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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

London, the capital of the United Kingdom
Seoul, the capital of South Korea
Athens, the capital of Greece

A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government. A capital is typically a city that physically encompasses the government's offices and meeting places; the status as capital is often designated by its law or constitution. In some jurisdictions, including several countries, the different branches of government are located in different settlements. In some cases, a distinction is made between the official (constitutional) capital and the seat of government, which is in another place.

Capital cities that are also the prime economic, cultural, or intellectual centres of a nation or an empire are sometimes referred to as primate cities. Examples are Athens, Bangkok, Brussels, Buenos Aires, Copenhagen, Cairo, London, Mexico City, Paris, Seoul and Tokyo.

News media often use the name of a capital city as an alternative name for the country of which it is the capital or of the government that is seated there, as a form of metonymy. For example, "relations between Washington and London" refer to "relations between the United States and the United Kingdom".

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  • ✪ 10+ Interesting Facts About Helsinki, Finland
  • ✪ Office of International Studies St. Andrews, Scotland Program

Transcription

Welcome to the city of Helsinki the Capital of Finland that is an urban core Home to many hard-working and traditional people and is one of the world's most northern capitals a place of economic power Entertainment and a place that has a warm heart even against the skin piercing northern winds of winter Hey, everybody what's going on Dave Walpole here and welcome to FTD facts the channel We usually talk about people cultures and places from all around the world and we do some cool top 10 lists as well Now here on the channel today. We are gonna Talk about Helsinki because well in our previous episode on Finland a lot of you guys had some really nice things to say about the country, so we're like hey Let's just continue to dive more into Finland culture and with that in mind considering a lot of you guys want us to keep talking about culture and places we're gonna talk about Helsinki now before we get in this video be sure to look at our other playlists that we have that in the description box below and on top of that this video is brought to you by Grammerly comm we'll get into that at the end of the episode and of course before we get into the episode we got to ask The question of the day and that is where is your favorite place to travel or where has been your favorite place to travel? Let me know down there in the comments section below me I've always loved Boston. It's just a really cool City so today We are looking at Helsinki and first of all Helsinki is a very unique city because it is one of the coldest cities in the world as a matter of fact it is considered one of the coldest capitals in the world as it bounces between Ottawa of Canada and Elon Betar of Mongolia and on top of that it's also Considered one of the darkest capitols on the planet now what I mean dark I don't mean like people are going around the city being like I hate life I'm so depressed by the Minima no what I mean is like it is actually physically one of the darkest places on the planet first of all it's yearly average temperature for 2017 equalled 6.6 Degrees and for 51 days of the year it received little to no sunlight and although it is cold keep in mind in the summer Seasons it'll get an average of 120 to 180 to rainy days a year and on top of that during the summer seasons Thunderstorms also happen quite frequently and as for the winter seasons They have a yearly average snowfall of approximately 72 centimeters deep now let's jump in to talk about the population and its density and of course the land size of Helsinki because it's pretty interesting first of all for a city quite north it actually has a pretty big population equaling six hundred forty two thousand forty five people approximately However, if you included its metro population which is Helsinki and the surrounding area? They have approximately one point four million people in the region and of course This is stretched out over a land size of two hundred and fourteen point two one kilometers and for its population density it's it's roughly at three thousand people per kilometer square and that makes it the most populated city in all of Finland now if we're going to talk about land size we should probably mention that Helsinki is a city just like Mumbai or even Copenhagen, it's built on a bunch of different islands located in an archipelago Helsinki has approximately 315 islands which definitely makes it a great place for people to get away from the hustle and bustle of the city life now when It comes to these islands some of them have different forms of entertainment That would be liked by many different people for example the island of cork Astoria has the largest zoo in the country And the island of Peleus Ori is an island that is good for nudists. That's right. They have nudist colonies on that Island, it's pretty revealing but overall about two-thirds of the city is pretty much considered the Baltic Sea and One-third of it is actual physical land and with a combination of all the islands the shoreline equals a roughly 123 kilometers long now of course that means if there's so many Islands you have to get around these islands and because of that there are so many boats in the city as a matter of fact There is approximately 11,000 places to park your boat. Just keep in mind throwing an anchor onto pavement is not really a good idea It's not gonna work now. Let's dive into some history because Helsinki was originally founded in 1550 and most of the people of Finland will know that it was originally founded by the Swedes Now the reason for this is because King Gustav, Vasa Founded this city as a trade port to compete with estonia's capital Tallinn in order to own the trade of the Baltic Sea however it wasn't until 1812 that Helsinki became the capital of Finland when Alexander the first of Russia moved the capital from Turko to Helsinki and in today's world it is one booming city as a matter of fact It is the only city in Finland that has trains and subways With 25 stations much too long in over 70 kilometer track with four subway lines It is considered the most northern subway system and most northern metro system in the world now if we're detect with the winter in Helsinki if you were to go there during those months you may notice that on walkways and Sidewalks, there is no snow at all now you may wonder to yourself Well is this due to the fact that people get out there and shovel well actually no. It's because in Helsinki It has a heated system for its sidewalks, which I find amazing because up here in Canada. I haven't seen any heated sidewalks I'm like man I really wish we could have these so then we don't have to shovel at all and Because of this this makes Helsinki one of the few capitals in the world that actually has heated sidewalk systems now Here's something that threw me off quite a bit because when I read about it I was like I didn't know that cities actually have animals and even plants as their city symbols I knew countries did but I wasn't really like hmm Wait a minute a city does that's kind of weird however in Helsinki It has a plant symbol of a maple tree Which is really cool for me because I'm Canadian the maple leaf is like our you know image right, but however I will have to give it to them because as for their animal it is a Squirrel and maybe the people of Finland just loves squirrels because they're always gathering nuts for winter and one of the common thought Reasons of why the squirrel is the image of the city is because the island cirrus ori is actually known as Squirrel island where you will generally see the common red school that lives within the region now, okay? We've talked a little bit about the history some cool facts about Helsinki But what about its population well we already know how many people live there? But my question is who are the people that are living within this city when it comes to its Demographics Helsinki has more average woman than the entire country with a population equaling 53.4% woman and of this whole population eighty 1.9 percent of them are considered Finnish of descent 5.9. Percent are Swedish and 12.2% of them speaking native languages and of course. It's not just people that live in Helsinki as a matter of fact They have a problem of a very familiar animal. This is because Helsinki has a problem with bunnies That's right Helsinki has an overpopulation issue of bunnies and although They are shy you'll see them running around the streets quite frequently and they've tried many different ways to get rid of these animals They're like. It's pretty much useless. Where's pretty much stuck with him because these things just mate all the time however It's not just bunnies because Helsinki is located in an archipelago it is home to many different species for example it has over 1,000 species of plants and approximately a hundred and sixty-four species of birds and one thing to know about Helsinki is it is a place that has clean water as a matter of fact They boast of having the cleanest water of any capital in the world for example in 2017 the inhabitants drank approximately 225 liters of water per person now the reason their tap water is so good and pure is it actually comes from way up north Going through the pion tunnel and this tunnel is considered the world's second longest water tunnel next to one in the United States but for this particular Tunnel it equals approximately a hundred and twenty kilometers in length and as I said all this water starts way up north Coming from Lake PI an which is also the second largest lake in all of Finland And they say that the water is so clean and so pure that it doesn't need any Processing although they do process the water there and because of the purity of this water It is exported to many countries like Saudi Arabia and much more and to finish it all off guys Helsinki is a huge financial center for the country as a matter of fact it brings in approximately one-third of Finland's GDP and is home to 83 of the top 100 most successful businesses in Finland and as for the gross value Added per capita, which is the measurement of goods and services provided in an area it is approximately 200 percent higher than? 27 European capitals being equal to places like Stockholm and Paris so there you have it guys that is just a small look at Helsinki a fascinating city that is growing every minute and every day my name is Dave waffle guys and thank you so much for tuning in and watching these videos and learning about other cultures from all around the world and places as Well now before you guys get out of here be sure to look in the description box below for two things one my Instagram Because if you guys want to get a hold of me and ask for any future f.2d facts videos you guys can do that down there on top of We've got a bunch of different playlists for you guys to check out where you can learn a lot of different things about Many different subjects and on top of that guys just to remind about grammar Lucam go check out their website their link is down there in the description box below And they're just a program that is really fantastic by the click of a button you can improve your grammar when you're typing online So feel free to check out all the links for everything is in the description box below But this is Helsinki a city that may be different from your very own City or may be a place that is familiar to you home to many people who have traditional roots that have gone the miles and made the distance this is the Sadie people and culture of Helsinki where home is always as pure as its crisp clear waters What Thanks again for tuning in with us now before you guys get out of here check out this playlist right here This is a collection of our most popular and favorite videos You'll really like learning about some of the things that we talk about here on the channel and if you're not a subscriber hit the subscribe button and you'll be updated every single day of our new videos and on top of That you guys have a fantastic day, and we'll see you in the next video. Bye

Contents

Terminology

The word capital derives from the Latin caput (genitive capitis), meaning "head".

In several English-speaking states, the terms county town and county seat are also used in lower subdivisions. In some unitary states, subnational capitals may be known as "administrative centres". The capital is often the largest city of its constituent, though not always.

Origins

The Roman Forum was surrounded by many government buildings as the capital of Ancient Rome.
The Roman Forum was surrounded by many government buildings as the capital of Ancient Rome.

Historically, the major economic centre of a state or region often becomes the focal point of political power, and becomes a capital through conquest or federation.[1] (The modern capital city has, however, not always existed: in medieval Western Europe, an itinerant (wandering) government was common.)[2] Examples are Ancient Babylon, Abbasid Baghdad, Ancient Athens, Rome, Constantinople, Chang'an, Ancient Cusco, Madrid, Paris, London, Moscow, Beijing, Tokyo, Vienna, Lisbon and Berlin. The capital city naturally attracts politically motivated people and those whose skills are needed for efficient administration of national or imperial governments, such as lawyers, political scientists, bankers, journalists, and public policy makers. Some of these cities are or were also religious centres,[3] e.g. Constantinople (more than one religion), Rome (the Roman Catholic Church), Jerusalem (more than one religion), Ancient Babylon, Moscow (the Russian Orthodox Church), Belgrade (the Serbian Orthodox Church), Paris, and Peking.

The convergence of political and economic or cultural power is by no means universal. Traditional capitals may be economically eclipsed by provincial rivals, e.g. Nanking by Shanghai, Quebec City by Montreal, and numerous US state capitals. The decline of a dynasty or culture could also mean the extinction of its capital city, as occurred at Babylon[4] and Cahokia.

Although many capitals are defined by constitution or legislation, many long-time capitals have no legal designation as such: for example Bern, Edinburgh, Lisbon, London, Paris, and Wellington. They are recognised as capitals as a matter of convention, and because all or almost all the country's central political institutions, such as government departments, supreme court, legislature, embassies, etc., are located in or near them.

Modern capitals

  Countries whose capital is on the coast   Countries whose capital is not on the coast   Countries without a coast
  Countries whose capital is on the coast
  Countries whose capital is not on the coast
Tehran, capital and largest city of Iran, and the capital of the Persian empires in the last two centuries with the Alborz Mountains in the background
Tehran, capital and largest city of Iran, and the capital of the Persian empires in the last two centuries with the Alborz Mountains in the background

Counties in the United Kingdom have historic county towns, which are often not the largest settlement within the county and often are no longer administrative centres, as many historical counties are now only ceremonial, and administrative boundaries are different.

In Canada, there is a federal capital, while the ten provinces and three territories all have capital cities. The states of such countries as Mexico, Brazil (including the famous cities of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, capitals of their respective states), and Australia all have capital cities. For example, the six state capitals of Australia are Adelaide, Brisbane, Hobart, Melbourne, Perth, and Sydney. In Australia, the term "capital cities" is regularly used to refer to the aforementioned state capitals plus the federal capital Canberra and Darwin, the capital of the Northern Territory. Abu Dhabi is the capital city of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi and the United Arab Emirates overall.

In unitary states which consist of multiple constituent nations, such as the United Kingdom or the Kingdom of Denmark, each will usually have its own capital city. Unlike in federations, there is usually not a separate national capital, but rather the capital city of one constituent nation will also be the capital of the state overall, such as London, which is the capital of England and the United Kingdom. Similarly, each of the autonomous communities of Spain and regions of Italy has a capital city, such as Seville or Naples, while Madrid is the capital of the Community of Madrid and the Kingdom of Spain as a whole and Rome is the capital of Italy and the region of Lazio.

In the Federal Republic of Germany, each of its constituent states (or Länder - plural of Land) has its own capital city, such as Dresden, Wiesbaden, Mainz, Düsseldorf, Stuttgart, and Munich, as do all of the republics of the Russian Federation. The national capitals of Germany and Russia: the Stadtstaat of Berlin and the Federal City of Moscow, are also constituent states of both countries in their own right. Each of the States of Austria and Cantons of Switzerland also have their own capital cities. Vienna, the national capital of Austria, is also one of the states, while Bern is the (de facto) capital of both Switzerland and the Canton of Bern.

Many national capitals are also the largest city in their respective countries, but in many countries this is not the case.

Planned capitals

Governing entities sometimes plan, design and build new capital cities to house the seat of government of a polity or of a subdivision. Deliberately planned and designed capitals include:

These cities satisfy one or both of the following criteria:

  1. A deliberately planned city that was built expressly to house the seat of government, superseding a capital city that was in an established population center. There have been various reasons for this, including overcrowding in that major metropolitan area, and the desire to place the capital city in a location with a better climate (usually a less tropical one).
  2. A town that was chosen as a compromise among two or more cities (or other political divisions), none of which was willing to concede to the other(s) the privilege of being the capital city. Usually, the new capital is geographically located roughly equidistant between the competing population centres.
The Australian Parliament opened in the small town of Canberra in 1927 as a compromise between the largest cities, Sydney and Melbourne.
The Australian Parliament opened in the small town of Canberra in 1927 as a compromise between the largest cities, Sydney and Melbourne.

Some examples of the second situation (compromise locations) include:

Changes in a nation's political regime sometimes result in the designation of a new capital. Newly-independent Kazakhstan moved its capital to the existing city of Astana after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Naypyidaw was founded in Burma's interior as the former capital, Rangoon, was claimed to be too overcrowded.[8]

Unusual capital city arrangements

The Supreme Court, the seat of Switzerland's judiciary, is in Lausanne, although the executive and legislature are located in Bern.
The Supreme Court, the seat of Switzerland's judiciary, is in Lausanne, although the executive and legislature are located in Bern.
Parliament House, Singapore. As a city-state, Singapore requires no specific capital.
Parliament House, Singapore. As a city-state, Singapore requires no specific capital.
The Blue Palace, the official residence of Montenegro's president, is in Cetinje, although the executive and legislature are located in Podgorica.
The Blue Palace, the official residence of Montenegro's president, is in Cetinje, although the executive and legislature are located in Podgorica.

A few nation states have multiple capitals, and there are also several states that have no capital. Some have a city as the capital but with most government agencies elsewhere.

There is also a ghost town which is currently the de jure capital of a territory: Plymouth in Montserrat.

Capitals that are not the seat of government

There are several countries where, for various reasons, the official capital and de facto seat of government are separated:

Some historical examples of similar arrangements, where the recognized capital was not the official seat of government:

Disputed capitals

Intergovernmental organizations

Capital as symbol

With the rise of modern empires and the nation-state, the capital city has become a symbol for the state and its government, and imbued with political meaning. Unlike medieval capitals, which were declared wherever a monarch held his or her court, the selection, relocation, founding, or capture of a modern capital city is an emotional event. For example:

Capitals in military strategy

Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire, was the final part of the empire to fall to the Ottoman Turks due to its strong defences.
Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire, was the final part of the empire to fall to the Ottoman Turks due to its strong defences.

The capital city is usually but not always a primary target in a war, as capturing it usually guarantees capture of much of the enemy government, victory for the attacking forces, or at the very least demoralization for the defeated forces.

In ancient China, where governments were massive centralized bureaucracies with little flexibility on the provincial level, a dynasty could easily be toppled with the fall of its capital. In the Three Kingdoms period, both Shu and Wu fell when their respective capitals of Chengdu and Jianye fell. The Ming dynasty relocated its capital from Nanjing to Beijing, where they could more effectively control the generals and troops guarding the borders from Mongols and Manchus. The Ming was destroyed when Li Zicheng took their seat of power, and this pattern repeats itself in Chinese history, until the fall of the traditional Confucian monarchy in the 20th century. After the Qing dynasty's collapse, decentralization of authority and improved transportation and communication technologies allowed both the Chinese Nationalists and Chinese Communists to rapidly relocate capitals and keep their leadership structures intact during the great crisis of Japanese invasion.

National capitals were arguably less important as military objectives in other parts of the world, including the West, because of socioeconomic trends toward localized authority, a strategic modus operandi especially popular after the development of feudalism and reaffirmed by the development of democratic and capitalistic philosophies. In 1204, after the Latin Crusaders captured the Byzantine capital, Constantinople, Byzantine forces were able to regroup in several provinces; provincial noblemen managed to reconquer the capital after 60 years and preserve the empire for another 200 years after that. The British forces sacked various American capitals repeatedly during the Revolutionary War and War of 1812, but American forces could still carry on fighting from the countryside, where they enjoyed support from local governments and the traditionally independent civilian frontiersmen. Exceptions to these generalizations include highly centralized states such as France, whose centralized bureaucracies could effectively coordinate far-flung resources, giving the state a powerful advantage over less coherent rivals, but risking utter ruin if the capital were taken. In their military strategies, traditional enemies of France such as Prussia (in the Franco-Prussian War of 1871) focused on the capture of Paris.

See also

References

  1. ^ "What does a Capital City Mean?". 5 December 2012. Archived from the original on 31 May 2017. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
  2. ^ "Where Next: The Reasons Why (Some) Countries Move Their Capitals". Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
  3. ^ Makas, Emily Gunzburger; Conley, Tanja Damljanovic (4 December 2009). "Capital Cities in the Aftermath of Empires: Planning in Central and Southeastern Europe". Routledge. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 9 June 2017 – via Google Books.
  4. ^ Seymour, Michael (29 August 2014). "Babylon: Legend, History and the Ancient City". I.B.Tauris. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 9 June 2017 – via Google Books.
  5. ^ Crew, Harvey W.; Webb, William Bensing; Wooldridge, John (1892). Centennial History of the City of Washington, D.C. Dayton, OH: United Brethren Publishing House. p. 124.
  6. ^ "The South Island was the more densely populated from 1860 until 1900, largely because of the discovery of gold in the sixties, the relatively easy availability of land, and the South Island's freedom from Maori troubles. After 1900, when the populations of the two islands were roughly equal, the North Island went ahead rapidly." Archived 31 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ Levine, Stephen (13 July 2012). "Capital city - A new capital". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Archived from the original on 5 May 2015. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
  8. ^ Pedrosa, Veronica (20 November 2006). "Burma's 'seat of the kings'". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 23 November 2006. Retrieved 21 November 2006.
  9. ^ Real Decreto de 30 de noviembre de 1833 en wikisource
  10. ^ Real Decreto de 30 de noviembre de 1833 en el sitio web oficial del Gobierno de Canarias[dead link]
  11. ^ Ordonnance n° 58-1100 du 17 novembre 1958 relative au fonctionnement des assemblées parlementaires Archived 30 April 2013 at the Wayback Machine article 1
  12. ^ "Lisboa não tem documento que a oficialize como capital de Portugal", Revista Port.com (in Portuguese), 13 April 2015, archived from the original on 7 November 2016, retrieved 5 November 2016
  13. ^ Lansford, Tom (24 March 2015). Political Handbook of the World 2015. Singapore: CQ Press. ISBN 978-1-4833-7157-3. Archived from the original on 30 August 2017. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
  14. ^ Boxall, Sheryl (2008). DeRouen, Karl; Bellamy, Paul, eds. International Security and the United States: An Encyclopedia, Volume 2. Westport, Connecticut, USA: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 728. ISBN 978-0-275-99255-2.
  15. ^ "Tanzania". CIA World Factbook. Archived from the original on 27 June 2014.
  16. ^ Reeder, Scott. "What does it cost taxpayers to pay for lawmakers’ empty Springfield residences?" (Archive). Illinois News Network. September 11, 2014. Retrieved on May 26, 2016.
  17. ^ Gauen, Pat. "Illinois corruption explained: the capital is too far from Chicago " (Archive). St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved on May 26, 2016.
  18. ^ "Presidential Decree No. 940 : Philippine Laws, Statutes and Codes". Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. 24 June 1976. Archived from the original on 6 September 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
  19. ^ See Jerusalem Law
  20. ^ 2003 Basic Law of Palestine Archived 11 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Title One: Article 3
  21. ^ Landler, Mark (6 December 2017). "Trump Recognizes Jerusalem as Israel's Capital". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  22. ^ Demey, Thierry (2007). Brussels, capital of Europe. S. Strange (trans.). Brussels: Badeaux. ISBN 2-9600414-2-9.
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