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Captain general of the Army

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Captain general of the Army
Capitán General
Flag for Captain general of the Army.svg
Rank flag
Army Service Uniform shoulder strap with the rank of Captain general of the Spanish Army.
Country Spain
Service branch Spanish Army
RankFive-star rank
NATO rank codeOF-10
Non-NATO rankO-11
Formationc. 1763
Next lower rankGeneral of the Army
Equivalent ranksCaptain general of the Navy (N)
Captain general of the Air Force (AF)

Captain General (Spanish: Capitán General) has been the highest rank in the Spanish Army (Ejército de Tierra) since the 18th century. A five-star rank with NATO code OF-10, it is equivalent to a field marshal of the armies of numerous countries, a general of the Army of the United States, a captain general of the Spanish Navy (Armada Española) or a Captain general of the Air Force in the Spanish Air Force (Ejército del Aire). A Captain General's insignia consists of two command sticks under five four-pointed stars below the Royal Crown.

A personal rank of captain general was created in the Spanish Army (and Navy) as the highest rank in the hierarchy, not unlike the Marechal de France. Since King Charles IV's reign (1788–1808), the monarchs used captain general insignia when wearing uniform. Briefly abolished by the Second Spanish Republic (except one honorary promotion), it was restored by Nationalist Spain in 1938; Francisco Franco himself was the only officer of this rank. The effective rank was reserved to the reigning monarch. A few posthumous honorary promotions and honorary promotions of retired officers to this rank were also made, such as José Moscardó Ituarte (1956), Agustín Muñoz Grandes (1957), Camilo Alonso Vega (1969) or Manuel Gutiérrez Mellado (1994). Some members of the Spanish Royal Family were promoted to the rank after periods of service and Queen Isabella II appointed her consort, Francis of Assisi (1846). Two foreign monarchs, Edward VII of the United Kingdom and William II of Germany, and four distinguished foreign military officers also held the honour.

Insignia history

List of Captains general

Date of promotion
Name and style
Pedro Pablo Abarca de Bolea, Count of Aranda.jpg
Pedro Pablo Abarca de Bolea, 10th Count of Aranda † 1798
Pedro de Cevallos.jpg
Pedro Antonio de Cevallos Cortés y Calderón † 1778
Luis Berton de Balbe de Quiers, duque de Crillon.jpg
Louis des Balbes de Berton de Crillon 4th Duke of Crillon and 1st Duke of Mahon † 1796
14 December 1788
Carlos IV a caballo (Cropped).png
King Charles IV 19 March 1808
Ex officio
Portrait of General Antonio Ricardos by Goya.jpg
Antonio Ricardos y Carrillo de Albornoz 13 March 1794
25 May 1793
Agustin Esteve y Marqués - Manuel Godoy - 1954.312 - Art Institute of Chicago.jpg
Manuel Godoy y Álvarez de Faria, Prince of the Peace 19 March 1808 Generalissimo (1801–1808)
Royal Coat of arms of Spain (1761-1843) - Common Version of the Colours.svg
Honorato Ignacio de Glimes de Brabante, Count Glimes de Brabante † 1804
Royal Coat of arms of Spain (1761-1843) - Common Version of the Colours.svg
José Carlos Álvarez de Bohórquez y Molina, Marquis of Ruchena † ?
Royal Coat of arms of Spain (1761-1843) - Common Version of the Colours.svg
Martín Antonio Álvarez de Sotomayor y Flores, Count of Colomera † 1819
Royal Coat of arms of Spain (1761-1843) - Common Version of the Colours.svg
Manuel de Negrete y de la Torre,Count of Campo de Alange † 1818
1795 José Ramón de Urrutia y de las Casas † 1803
1799 Miguel de la Grúa Talamanca, 1st Marquis of Branciforte † 1812
Royal Coat of arms of Spain (1761-1843) - Common Version of the Colours.svg
Ventura Caro y Fontes † 1809
19 March 1808
Fernando VII - Vicente López.jpg
King Ferdinand VII 29 September 1833[note 1] Ex officio
Royal Coat of arms of Spain (1761-1843) - Common Version of the Colours.svg
Vicente María de Vera de Aragón y Enríquez de Navarra, Duke of La Roca and Marquis of Sofraga † 1813
General Castaños anciano.jpg
Francisco Javier Castaños, 1st Duke of Bailén 24 September 1852
Royal Coat of arms of Spain (1761-1843) - Common Version of the Colours.svg
Vicente María de Acevedo y Pola-Navia † November 1808
Royal Coat of arms of Spain (1761-1843) - Common Version of the Colours.svg
Joaquín de Navia-Osorio y Miranda, Marquis of Santa Cruz de Marcenado and Viscount of Puerto † 1816
Royal Coat of arms of Spain (1761-1843) - Common Version of the Colours.svg
Rafael Vasco y del Campo, Count of la Conquista de las Islas Batanes † 1810
García de la Cuesta.jpg
Gregorio García de Cuesta y Fernández de Celis 26 November 1811
José Rebolledo de Palafox y Melci, 1st Duke of Zaragoza 15 February 1847
Royal Coat of arms of Spain (1761-1843) - Common Version of the Colours.svg
Ventura Escalante y Bruen † 1811
Pedro Caro y Sureda, marqués de la Romana (Museo del Prado).jpg
Pedro Caro, 3rd Marquis of La Romana 23 January 1811
Francisco Goya - Portrait of the Duke of Wellington.jpg
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington 14 September 1852 Ad honorem
William Carr Beresford, Viscount Beresford by Sir William Beechey (2).jpg
William Beresford, 1st Viscount Beresford 8 January 1854 Ad honorem
Joaquin Blake.jpg
Joaquín Blake y Joyes 27 April 1827
Portrait of General Claude-Anne de Rouvroy, marquis de Saint-Simon-Montbléru..jpg
Claude-Anne de Rouvroy de Saint Simon, Marquis of Saint Simon and Montblerú 27 February 1819

Émigré and Spanish Grandee.

José de Ezpeleta y Galdeano.jpg
José Manuel de Ezpeleta, 1st Count of Ezpeleta de Beire † 1823
Royal Coat of arms of Spain (1761-1843) - Common Version of the Colours.svg
Pedro Mendinueta y Múzquiz † 1825
Royal Coat of arms of Spain (1761-1843) - Common Version of the Colours.svg
Ramón de Osorio y Patiño, 4th Marquis of Castelar † 1817
Pedro Díaz - José Fernando de Abascal.jpg
José Fernando de Abascal y Sousa, 1st Marquis of La Concordia 31 July 1821
General Francisco Javier de Elío (Museo del Prado).jpg
Francisco Javier de Elio y Olondriz † 1822
Francisco de Eguía.png
Francisco de Eguía, 1st Count of the Real Aprecio 6 January 1827 President of the Provisional Board of Spain and the Indies
Pedro de Alcántara Álvarez de Toledo y Salm Salm, XIII duque del Infantado (Museo del Prado).jpg
Pedro de Alcántara Álvarez de Toledo, 13th Duke of the Infantado 27 November 1841
Baron de Eroles.JPG
Joaquín Ibáñez, Baron de Eroles 22 August 1825
Royal Coat of arms of Spain (1761-1843) - Common Version of the Colours.svg
Juan de Henestrosa y Orcasitas † 1831
Retrato del Duque de San Carlos.jpg
José Miguel de Carvajal-Vargas, 2nd Duke of San Carlos † 1828

Secretary of state (1814)

Francisco Fernández de Córdoba, duque de Alagón.jpg
Francisco Fernández de Córdoba, 1st Duke of Alagón † 1841
1 May 1838
Baldomero Espartero, Prince of Vergara.jpg
Baldomero Espartero, Prince of Vergara 8 January 1879
9 October 1841
Retrato del general Rodil (Dionisio Fierros Álvarez).jpg
José Ramón Rodil, 1st Marquis of Rodil 20 February 1853
  • Viceroy of Navarre
    (1 July-2 October 1834)
  • Minister of War
    (27 April-15 May and 20 August-26 November 1836, and 1842–1843)
  • Prime Minister (1842–1843)
19 August 1843
II Marqués de Monsalud.jpg
Juan José Nieto y Aguilar, 2nd Marquis of Monsalud 28 February 1851
5 January 1844
Prudencio de Guadalfajara, I Duque de Castro-Terreño.jpg
Prudencio de Guadalfajara y Aguilera, duque de Castroterreño 16 June 1855
  • Minister of War (August–September 1835)
5 January 1844
Ramon Maria de Narvaez by Vicente Lopez 1772 1850.jpg
Ramón María Narváez, 1st Duke of Valencia 23 April 1868
  • Minister of State (1844, 1846 and 1847)
  • Minister of War (1844–1846, 1846, 1847 and 1866–1868)
  • Prime Minister
    (1844–1846, 1846, 1847–1849, 1849–1851, 1856–1857, 1864–1865 and 1866–1868)
10 October 1846
Don Francisco de Asís.jpg
Francis, King Consort 19 September 1868
(Abolition of monarchy)
17 April 1902
21 May 1849
Manuel Gutiérrez de la Concha, marqués del Duero (Palacio del Senado de España).jpg
Manuel Gutiérrez de la Concha e Irigoyen, 1st Marquis of Duero 27 June 1874
19 November 1852
Francisco de paula marti-Retrato de Pedro Villacampa y Maza de Lizana.jpg
Pedro Villacampa y Maza de Lizana 27 December 1854
30 July 1854
Evaristo Fernández de San Miguel, duque de San Miguel.jpg
Evaristo Fernández de San Miguel y Valledor, 1st Duke of San Miguel 29 May 1862
30 July 1854
Leopoldo ODonnell.jpg
Leopoldo O'Donnell, 1st Duke of Tetuan 5 November 1867
  • Prime Minister
    (14 July-12 October 1856, 1858–1863 and 1865–1866)
  • Minister of War (30 July-29 November 1854, 1858–1863 and 1865–1868)
  • Minister of State (30 June-2 de July 1858)
  • Minister of the Navy (25–27 November 1858)
  • Minister of Overseas (17 January-2 March 1863)
18 July 1856
Francisco Serrano, 1st Duke of la Torre 25 November 1885
5 January 1858
Antonio de Orleans, duque de Montpensier (1824-1890).jpg
Antoine, Duke of Montpensier December 1870[note 2]
10 October 1867
Retrato de Juan de la Pezuela.jpg
Juan de la Pezuela y Cevallos, 1st Count of Cheste 1 November 1906
24 April 1868
Manuel Pavía y Lacy, 1st Marquis of Novaliches.jpg
Manuel Pavía y Lacy, 1st Marquis de Novaliches 22 October 1896
24 April 1868
José Gutiérrez de la Concha, marqués de la Habana (Palacio del Senado de España).jpg
José Gutiérrez de la Concha, 1st Marquis of Havana 5 November 1895
  • Minister of Overseas (20 May-6 August 1863 and 29 November 1863–1864)
  • Minister of the Navy (19 June-16 July 1863 and 19–21 September 1868)
  • Minister of War (1863–1864 and 19 September-8 October 1868)
  • Prime Minister (19 September-8 October 1868)
30 September 1868
Valldeperas, Eusebi. Retrat de Joan Prim 43.JPG
Juan Prim, 1st Marquis of los Castillejos 30 December 1870
  • Minister of War (1868–1870)
  • Prime Minister (1869–1870)
16 November 1870 King Amadeo 11 February 1873
Ex officio
  • Captain General of the Navy (1870–1873)
1 May 1874
Juan de Zavala y de la Puente.jpg
Juan de Zavala, 1st Marquis of Sierra Bullones 29 December 1879
  • Minister of state (1855–1856)
  • Minister of the Navy (1860–1863)
  • Minister of War (8 April-26 May 1872 and 3 January-29 June 1874)
  • Prime Minister (26 February-3 September 1874)
29 December 1874 King Alfonso XII 25 November 1885
21 August 1875[2]
Marshall Ramon Cabrera, El Tigre del Maestrazgos, by John Prescott Knight.jpg
Ramón Cabrera y Griñó, 1st duke of the Maestrazgo 24 May 1877
27 March 1876
Genaro de Quesada y Mathews, 1884.jpg
Jenaro Quesada, 1st Marquis of Miravalles 19 January 1889
27 March 1876
General Arsenio Martínez Campos (1831-1900).jpg
Arsenio Martínez-Campos y Antón 23 September 1892 Ad honorem
7 July 1878
General Joaquin Jovellar y Soler painting.jpg
Joaquín Jovellar y Soler 16 April 1892 Ad honorem
29 July 1892
Manuel Pavía, en La Ilustración Española y Americana.jpg
Manuel Pavía y Rodríguez de Alburquerque 4 January 1895 Ad honorem
22 January 1895
José López Domínguez (Palacio del Senado de España).jpg
José López Domínguez 17 October 1911
16 May 1895
Ramon Blanco.jpg
Ramón Blanco y Erenas, 1st Marquis de Peña Plata 4 April 1906 Ad honorem
14 November 1895
Fernando Primo de Rivera y Sobremonte, de Kaulak.jpg
Fernando Primo de Rivera y Sobremonte, 1st Marquis of Estella 23 May 1921
  • Ad honorem
  • Minister of War (1907–1909 and June–October 1917)
17 May 1902 King Alfonso XIII 14 April 1931
(Second Spanish Republic established)[note 3]
7 April 1907
Edward VII in coronation robes.jpg
Edward VII, King of the United Kingdom[3] 6 May 1910
23 January 1910
Camilo García de Polavieja, de Christian Franzen.jpg
Camilo García de Polavieja y del Castillo-Negrete, 1st Marquis Polavieja 15 January 1914 Ad honorem
23 January 1910
Valeriano Weyler bust.jpg
Valeriano Weyler Nicolau, 1st Duke of Rubí and Marquis of Tenerife 20 October 1930
  • Ad honorem
  • Minister of War (1901–1902, 23 June-1 December 1905 and 1906–1907)
  • Minister of the Navy (1 October-1 December 1905)
23 January 1910
The Kaiser as a Spanish Soldier.jpg
Wilhelm II, German Emperor 4 June 1941
12 March 1911
Marcelo de Azcárraga y Palmero (Palacio del Senado de España).jpg
Marcelo de Azcárraga y Palmero 30 May 1915
  • Ad honorem
  • Minister of War (1890–1892, 1895–1897 and 1899–1900)
  • Prime Minister (8 August-4 October 1897, 1900–1901 and 1904–1905)
  • Minister of the Navy (23–31 October 1900)
17 May 1921
Carlos Tancredo de Bourbon-Duas Sicílias.JPG
Carlos of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, Infante of Spain 14 April 1931
11 November 1949
2 May 1931
Francisco Aguilera y Egea.png
Francisco Aguilera y Egea 19 May 1931
July 20, 1936
General Sanjurjo.jpg
José Sanjurjo y Sacanell, 1st Marquis of the Rif
Posthumous promotion
18 July 1938
Francisco Franco en 1964.jpg
Francisco Franco Bahamonde 20 November 1975
March 22, 1947
General Miguel Primo de Rivera.jpg
Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja, 2nd Marquis of Estella
March 24, 1951
José Enrique Varela.jpg
José Enrique Varela Iglesias, 1st Marquis of San Fernando de Varela
October 21, 1952
Juan Yagüe Blanco, 1st Marquis of San Leonardo de Yagüe
April 12, 1956
General Moscardó (Cropped).png
José Moscardó Ituarte, 1st Count of the Alcázar de Toledo
Posthumous promotion
27 February 1957
Agustín Muñoz Grandes (1).jpg
Agustín Muñoz Grandes 11 July 1970
23 March 1962
Fidel Dávila 1939.jpg
Fidel Dávila Arrondo 22 March 1962
29 October 1969
Visita de personalidades al Castillo dentro de los actos conmemorativos del Tricentenario de la Paz de los Pirineos (cropped).jpg
Camilo Alonso Vega 1 July 1971
20 November 1975[4][note 7]
King Juan Carlos of Spain with Ambbassador Khatib (Cropped).png
King Juan Carlos I Active until 19 June 2014.
  • Ex officio
  • Retired since 19 June 2014
  • Captain General of the Navy and the Air Force
24 July 1994
El vicepresidente 1º y Asuntos de Defensa, Manuel Gutiérrez Mellado, recibe la felicitación del presidente Adolfo Suárez.jpg
Manuel Gutiérrez Mellado, 1st Marquis Gutiérrez-Mellado 15 December 1995
19 June 2014
Felipe VI (Cropped).jpg
King Felipe VI Present

See also


  1. ^ He abdicated on 6 May 1808 and kept under guard in France. Restored in 1814.
  2. ^ Accession of King Amadeo.
  3. ^ On 14 April 1931 Alfonso XIII renounced as head of state but did not formally abdicate.
  4. ^ Named himself.
  5. ^ a b c At Civil War until 1 April 1939.
  6. ^ At Civil War.
  7. ^ Monarch since 22 November 1975.




  • List of captain generals of the Spanish Army ASAVE (in Spanish)
  • Guaita Martorell, Aurelio. Capitanes y capitanías generales. Revista de historia militar, ISSN 0482-5748, Nº 65, 1988, pp. 125–172.
This page was last edited on 6 June 2021, at 01:47
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