOM was instrumental in the formation of the Association of Caribbean States (ACS) on 24 July 1994. The original idea for the Association came from a recommendation of the West Indian Commission, established in 1989 by the CARICOM heads of state and government. The Commission advocated both deepening the integration process (through the CARICOM Single Market and Economy) and complimenting it through a separate regional organisation encompassing all states in the Caribbean.[56]

CARICOM accepted the commission's recommendations and opened dialogue with other Caribbean states, the Central American states and the Latin American nations of Colombia, Venezuela and Mexico which border the Caribbean, for consultation on the proposals of the West Indian Commission.[56]

At an October 1993 summit, the heads of state and government of CARICOM and the presidents of the then-Group of Three (Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela) formally decided to create an association grouping all states of the Caribbean basin. A work schedule for its formation was adopted. The aim was to create the association in less than a year, an objective which was achieved with the formal creation of the ACS.[56]

Community of Latin American and Caribbean States

CARICOM was also involved in the formation of the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) on 3 December 2010. The idea for CELAC originated at the Rio Group–Caribbean Community Unity Summit on 23 February 2010 in Mexico. This act caters to the integration of the Americas process, complimenting well-established initiatives of the Organization of American States.[57][58][59][60]

European Union: Economic Partnership Agreements

Since 2013, the CARICOM-bloc and the Dominican Republic have been tied to the European Union via an Economic Partnership Agreements known as CARIFORUM signed in 2008.[24] The treaty grants all members of the European Union and CARIFORUM equal rights in terms of trade and investment. Within the agreement under Article 234, the European Court of Justice also carries dispute resolution mechanisms between CARIFORUM and the states of the European Union.[25]

OHADAC Project

In May 2016, Caricom's court of original jurisdiction, the CCJ, signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with the ACP Legal Association based in Guadeloupe recognising and supporting the goals of implementing a harmonised business law framework in the Caribbean through ACP Legal Association's OHADAC Project.[61]

OHADAC is the acronym for the French "Organisation pour l'Harmonisation du Droit des Affaires en les Caraïbes", which translates into English as "Organisation for the Harmonisation of Business Law in the Caribbean". The OHADAC Project takes inspiration from a similar organisation in Africa and aims to enhance economic integration across the entire Caribbean and facilitate increased trade and international investment through unified laws and alternative dispute resolution methods.[61]

Free Trade Agreements

See also


  1. ^ "Our Symbols — Caribbean Community (CARICOM)". Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 5 November 2019.
  2. ^ a b c "Who we are". Archived from the original on 14 August 2020. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  3. ^ a b "Spanish agreed as CARICOM second language". Archived from the original on 18 August 2021. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  4. ^ a b "Our Culture". Archived from the original on 26 September 2020. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  5. ^ "The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency". Archived from the original on 10 May 2013. Retrieved 15 May 2007.
  6. ^ EU Style Structure Evident in CARICOM
  7. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 December 2021. Retrieved 20 January 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  8. ^ a b "CARICOM – Caribbean Community 2021". Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
  9. ^ "GDP, current prices. Purchasing power parity; billions of international dollars". IMF. Archived from the original on 22 January 2021.
  10. ^ List of countries by HDI
  11. ^ Ramjeet, Oscar (16 April 2009). "CARICOM countries will speak with one voice in meetings with US and Canadian leaders". Caribbean Net News. Archived from the original on 13 July 2016. Retrieved 16 April 2009.
  12. ^ "Intergovernmental Organizations". United Nations. Archived from the original on 23 May 2017. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
  13. ^ "Communiqué Issued at the Conclusion of the Thirty-Third Regular Meeting of the Conference of Heads of Government of the Caribbean Community, 4–6 July 2012, Gros Islet, Saint Lucia" Archived 16 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine, "Heads of Government recognized that, although English was the official language of the Community, the facility to communicate in their languages could enhance the participation of Haiti and Suriname in the integration process. They therefore requested the conduct of a study to examine the possibilities and implications, including costs, of introducing French and Dutch."
  14. ^ "CARICOM (Revised Treaty)" (PDF). (573 KB)
  15. ^ "Original Treaty of Chaguaramas". Archived from the original on 11 October 2007.
  16. ^ a b c d "Revised Treaty of Chaguaramas" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 November 2011.
  17. ^ "Aristide accuses U.S. of forcing him out". Canadian Broadcast Corporation. 2 March 2004. Archived from the original on 24 September 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2011.
  18. ^ "Aristide launches kidnap lawsuit". BBC News. 31 March 2004. Archived from the original on 9 December 2011. Retrieved 25 March 2011.
  19. ^ Haiti suspends ties with CARICOM
  20. ^ "Haiti suspends ties with CARICOM". Archived from the original on 22 September 2009. Retrieved 25 March 2011.
  21. ^ Jamaica Gleaner News – Haiti could return to CARICOM
  22. ^ Haiti re-admitted?
  23. ^ Caricom and Haiti: The raising of the Caribbean's 'Iron Curtain'
  24. ^ a b Caribbean moves afoot to restructure CARIFORUM Archived 2013-06-17 at the Wayback Machine, Peter Richards, Tuesday April 12th 2011
  25. ^ a b "Letter: Privy Council and EPA" Archived 2014-08-21 at the Wayback Machine, October 8, 2009, Jamaica Gleaner
  26. ^ CIA World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 2017. p. 971. ISBN 9781510712898. Archived from the original on 22 October 2021. Retrieved 5 July 2017.
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External links

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