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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Canoeing
open water canoeing
Whitewater canoe
Highest governing bodyInternational Canoe Federation
Presence
Olympic1936 – present
World GamesCanoe polo: 2005 – present

Canoeing is an activity which involves paddling a canoe with a single-bladed paddle. Common meanings of the term are limited to when the canoeing is the central purpose of the activity. Broader meanings include when it is combined with other activities such as canoe camping, or where canoeing is merely a transportation method used to accomplish other activities. Most present-day canoeing is done as or as a part of a sport or recreational activity. In some parts of Europe canoeing refers to both canoeing and kayaking, with a canoe being called an Open canoe.

A few of the recreational forms of canoeing are canoe camping and canoe racing. Other forms include a wide range of canoeing on lakes, rivers, oceans, ponds and streams.

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • ✪ Birchbark Canoe
  • ✪ I Bought a Canoe: Shelters

Transcription

>>> THIS FILM IS MADE POSSIBLE BY THE MINNESOTA ARTS AND CULTURAL HERITAGE FUND AND THE CITIZENS OF MINNESOTA. >> WELL, WHEN I WAS JUST A KID, I GREW UP, MY GRANDFATHER HAD A BIG WOODWORKING SHOP. I WAS 6, 7 YEARS OLD. I USED TO SPEND MY FREE TIME IN HIS WOODWORKING SHOP. AND I'D BE BUILDING THINGS AND I GUESS I'VE BEEN MAKING THINGS AND CONSTRUCTING THINGS AND DOING THINGS WITH MY HANDS LIKE THAT FOR MY WHOLE LIFE. YOU KNOW. PROBABLY 60 YEARS. SO CANOES HAVE ALWAYS INTERESTED US. WE'VE BEEN TEACHING ARCHAEOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY. SO SOME OF THE INDIGENOUS TECHNOLOGIES HAVE BEEN REALLY INTERESTING TO US. AND WE'VE ALWAYS BEEN INTRIGUED BY BIRCHBARK CANOES. >> WE'RE GOING TO BE BUILDING A 15-FOOT CANOE. WE'RE BASING ON A CANOE THAT ACTUALLY EXISTED AND WAS DOCUMENTED APPROXIMATELY 100 YEARS AGO. WE DON'T BUILD A GENERIC BIRCHBARK CANOE. WE TRY TO BUILD OUR CANOES BASED ON ACTUAL CANOES THAT EXISTED. >> WELL, I GUESS THEY CONSIDER ME THE CANOE BUILDER. BUT MOST OFTEN I DON'T BUILD THE CANOE ALL BY MYSELF. SOMETIMES OTHER PEOPLE ARE JUST INTERESTED, FRIENDS, WHAT HAVE YOU, VARIOUS PEOPLE COME BY. SOMETIMES PEOPLE JUST COME BY. AND I GUESS I END UP BEING MORE THE CHOREOGRAPHER OF THE CANOE-BUILDING EVENT IF YOU WANT TO LOOK AT THIS THAT WAY. THIS PARTICULAR CANOE A COUPLE OF PEOPLE CAME DOWN FROM WINNIPEG AND OCCASIONALLY SOMEBODY TOTALLY OUT OF THE BLUE WOULD COME BY AND STITCH A FEW STITCHES OR DO SOMETHING. BUILDING A CANOE IS AS MUCH A SOCIAL EVENT I GUESS. IT'S NOT -- I GUESS I'M MAKING SURE EVERYTHING IS DONE CORRECTLY. >> RIGHT NOW WE'VE GOT A LOT OF MATERIALS TO PREPARE. WE'RE BASICALLY RIGHT NOW MAKING THE PARTS TO THE CANOE. THE BIRCHBARK CANOES ARE ALL STITCHED TOGETHER AND LACED TOGETHER WITH SPRUCE ROOTS. SO WE WERE OUT IN THE SPRUCE BOG THIS MORNING. THIS IS SOME OF THE ROOTS. WE'VE GOT A WHOLE TUB FULL HEATING UP. WHEN THEY GET BOILED, WE'LL BE TAKING THE BARK OFF AND SPLITTING THESE AND STARTING TO GET THEM READY. WE HAVE TO MAKE ABOUT 500 OR 600 FEET OF LACING TO SEW THIS CANOE UP. THIS IS ACTUALLY WHAT WE'LL BE BUILDING THE CANOE ON. AS YOU GO SEE FROM ALL THE DIFFERENT HOLES, WE BUILD A LOT OF DIFFERENT CANOES ON THIS. ON THIS BUILDING ALREADY. OKAY >> OKAY. WE'RE MAKING THE BUILDING FRAME THAT FORMS THE SHAPE OF THE BOTTOM OF THE CANOE. SO NOW I'LL BRING THESE TOGETHER. THAT LOOKS LIKE A NICE SHAPE. I HAVE TO DRILL NEW HOLES FOR THE STAKES. THERE'S GOT TO BE A LITTLE BIT OF CLEARANCE. TO MAKE THESE INTO LACINGS, WHAT WE DO IS WE SPLIT THE ROOTS IN HALF. IF THEY'RE NOT QUITE ROUND, WE TRY TO SPLIT THEM LONG WAY OR THE OVAL, SO THEY MAKE THE WIDEST LACINGS POSSIBLE. SO WE'RE JUST STARTING TO CUT, START TO SPLIT. HELPS TO HOLD IT BETWEEN YOUR KNEES TO BRACE IT. AND WHAT YOU DO IS IF YOU SEE THE SPLIT GOING TO ONE SIDE OR THE OTHER, YOU BEND THE THICK SIDE. AND THEN IT RUNS IT BACK TO THE CENTER. YOU CAN ACTUALLY DO THIS WITH YOUR EYES CLOSED. YOU DON'T EVEN HAVE TO WATCH. AND WHEN YOU GET TO A LITTLE KNOT, YOU HAVE TO KIND OF SLOW DOWN, BE CAREFUL SOW DON'T BREAK THE -- SO YOU DON'T BREAK THE ROOT. OKAY. I'M GOING TO DRIVE MY TRUCK OVER AND LOAD BARK OVER AT THE BUILDING. I'LL BE RIGHT BACK. THESE ARE BIRCHBARK. THESE HAVE BEEN COLLECTED A FEW WEEKS AGO. YEAH, THIS IS BARK, RIGHT. >> YEP. >> NOW WHAT WE HAVE TO DO IS CLEAN UP THE INSIDE OF THE BARK A LITTLE BIT, GET ALL THE LOOSE STUFF OFF. THE LOOSER BARK. OKAY. WE'LL MOVE THAT. SET IT UNDER. SET THIS BARK ON TOP. WE'RE ABOUT TO GET TO THE MAGICAL PART OF THIS PROCESS, WHERE IT GOES FROM LOOKING LIKE THESE TWO BIG IRREGULAR SCRAPS OF BARK TO ACTUALLY STARTING TO LOOK LIKE A CANOE. SO WHAT WE'RE GOING TO DO IS WE'RE GOING TO SET THIS BUILDING FRAME ON TOP OF THE BARK, BECAUSE THIS IS WHAT WE HAVE TO USE TO SHAPE THE BARK, TO START IT LOOKING LIKE A CANOE. SO WE'LL CENTER THIS ON THE BUILDING BED. WE ARE READY. TO MAKE IT LOOK LIKE A CANOE. WE HAVE HAD NICE PIECE OF BIRCHBARK AND WE'RE CUTTING FULL OF HOLES. WELL, THERE IS A METHOD IN OUR MOODNESS. WE'RE GOING TO SWITCH TO A LITTLE BIT OF UP-TO-DATE TECHNOLOGY. WHAT WE DO IS WE USE A HEAT GUN. BIRCHBARK BECOMES FLEXIBLE WHEN IT GETS HEATED. WE COULD BE HAVING A BUNCH OF WATER BOILINGS, AND WE COULD POOR BOILING WALTER ON THIS BARK. AND BEND THESE UP. IT'S KIND OF MESSY AND IT MAKES A MUDDY PLACE. OBVIOUSLY THIS ISN'T TALL ENOUGH TO MAKE THE SIDE OF A CANOE HERE. SO WE'LL BE ADDING BARK. CONTRARY TO MODERN BOAT BUILDING, WHEREIN YOU BUILD THE FRAME AND PUT THE EXTERIOR ONTO THE BOAT, FOR A BIRCHBARK CANOE, YOU BUILD THE SKIN OF THE BOAT AND YOU PUT THE FRAME INSIDE AFTERWARDS. NOW WHAT WE'RE GOING TO DO IS WE'RE GOING TO BEND THIS END PIECE UP IT'S A LITTLE MORE TRICKY. BECAUSE WE HAVE TO BEND IT RIGHT DEAD CENTER DOWN THE WAY HERE, INTO A REAL TIGHT BEND AND THAN THAT GRADUALLY GOES OUT ON EITHER SIDE TO THE BEND LIKE WE DID ON THE OTHER. WE'LL MAKING WHAT ADJUSTMENTS WE NEED TO LATER. BECAUSE WE HAVE TO MAKE SURE THIS STAYS OVER. PUSH THAT TOGETHER. THAT'S ALL ENOUGH FOR THAT. WE'LL PUT THAT ONE IN THIS HOLE. AND THEN ON THIS HOLE ON THIS SIDE HERE. THERE. SEE. THAT'S THE END OF CANOE. >> THAT'S A CANOE. >> GET YOUR PADDLES OUT. FOLKS, WE'RE READY TO ROLL. MY NAME IS JIM JONES. I'M AN OJIBWE BAND MEMBER FROM THE RESERVATION. I LIVE UP IN CASS LAKE, MINNESOTA. MY NAME MEANS FLOWING CREEK. MY GRANDFATHER GAVE ME THAT NAME BECAUSE HE SAID I WAS ALWAYS ON THE GO G., ALWAYS MOVING LIKE A CREEK, LIKE A FLOWING CREEK. WHAT I'M DOING TODAY IS I'M MAKING PEGS FOR THE CANOE. AND THESE WOULD BE GOING THROUGH THE TOP OF THE CAPS. THESE ARE IRONWOOD AND I'M SPLITTING THESE IN HALF AND TAKING PLANKS OUT OF THEM AND WE'LL SPLIT THESE AGAIN INTO LITTLE PEGS. THESE PEGS STICKING UP NOW AND THOSE GO ALL THE WAY THROUGH. AND IF YOU ZERO IN ON THE BACK SIDE OVER THERE, YOU CAN SEE THE PEGS COMING THROUGH THE BOTTOM. AND THAT'S HOW THE CAPS ARE ATTACHED. THERE'S NO NAILS. THERE'S NO CREWS IN A CANOE. AND IF DONE THE OLD WAY, THE WAY THAT MY ANCESTORS DID THEM, THAT'S HOW THEY WERE USED IS WITH THE PEGS. IT CONSISTS OF A PART THAT'S INSIDE THE BARK AND A PART THAT'S OUTSIDE THE BARK AND THEN THIS GETS LACED TOGETHER. WE HAVE TO PUT THE CROSS PIECES IN THE GUNEL TO SPREAD THING APART. SO YOU CAN SEE WE'VE MADE A LITTLE TENDON ON THE END. AND THERE WILL BE SLOT, SLOTS PUT IN THESE AND THIS WILL GO THROUGH THE GUNEL. THIS IS THE CENTER THWART. IT'S THE LONGEST THWART THAT GOES. IN EVERYTHING ON A CANOE IS PRETTY MUCH A LOT OF HANDWORK. IF YOU NOTICE THE PIECES THAT WE START, WE DON'T GO DOWN TO THE LUMBER YARD AND BUY LUMBER. WE GO TO THE WOODS AND GET A LOG. SO THERE'S LOT OF -- I SUPPOSE YOU CALL IT MANUFACTURING COMPONENTS, MORE OR LESS, MAKING PARTS. THIS IS GOING TO FIT IN LIKE SO. OKAY. IT FITS. SO THAT'S HOW WIDE THE CANOE IS GOING TO BE. THIS IS KIND OF AN ART FORM AND A THING THAT PEOPLE WEREN'T DOING ANY MORE. SO WHEN WE SET OUT TO START BUILDING CANOES, WE SAID, OKAY, SOME DAY WE WANT TO TEACH PEOPLE THEIR OLD TRADITIONS AND SO WE WANT TO BUILD THESE CANOES. THIS IS NOT MY CULTURE. I'M DEALING WITH SOMEONE ELSE'S CULTURE. I THINK I HAVE AN ETHICAL OBLIGATION TO REPRESENT THAT AS BEST AS I CAN, AS CORRECTLY AS I CAN. YOU MIGHT SAY I'M WALKING ON FOREIGN TURF. AND I HAVE TO WATCH MY STEP, YOU KNOW. SOY TRY TO HAVE RESPECT FOR SOMEONE ELSE'S CULTURE. BECAUSE THEY OWN IT. I DON'T. AND THAT'S ONE OF THE REASONS WE GO THROUGH THE PAINS WE DO TO TRY TO DO THESE CANOES AS CLOSE AS WE CAN, BASED ON WHAT IS KNOWABLE. PEOPLE SOMETIMES USE THIS WORD THAT I DON'T LIKE. AND THEY SAY PRIMITIVE. WELL, THERE AIN'T NOTHING PRIMITIVE ABOUT A BIRCHBARK CANOE. BECAUSE THE WORD SEEMS TO HAVE KIND OF A NEGATIVE CONNOTATION TO IT. BUT WHEN EUROPEANS CAME OVER HERE, THEY HAD BIG WOODEN BOATS AND SHIPS. WHAT DID THEY USE? THEY USED THE BIRCHBARK CANOE. THEY DIDN'T USE THE PRIMITIVE TECHNOLOGY TO GET AROUND. THEY USED THE SUPERIOR TECHNOLOGY TO OPERATE FUR TRADE. OKAY. WE'VE GOT TO GET THEM IN BETWEEN THIS. QUITE A BIT. ABOUT RIGHT. YEAH. I NOTICED THAT. >> OKAY. MIGHT BE A LITTLE LOW THERE. >> CLAMP IT AND SEE. APPROXIMATELY HOW MUCH BARK WE'RE GOING TO HAVE TO ADD. WE'LL TAKE THIS BARK, PUT IT OUTSIDE THE GUNELS. YEAH. WE'RE JUST SEWING THE EXTRA SHEET OF BIRCHBARK TO GET THE HEIGHT. WE FINISHED OFF THE FAR SIDE AND THERE NEEDS TO BE A SINGLE STITCH RUNNING DOWN THE LENGTH OF IT. AND IT'S A DOUBLE LACING. SO AS ONE GOES OUT, ANOTHER ONE GOES IN. IT'S A LITTLE CHALLENGING. YOU WANT TO MAKE SURE THAT TWO SETS OF BARK ARE RIGHT TOGETHER AND THERE'S NO BULLS -- BULGES ON, ANY LITTLE PUCKER ON THE BACK SIDE WOULD ALLOW YOUR WATER TO GET IN AND WOULD BE HARDER TO SEAL. SO I'M USING TO GO THROUGH BOTH LAYERS. NICE AND SHARP. THIS TRIANGULAR AND CROSS SECTION, IT'S LIKE A BIT OF A DRILL, WHERE IT'S JUST SEPARATING OUT THE FIBERS OF THE BIRCHBARK. SO THE ENDS HAVE TO BE A LITTLE SHARP, JUST SO THAT THEY CAN MAKE THEIR WAY THROUGH THE HOLES. NOW THIS MORNING WE CARVED THE OUTSIDE GUNEL PIECE. WE HAD PREVIOUSLY DONE THE INSIDE PIECE. AND WE GOT THESE ALL READY. THERE'S A BEVELL CUT UNDER THE BACK SIDE OF THIS TO THE END OF THE RIBS WILL FIT INTO. AND ONE THING WE DID IS WE MEASURED THE SIZE OF THE ENTIRE BARK WHICH NEEDS TO BE ON THE CANOE. SO IT'S GOING TO COME OUT RIGHT. WHAT WE'VE DONE IS WE'VE CLAMPED THESE GUNELS ONTO PROPER HEIGHT SO THE CANOE WILL BE THE RIGHT SIZE. SO NOW THERE'S EXTRA BARK. AND SO WHAT I'VE DONE IS TRIMMED THE SHORT SECTION FLUSH. ONE THING WE DO WE PEG THROUGH THE GUNELS. IT HELPS GIVE IT ADDITIONAL STRENGTH AGAINST SHIFTING, UP AND DOWN AND KIND OF LOCKS THE BARK IN PLACE. SO WE DRILL A HOLE AND, YEAH, WE'RE A LITTLE BIT MODERN HERE. YOU DRILL A HOLE. WE HAVE A SQUARE PEG WE'RE PUTTING IN A ROUND HOLE. SO WE PUT THIS INTO THE HOLE. AND THEN WE'LL TRIM THE ENDS BEFORE WE LAY. NOW WE PEG EVERY OTHER LACING, AS THERE'S LITTLE RED MARKS ON THE GUNNELS. THAT'S WHERE THE CENTER OF THE LACINGS ARE GOING TO. GO THE GUNNEL STRUCTURE IS ACTUALLY MADE UP OF TWO PIECES. THE INTERIOR GUNNEL AND ON THE OUTSIDE, THERE'S AN EXTERIOR GUNNEL PIECE THAT YOU SEE IS A BIT THINNER. ONE GOES ON THE INSIDE OF THE BARK, ONE GOES ON THE OUTSIDE OF THE BARK AND IT CLAMPS THE TWO PIECES -- THE TWO PIECES CLAMP THE BARK TOGETHER. WHAT WE'RE DOING IS SEWING LACINGS, PUNCTURING HOLES IN HERE, TO GET THIS GOOD AND TIGHT AT EVERY MARK THAT WE'VE MADE ON HERE. AND IN BETWEEN THE LACINGS, THAT'S WHERE THE RIBS WILL EVENTUALLY GO. IN THERE WILL BE 40 RIBS IN THIS CANOE. SO WE'VE GOT THIS TEMPORARILY CLAMPED. SO IT'S THE RIGHT HEIGHT. I'M GOING TO TAKE THIS CLAMP LOOSE. DRILL ANOTHER HOLE. DRIVE IN ANOTHER PEG. AND WE'LL DO THAT THE ENTIRE LENGTH AS WE STITCH THIS, WE'LL BE PUTTING PEGS IN. ONCE I GET THE CLAMP TOGETHER RIGHT, THEN I CAN TRIM THE BARK OFF SO IT'S FLUSH AND STICKING UP, SO IT'S NOT IN THE WAY FOR STITCHING. I'M GOING TO NEED TO CUT THESE PEGS OFF AND THEN WE'LL GET A LENGTH OF ROOT AND WE'LL BE READY TO START STITCHING THE GUNNELS. NOW SEE I'M SCRAPING A FEW OF THE FIBERS OFF OF THIS. YOU CAN SEE HOW LONG AND STRINGY THE FIBERS ARE ON THE ROOT. THAT'S WHY IT'S SO STRONG. IT'S LIKE HAIR-LIKE FIBERS IN IT THAT GIVE US THE STRENGTH. I'M TAPERING THIS ONE END DOWN. THINNING OUT. NOW THE OTHER END, THIS END I'M GOING TO LACE WITH, I'LL PUT A POINT ON IT SO I CAN LACE IT THROUGH THE HOLES. SO HERE'S WHERE THE LACING GROUP GETS CENTERED IS ON THIS HOLE. SO I'LL GO OVER JUST A LITTLE BIT. AND I WILL TAKE PUT A HOLE IN THIS, MOVE THIS WAY, SO THEY'LL BE ABOUT A HALF INCH APART. AND THEN I'LL MOVE ONE MORE HOLE THIS WAY. OKAY. SO I PUT FOUR HOLES AND THEY SPAN THE LENGTH MAYBE ABOUT AN INCH AND A HALF. NOW WE LACE THROUGH EACH HOLE TWICE AND AROUND THE GUNNEL. THE FIRST TIME THROUGH DOESN'T COUNT, BECAUSE THAT'S JUST LOCKING THE ROOT IN. SO TO GET THE ROOTS STARTED, WE'LL TAKE SCREWDRIVER, WEDGE THIS OPEN SO WE CAN TUCK THE END -- TAPER IT INTO THE ROOT BETWEEN THE PARK AND THE GUNNEL. POUND THAT BACK DOWN A LITTLE BIT. OKAY. NOW WHAT WE WANT TO DO -- ANOTHER LITTLE THING TO TRIM. NOW WE'VE GOT TO MAKE SHOE WE DON'T PUT A TWIST IN THE ROOT. WE WANT TO KEEP IT NICE AND NEAT. SO WE START OUT, WE LACE THE HOLE, THE ROOT THROUGH THE FIRST HOLE. WE PULL IT THROUGH. AND THEN WE CAN'T JUST PULL THIS IN AND TIGHTEN THE ROOT UP. YOU HAVE TO STARTEN THE ROOT UP AS YOU'RE DOING. SO OR TIGHTEN IT AROUND THAT CORNER. PUT MY THUMB ON IT. AND THEN I CAN PULL THIS THE REST OF THE WAY THROUGH. AND PUSH AND THEN TIGHTEN. AND THEN IT'S TIGHTENED AROUND THAT CORNER, SO THAT'S THE STARTING STITCH. NOW THAT ONE DOESN'T COUNT AS THE -- GOING TWICE THROUGH EACH HOLE. NOW WE DO THE TWICE THROUGH EACH HOLE THING. OKAY. IT GOES IN THE SAME HOLE. AND AGAIN WE PULL TO SNUG IT UP ON THE INSIDE, AND PULL IT OVER AND IT JUST GOES OVER. THE FIRST COMPLETE WRAP GOES OVER THAT STARTING WRAP. SO THAT BURIES THAT. NOW THE SUCCEEDING ONES WILL TRY TO LAY SIDE BY SIDE, SO THEY'RE NEATLY PUT. IN HOLD THIS DOWN WITH OUR THUMB SO IT DOESN'T LOOSEN UP. MAKE SURE WE'VE GOT FLEXIBILITY IN THE ROOT. SO IT DOESN'T KINK. AND WE PULL IT TIGHT. OKAY. NOW WE WANT THIS NEXT WRAP NOT TO GO OVER THE TOP OF THIS, WE WANT TO LAY SIDE BY SIDE. SO WE PULLED IT OVER, PUSH IT WITH OUR FINGER ON THE INSIDE SO IT'S UP ALONGSIDE OF THAT FIRST WRAP ON THE INSIDE. AND THEN REAM THIS HOLE OUT JUST A LITTLE BIT SO WE GET THROUGH THERE AGAIN. OKAY. NOW WE'RE GOING TO SEW THIS THROUGH THE SAME HOLE. AND THEN THIS HOLE IS GETTING PRETTY FILLED UP WITH ROOTS. YOU NOTICE WE DIDN'T DRILL THAT HOLELE WITH A DRILL. BECAUSE THAT WOULD REMOVE ALL THE BARK, FIBER FROM THE HOLE. YOU DON'T SEE SHAVINGS OF BARK, IT SPREADS THE BARK HOLE OPEN AND WHEN THAT BARK GETS WET AGAIN, THE HOLE SWELLS SHUT AND TIE UP ONTO THE STITCHING. OKAY. HERE'S THE ROOT COMING THROUGH FOR ITS LAST WRAP. WE PULL IT IN NOW. BEFORE WE PULL THIS TIGHT, WHAT WE DO IS WE MAKE A LOOP, WE MAKE A LOOP LIKE THIS SO WE KEEP THE EXTERIOR SERVICES OF THE ROOT OUT. WE PUT THAT UNDER OUR WRAP. OKAY. SO WE GOT SOMETHING HERE TO GRAB ONTO. AND WE'VE GOT SOMETHING HERE TO GRAB ONTO. AND THEN WE CAN PULL THIS DOWN LIKE THAT AND AS TIGHT AS WE CAN PULL IT, AND WE'VE STILL GOT A LOOP HERE WE CAN PULL TIGHT. OKAY. WE'VE GOT THAT DOWN. OKAY. THEN WE'LL TAKE THE SLACK UP FROM THE OUTSIDE BY PULLING THAT LOOP. PULL IT TIGHT. OKAY. SO THAT'S TIGHT, TIGHTLY SEWN. NOW WE'LL PULL THIS SLACK UP FROM THIS LOOP BY PULLING THIS END. AND YOU CAN SEE THAT WRAPS RIGHT AROUND. THAT BROKE OFF AFTER IT GOT THROUGH, BUT WHAT IT DID IS IT WENT THROUGH AND THEN IT'S UNDER THIS PIECE AND IT IS DOWN UNDER THE GUNNEL. THAT'S WHAT I WANTED TO DO WAS GET IT DOWN UNDER THE GUNNEL, BUT IT'S WRAPPED THROUGH. IT CAN'T COME LOOSE. AND THEN WHAT WE CAN DO, I CAN TRIM THE REST OF THIS END OFF. AND IT'S LOCKED IN THERE AND WILL NEVER COME LOOSE. IT MAKES THE CANOE LOOK REALLY NICE BY GRADUATING THE ROOTS. BUT DON'T WORRY. HERE'S A PHOTO OF THE SCAN MODEL. A VERTICAL BOARD THAT GOES IN THE ENDS OF THE CANOES. HERE'S THE END BOARD THAT GOES UP AND A BENT PIECE OF CEDAR AND THAT'S THE FRAMEWORK FOR THE END OF THE CANOE. IT KEEPS THE CANOE STRONG AND ESTABLISHES ITS SHAPE. WE'VE GOT BIG BUNCHES OF CEDAR HERE. SO I'M GOING TO LOOK FOR A CLEAR PIECE THAT'S GOING TO BE WIDE ENOUGH. NOW THIS PIECE HAS SOME KNOTS FURTHER DOWN, SO WE CAN'T REALLY MAKE LONG RIBS OUT OF IT. BUT CERTAINLY GOING TO BE BIG ENOUGH. I THINK IT'S LONG ENOUGH BEFORE THE FIRST KNOT. THERE'S A KNOT HERE. SO I GOT 2 FEET OF WOOD. I ONLY NEED. I'M GOING TO SAW THIS OFF AND THEN I'M GOING TO SPLIT THAT UP INTO PIECES FOR TWO HEADBOARDS. A LITTLE BIT OFF THE SIDE HERE. I'LL SPLIT THIS IN HALF AGAIN AND IT SHOULD GIVE ME TWO PIECES THAT I CAN MAKE THE HEADBOARDS ON. NOW I WANT TO TAKE THE KNIFE AND START MAKING THIS INTO A FLAT BOARD. OKAY. THIS IS ALMOST DOWN TO WHERE WE WANT. NOW THE OTHER PART OF THIS, THE END FRAME IS THE BIG LONG WENT PIECE. AND WE'VE GOT TO CARVE THIS TO SHAPE. BUT INSTEAD OF DOING THAT RIGHT NOW, I WANT TO LOOK FOR SOME CEDAR TO MAKE THE BIG, LONG BENT PIECE. I'LL USE IT FOR THE END FRAMES IN THE CANOE. THIS IS NICE AND CLEAR WITH NO KNOTS. A LITTLE GRAY ON THE OUTSIDE, BUT THAT JUST A LITTLE BIT OF SURFACE WEATHERING. SO GET IT THE RIGHT SIZE. SEE HOW NICE THIS EVENLY SPLITS. JUST ENOUGH OFF HERE ON THE SURFACE. THIS IS GOING TO FIT INTO THE END OF THE CANOE. SO ACTUALLY THE VERY BARK AT THE VERY END OF THE CANOE WILL BE ON EACH SIDE OF THIS. SO WE NEED TO TAPER. YOU CAN SEE IT'S NARROW HERE AND WIDER ON THAT SIDE. SO WE NEED TO TAPER SO THE BARK WILL COME RIGHT UP EVEN AND THEN IT WILL BE RESTITCHED RIGHT THROUGH THIS WOOD. BUT FIRST WE'RE GOING TO -- WE'LL BE MAKING THIS WOOD SO WE CAN BEND IT. OKAY, NOW WHAT I HAVE TO DO WITH WITH THIS, LIKE I SAY THIS HAS TO BE BENT IN A VERY TIGHT BEND. AND OBVIOUSLY IT DOESN'T -- IT DOESN'T BEND TOO WELL THE WAY IT IS NOW. IT IS PRETTY STIFF. SO WHAT I'M GOING TO DO IS IS SPLIT THIS INTO MANY LAYERS. BUT I DON'T WANT TO SPLIT IT QUITE TO THE END. I WANT TO LEAVE A SOLID PIECE ON ONE END. SO I'M GOING TO WRAP THIS AROUND IT AND TIE IT OFF. SO WE'LL STOP THE SPLIT. SO I LIKE TRYING TO SPLIT NARROW STRIPS AT ONE EDGE, BECAUSE THEY'D NEVER MAKE IT TO THE OTHER END. SO WHAT I'M GOING TO DO IS I'M GOING TO SPLIT THIS IN HALF FIRST. AND THEN I'LL PAY CAREFUL ATTENTION TO HOW IT'S SPLITTING. IT STANDS PRETTY MUCH IN THE MIDDLE. IT'S GOING A LITTLE BIT TO THIS SIDE. SO I'M GOING TO DO, I WANT TO BRING IT BACK TOWARD THE MIDDLE A LITTLE. SO I'LL FLEX THIS SIDE JUST A LITTLE BIT. AND THEN SPLITTING IT, FLEX IT THIS WAY. IT'S GETTING MORE BACK IN THE MIDDLE. SO OKAY. A SPLIT DOWN TO WHERE WE TIED IT OFF. NOW WE'LL TAKE THIS HALF AND WE'LL SPLIT THAT IN HALF. IF ONE SIDE IS GETTING THICKER, YOU BEND THE THICK SIDE AND THAT WILL BRING IT BACK. IT'S GOING PRETTY GOOD HERE. OKAY. SEE IT'S ALREADY NOW GETTING A LITTLE MORE FLEXIBLE. OKAY. SO NOW I'LL SPLIT THIS ONE IN HALF. WHEN I FIRST STARTED DOING THIS, I DIDN'T ALWAYS PICK A PIECE OF WOOD AND ENDED UP WITH WHAT I WANTED. OVER TIME DOING ENOUGH OF THIS, IT BECOMES PART OF YOU. OKAY. NOW WE'VE GOT TO SPLIT IT INTO FOUR. NOW WE'LL TAKE EACH ONE OF THESE AND SPLIT INTO FOUR. WE'LL GET THE LAST ONE TO SPLIT RIGHT, WE HAVE SUCCEEDED ON THIS ONE. THAT'S SOMETHING WE CAN MAKE AN END FRAME OF A CANOE OUT OF. SO THAT'S IT. THAT'S HOW THIS PART GETS DONE TO THIS STAGE. YEAH. IT'S FLEXIBLE. YOU WATCH US BUILD A CANOE FOR ANY LENGTH OF TIME, YOU NOTICE A LOT OF OUR TIME IS SPENT DEALING WITH THESE SPRUCES TO COLD THE CANOE TOGETHER. I'M THENNING THIS ROOT DOWN, MAKING IT EVEN SO IT'S FLEXIBLE. THIS ROOT IS THE KEY TO THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE WHOLE CANOE. BEING PART OF THAT BUILDING AND WATCHING IT COME TOGETHER, IT'S A CONNECTION AND A BOND THAT WE DEVELOP WITH EACH BOAT THAT WE BUILD. BECAUSE PART OF US GOING INTO THESE PIECES. THAT'S WHAT I ENJOY OUT OF BUILDING THESE CANOES HERE IS WHAT WE SHARE AND WHAT WE PUT INTO IT. I LOOK AT WHERE I GOT THE CEDAR, WHERE WE GOT THE BARK, THE CAMARADERIE THAT WE SPENT, DIGGING THE ROOT. THE LAUGHS HERE AND THE STORIES THAT WE SHARE HERE BUILDING AND THE JOURNEY OF WHERE IT'S GOING TO GO. >> GRANT SAID THIS BOAT NEEDS TO BE FED BY KEEPING IT IN THE WATER. AND USING IT FOR WHAT IT'S BEING BUILT FOR. AND KEVIN WILL DO THAT. >> FIRST OF ALL, IT'S SUCH AN HONOR THAT WE'VE BEEN GIVEN THIS GIFT FOR OUR WEDDING. AND JUST THE IDEA OF HOW MANY YEARS YOU CAN GET USE OUT OF THIS. SO JUST BEING PART OF THIS PROCESS AND KNOWING THAT WE'RE USING THIS FOR MANY YEARS AND HOPEFULLY WE CAN PASS IT ONTO OUR KIDS AND THEN THEY KNOW WE WORKED ON IT. >> EVERY TASK YOU TAKE ON THIS CANOE IS IN THE MOMENT. YOU'RE JUST CONCENTRATING ON EACH TASK IN THE MOMENT. SO IT GIVES YOU THAT, YOU KNOW, THAT COMMON TO THE PIECE, BECAUSE YOU KNOW IN THE END YOU'LL HAVE SUCH A BEAUTIFUL PIECE ONCE IT'S DONE. >> EVEN GROWING UP, I MEAN, I THINK THERE WAS SOMETHING SORT OF MAGICAL OF WHAT A BIRCHBARK CANOE IS. AND JUST TO SEE THE PROCESS BEING DONE AND WHEN JIM OFFERED US THE MATERIALS TO MAKE A BIRCHBARK CANOE, WAS JUST A REALLY, REALLY TOUCHING. IT MEANS SO MUCH MORE TO BE A PART OF THE ACTUAL MAKING AND SEEING HOW IT'S DONE, THEN SEEING THE TIME AND THE EFFORT AS OPPOSED TO BEING GIVEN ONE. TO BE GIVEN A BIRCHBARK CANOE IS AMAZING, BUT TO BE A PART PROCESS IS THAT MUCH MORE SPECIAL. WE'RE ARCHAEOLOGISTS BY TRAINING AND WE TRY TO FIGURE OUT WHAT WAS GOING ON IN THE PAST AND IT HUMANIZES OUR WORK AND MAKES IT MORE INTERESTING TO ME AS AN ARCHAEOLOGIST AND TO THE FIRST NATION OR TRIBAL GROUPS IN NORTHERN MANITOBA. IT'S GREAT TO GET THAT ACROSS TO THEM, THAT THE HUMAN SIDE OF IT, JUST THE WHOLE PROCESS OF DOING IT, HOW MANY HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF YEARS PEOPLE HAVE BEEN PEELING ROOTS, PREPARING BIRCHBARK, DOING EXACTLY WHAT WE'RE DOING. WE MIGHT HAVE A FEW MORE MODERN TOOLS, MEDAL AND THAT KIND OF THING. BUT THE SAME PROCESS HAS BEEN GOING ON FOR THOUSANDS OF YEARS. IT'S PART OF A CONTINUE EWEIUM THAT WE'RE A PART OF AND WITH THE WORK THAT GRANT HAS BEEN DOING. BEING ABLE TO BRING THIS BACK TO THE COMMUNITY IS JUST SO IMPORTANT. SO THIS IS ALL PART OF A LONG PROCESS OF PEOPLE MAKING THESE KINDS OF CANOES. ONE VERY INSIGHTFUL ELDER YEARS AGO, WHEN SHE WAS TEACHING ME HOW TO TAN MOOSE HIDES, SHE PULLED ME OFF TO THE SIDE AND SHE SAID, MAKE SURE THIS DOESN'T DIE WITH YOU. SHE SAID PASS THIS ON. THIS IS REALLY IMPORTANT FOR THE YOUNGER GENERATIONS TO LEARN. AND I SEE THE SAME THING WITH THIS. THE WOMAN WHO SAID THAT WAS ALICE MOORE AND SHE'S FROM NORTHERN MANITOBA, FROM A COMMUNITY CALLED THE NATION. SHE ALWAYS SAID, YOU KNOW, LIKE TODAY'S YOUTH HAVE TWO SCHOOLS OR TWO EDUCATIONS THAT THEY LEARN FROM. THEY SAID THEY'VE GOT THE BUSH, WHAT MOTHER NATURE AND WHAT THE ELDERS AND THE PEOPLE ARE TELLING AND THE ACADEMIC SYSTEM. AND, YOU KNOW, THE YOUTH OF TODAY HAVE TO BALANCE BETWEEN BOTH OF THOSE. AND BEING ABLE TO DO THAT IS REALLY IMPORTANT. TO UNDERSTAND, NOT TO FORGET EITHER ONE. DON'T PUT TOO MUCH EMPHASIS ON THE LAND AND DON'T PUT TOO MUCH EMPHASIS ON THE ACADEMICS AND IT'S A BALANCING WORLD THAT NO GENERATION PRIOR HAS HAD TO DEAL WITH LIKE TODAY'S GENERATION. >> AS ANTHROPOLOGISTS AND ARCHAEOLOGISTS, WE'VE TAUGHT SUMMER FIELD SCHOOL. AND WE'VE TAUGHT BOTH ARCHAEOLOGY AND OJIBWE CULTURE. AND AS WE'VE BEEN DOING THAT, OUR STUDENTS WERE ALWAYS INTERESTED IN BIRCHBARK CANOES. SO ONE SUMMER WE REALLY STARTED RESEARCHING IT AND DECIDED THAT WE WOULD USE THE STUDENTS THAT WOULD BE THERE -- ONE OF THEIR CLASS PROJECTS. AND THAT'S WHERE WE STARTED REALLY LEARNING ABOUT WHAT ALL WAS INVOLVED IN MAKING A CANOE. AND ALSO SINCE WE WERE TEACHING ABOUT NATIVE AMERICAN CULTURES, WE WANTED TO BE VERY SENSITIVE TO THE CULTURAL CONTEXT OF THE CANOE. AND WE DID NOT NOT WANT TO MAKE A GENERIC CANOE. WE WANTED TO MAKE THEM THE WAY THEY HAVE BEEN MADE IN THE PAST AS MUCH AS WE POSSIBLY COULD DO THAT. SO THAT'S KIND OF WHERE WE GOT IT STARTED. AFTER THAT IT WAS KIND OF AN AMBITIONS TO MAKE AS MANY DIFFERENT TYPES AND STYLES OF CANOES AS WE POSSIBLY COULD. AND GRANT WOODWORKER, THOSE SKILLS ARE OBVIOUSLY EXTREMELY IMPORTANT. AND SO HE WAS ABLE TO FIGURE OUT A LOT OF THINGS ABOUT HOW THE CANOES WERE PUT TOGETHER. YOU KNOW JUST BECAUSE OF HIS BACKGROUND IN WOODWORKING. THE WHOLE FEELING THAT YOU GET WHEN YOU ARE REPLICATING SOME OF THESE PROCESS. PEOPLE DON'T REALIZE THE INCREDIBLE SOPHISTICATION OF A LOT OF THIS TECHNOLOGY. THEY ALSO DON'T APPRECIATE A LOT OF THE SPIRITUAL ASPECTS OF IT EITHER. WHEN WE'RE WORKING ON A LOT OF THESE PROJECTS, WE TRY TO ALWAYS KEEP AWARE OF THAT, IF WE'RE TAKING BIRCHBARK OFF A TREE, WE LEAVE AN OFFERING TO THE TREE. BECAUSE IT'S JUST A SIGN OF RESPECT FOR THE GIFTS THAT THE FOREST HAS GIVEN US. AND ALSO FOR THE GREAT GIFT OF THE WHOLE INVENTION OF THIS TECHNOLOGY BY PEOPLE WHO CAME BEFORE US. >> BEING ABLE TO PASS THIS ONTO MY CHILDREN, BEING ABLE TO LEARN FROM MY FATHER, AND GRANT, PASS THAT ONTO MY CHILDREN. PEOPLE DON'T GET TO SEE WHAT HAPPENS BEHIND THE SCENES. YOU ARE WITH THIS CAMERA HERE TODAY ARE SEEING PART OF THAT. YOU'RE SEEING THIS WHOLE PROCESS. YOU'RE SEEING THE LAUGHTER AND THE JOKING. THAT'S AS INDIAN PEOPLE DO ANYWAY. BUT GOOD FOR THIS, TOO, ANYWAY. IT'S GOOD FOR HER TO HEAR US LAUGH OR HIM. THAT WILL BE UP TO THEM ON WHAT THEY -- [LAUGHTER] >> HI, FOLKS. THE HEAT CAN GET IN THERE. >> HERE'S A COMPLETED END FRAME FOR THE CANOE. WE'RE GOING TO BE MAKING THE OTHER ONE. PREVIOUSLY BENT THESE PIECES, CARVED OUT THE END BOARD AND NOW WE'VE GOT CUT A HOLE FOR THE END OF THIS TO COME THROUGH. WELL, WHAT I'VE GOT HERE IS FIBER FROM BASSWOOD BARK. YOU TAKE BASSWOOD BARK AND YOU STRIP IT IT OFF AND 2, 3, 4 INCHES WIDE. WHATEVER YOU CAN GET. YOU TAKE A BASSWOOD THAT BIG AROUND. YOU HAVE TO DO IT WHEN THE SAP IS FLOWING SO THE BARK COMES OFF REAL CLEAN AND THEN YOU SOAK IT IN THE LAKE. AND THEN AFTER ABOUT A WEEK, THE INNER PLAYERS OF THE BARK LOOSEN UP AND YOU CAN PEEL THAT OFF AND YOU CAN SEE THE BIG LONG THING OF FIBER YOU GET. AND IT'S FAIRLY STRONG. YOU CAN MAKE IT INTO ROPE OR STRING OR WHATEVER YOU NEED TO WRAP STUFF. IT WAS A MATERIAL THAT WAS USED PROBABLY FOR THOUSANDS OF YEARS AROUND HERE, JUST A NATURAL MATERIAL. NOW WE'RE GOING TO HAVE TO TAKE THAT OUT OF THAT FORM. IT WILL SEND TO SPRING BACK A LITTLE BIT AND WE HAVE TO WRAP IT SO IT MAINTAINS ITS SHAPE. WE'LL TAKE THESE PIECES OF FIBER AND PUTTED END BETWEEN THE COUPLE OF THE SPLIT LAYERS. WEDGE IT DOWN IN THERE. THEN I'LL HOLD IT KIND OF BENT LIKE THAT. ACTUALLY WHAT I SHOULD DO IS GET THIS WET. LET ME GO DIP THIS IN SOME WATER REAL QUICK. IT'S WET. IT WILL BE EASIER TO WRAP TIGHTLY. THERE. OKAY. NOW SEE I'LL BEND THIS BACK WHEN I'M WRAPPING. ACTUALLY PROBABLY BEND IT A LITTLE BIT MORE THAN IT NEEDS TO BE, JUST TO MAKE SURE IT STAYS TIGHT. THEN WE'LL WRAP IT AND THAT WILL KEEP THESE TIGHTLY TOGETHER HERE. THEN IT WILL HOLD ITS SHAPE AND WE'LL WRAP IT UP TO THE OTHER END AND COMPARE IT TO THE SHAPE IT'S SUPPOSE TO BE. OKAY. NOW I'M GOING TO BEND THIS TOGETHER. ACTUALLY IT'S WRAPPING WE'RE PUTTING ON HERE, THIS BASSWOOD BARK IS NOT ANYTHING THAT WILL LAST A LONG TIME. IT WILL DETERIORATE OVER TIME. BASICALLY WE GET THIS HELD TOGETHER AND ONCE WE LAY IT INTO THE CANOE, THE WRAPPING NO LONGER IS REALLY THAT SIGNIFICANT. SO, OKAY. WE'RE ALL GOOD TO GO WITH THE FRAMES. WE GOT THE GUNNELS PRETTY MUCH LACED. AND I GOT TO GET WORKING ON RIBS. BUT I'M GOING TO GET PEOPLE STARTED ON GETTING THESE READY. I'M GOING TO SET THESE INTO THE CANOE SO THEY WON'T BE SEWN IN YET. NOW THESE SET IN SO NOW THE GUNNELS WILL FIT ON TOP INTO THESE NOTCHES. AND WHEN WE SEW THESE TOGETHER, THESE WILL GET WRAPPED TOGETHER SO THEY'LL GO TIGHT INTO THOSE NOTCHES. OKAY. THAT'S THE PILE OF RIBS WE'VE GOT SHORT, WE'RE ABOUT 14 RIBS SHORT SO I HAVE TO SEE WHAT WE CAN GET HERE. TO MAKE CANOE RIBS TO WHAT WE'RE START OUT WITH A CEDAR LOG. WE SPLIT THE LOG IN HALF AND WE'LL BE SPLITTING THE LOG IN QUARTERS AND WE'LL BE LOOKING FOR THE RELATIVELY CLEAR WOOD. WE'VE GOT TO AVOID THE KNOTS. NOW IN ORDER TO ACTUALLY SPLIT CEDAR PERFECTLY EVEN, WHAT YOU HAVE TO DO IS PRETTY MUCH ALWAYS SPLIT IT CLOSE TO IN HALVES. THE SPLIT WILL FOR THE GRAIN QUITE WELL IF YOU FOLLOW THE RULE OF ALWAYS SPLITTING IT IN HALF. I SUPPOSE I MAKE THIS LOOK EASY, BUT I COULDN'T TELL YOU HOW MANY HUNDREDS OF THESE I HAVE SPLIT ALREADY. SO YOU CAN KIND OF GET TO WHERE YOU CAN ALMOST DO IT WITH YOUR EYES CLOSED. TO LINE THE INSIDE OF THE CANOE WE NEED THIN PIECES OF CEDAR. I GO INSIDE THE OF THE BARK AND THE RIBS GO OVER THE TOP OF THAT. WE NEED QUITE A BIT. SO WE'RE GOING TO NEED TO MAKE SOME MORE. A PIECE THAT MIGHT MAKE ONE RIB IN THICKNESS, GENERALLY MAKES FOUR PIECES OF PLANNING. WE DO THIS SORT OF LIKE THE RIBS WE SPLIT THINGS IN HALF-AND-HALF AND HALF. WE KEEP GOING A LITTLE THINNER. GO SLOW UNTIL YOU GET DOWN A WAYS AND IT WILL SPEED UP. AND THERE WE ARE. AND YOU CAN SEE IT COMES OUT WITH A FAIRLY NICE SMOOTH SURFACE. WE WON'T SHAVE THAT DOWN OR ANYTHING. WE'LL JUST USE THAT SURFACE INSIDE THE CANOE AND SEE THE NICE, THIN FLEXIBLE PIECES. THIS IS GOING TO BE THE CANOE RIBS. THIS IS WHAT GIVES THE CANOE IT'S SHAPE AND ITS STRENGTH. NOTHING PHYSICAL THAT ATTACHES THESE TO THE BOAT. THEY'RE JUST BASICALLY STAY IN PLACE BY FRICTION. THE RIBS ARE JUST BENT BY EYEBALL, NOT BENT BY ANY KIND OF A FORM OR SHAPE OR ANYTHING. I'LL BE BENDING THOSE JUST PRETTY MUCH BY LOOKING AT THEM. A LITTLE BIT STIFF YET. WE HAVE TO LET THEM HEAT JUST A LITTLE LONGER. OKAY. OK. PUT THIS THING ON THAT END. REAL TIGHT. OKAY. JUST GIVE IT ONE WRAP AROUND THERE. WRAP IT AND WRAP IT IN BETWEEN. THERE WE ARE. OKAY. WRAP THAT. OKAY. THERE'S ANOTHER SET OF RIBS BENT. WHAT I DO WHEN I BEND THE RIBS, I KNOW ABOUT HOW WIDE THE BOTTOM OF THE CANOE IS IN DIFFERENT PLACES. I'LL BEND THEM AND GRADUALLY GET THEM SMALLER AND SMALLER, I HAVE TO BEND A SET FOR HERE, A SET FOR HERE AND SOME MORE THAT ARE A LITTLE WIDER. WE HAVE ENOUGH PAIRS THAT WE CAN FILL ALL THE SPACES. THEN ONE HALF OF THAT WILL GO AND DO THE OTHER END. AND WE'LL HAVE THE RIBS FOR THE WHOLE CANOE. WE'VE GOT THIS TRIMMED DOWN, WE'RE GOING TO START STITCHING. AND WE'LL START WITH A HOLE THROUGH HERE. THIS IS GOING RIGHT TO THAT BENT WOOD PIECE. WE'LL BE SEWING WITH THE MIDDLE OF OF THE ROOT AND SEWING BOTH DIRECTIONS. ACTUALLY WE'LL PUT THE ROOT THROUGH TWICE THE FIRST TIME. OKAY. NOW WE'LL PUT THE ROOT THROUGH, PUSH THE BARK TOGETHER TIGHT, AND THAT WILL MAKE A WRAP OVER THE TOP, IT PULLS THE BARK TOGETHER. WE'LL GO DOWN MAKE THE NEXT HOLE. WE'LL MAKE THESE HOLES ABOUT AN INCH APART. >> IT GOES THROUGH PRETTY EASILY. >> OH, YEAH. SOFT WOOD. THAT'S THE SIDE THAT IT CAME OUT. THAT'S THE HARDEST PART TO SEW. WE'RE SEWING WITH BOTH END. WE'LL MAKE AN X-SHAPED STITCH. SO WE PULL THIS TIGHT AND WE HAVE THIS SNUGGED UP. AND THEN WE'VE GOT TO OPEN THE HOLE UP A LITTLE BIT WITH THIS. WE USE THIS TO OPEN THE HOLE UP, BECAUSE IT'S SMOOTH AND IT WON'T CUT THE ROOTS. WHERE THEY'LL ALL HAVE KIND OF A SHARP EDGE ON THEM. SO WE TAKE THE OTHER END OF THE ROOT. AND WE SEW THROUGH, WE PULL THIS TIGHT. NOW THAT TIGHTENED THE BARK DOWN AND NOW YOU CAN SEE WE'RE A LITTLE HIGHER OFF THAT THEN WE WERE. SO WE CAN TRIM A LITTLE MORE. OKAY. WE'LL JUST GO DOWN AND DOT NEXT HOLE AND SEE ABOUT WHERE WE ARE, SO WE KNOW WE'RE GETTING BACK INTO THE WOOD. [BIRDS CHIRPING] WE'RE AT THE POINT NOW WHERE WE'RE GOING TO REALLY START SHAPING THIS CANOE. IT IT LOOKS LIKE A CANOE, BUT THE BOTTOM IS NOT NICELY SHAPED. THERE'S HOLLOWS IN IT AND THOSE WILL ALL DISAPPEAR AS SOON AS WE PUT THE RIBS. SO IT'S ALWAYS KIND OF A -- REALLY EXCITING PART OF THE CANOE BUILD. SO I DON'T CUT THROUGH THE BARK AND THE LACING, I'LL PUT THE EXTRA PIECE OF BARK UNDERNEATH. THERE. NOW WE'VE GOT THAT SPLIT, SO IT CAN START TO GET FLEXIBLE. >> DOUBLE CHECK THESE RIBS. FIND IT'S JUST RIGHT. THE FIRST PIECE OF PLANKING WE'LL GO RIGHT DOWN THE MIDDLE OF THE BOTTOM. AND A LOT OF TIMES WHEN YOU'RE SPLITTING THIS PLANKING, YOU GET OUTSIDE SPLIT THAT HAS A CURVE OF THE LOG ON IT. A LOT OF TIMES I'LL USE THOSE RIGHT DOWN THE CENTER, THEY'RE NATURALLY TAPERED TOWARD BOTH ENDS AND THEY'RE KIND OF ROUND. FIRST THING WE'RE GOING TO DO, WE'RE GOING TO HEAT THE BARK UP. SO POUR SOME HOT WATER, A LITTLE OVER THE GUNNELS. AS WE GET READY TO PUT THE RICKS IN, WE'LL BE PUTTING MORE. FOR NOW I WANT TO LIMBER THE BARK UP SO I CAN SLIDE THINGS IN. PARK GETS REAL FLEXIBLE. >> OH, YEAH. >> WE'LL CARVE THIS IN. WE'LL KIND OF WANT TO MATCH THE CURVE THERE. BECAUSE WE'LL BE STICKING IT WAY IN THERE AND THEY'LL REINFORCE THE SIGNED -- SIDES OF THE BARK. SO THE FIRST ONE GETS A LITTLE CURVED LIKE THAT. OKAY. SO IT WILL LAY IN THERE. OKAY. THAT'S GOING TO LAY IN GOOD. NOW THESE ARE PROBABLY SHOWING A LITTLE GAP DOWN HERE, BECAUSE THE BOAT IS TAPERING OUT. SO THAT'S WHERE WE'LL TAKE SOME OF THOSE NARROW ONES AND WE'LL SLIDE THEM UNDERNEATH HERE AFTER WE GET A FEW RIBS IN HERE. ONE MORE WIDE PIECE OF PRANKING AND PROBABLY GET US CLOSE. OKAY. THAT'S AS HIGH AS WE NEED THAT TO GO. SO NOW IS WHEN WE START HEATING EVERYTHING UP. WE WANT ALL OF THE LACINGS A LITTLE BIT SOFT. NOW TO FIT THE RIB, WHAT WE DO WE SET IS DOWN IN PLACE, WE HOLD IT DOWN. AND THEN I'LL MAKE A PENCIL MARK AT THE TOP OF THE GUNNELS. THEN WHAT I'LL DO, AS WE SAWED OFF ON THE PENCIL MARK, THAT'S THE STARTERS. IT MAY BE THAT WE NEED TO KEEP THINGS A LITTLE TO ONE SIDE OF THE PENCIL MARK. ONCE WE FIGURE THAT OUT, IT WILL BE PRETTY MUCH THE SAME FOR ALL THE RIBS. SO THAT WILL ALLOW US TO NOT HAVE TO RECUT RIBS. NOW THE END OF THE RIBS GO BACK A FEW INCHES, TAPER OUT THE RIBS A LITTLE BIT LIKE THAT. AND THEN WE CUT A 45-DEGREE BEVEL AT THE END. AND THAT MATCHES THAT BEVEL ON THE BACK SIDE OF THE GUNNELS. PUT THE RIB IN, SET IT IN. AND YOU STICK IT UP IN THE NOTCHES UNDER THE GUNNEL. AND THEN DRIVE IT INTO PLACE. IF WE'RE GOING TO GO. IT LOOKS LIKE IT WILL PROBABLY FIT PERFECT. TAP ON IT, MAKE SURE IT GETS INTO THAT SLOT WHERE IT'S SUPPOSE TO GO. DRIVE IT HOME. OKAY. THERE'S THE FIRST RIB. NEXT RIB. MAKE SURE IT'S UP THERE. I'LL MAKE SURE IT'S FEEDING THAT'S NOT QUITE IN. THERE IT'S GOING. WE'LL KEEP GOING UNTIL WE PUT THE RIBS IN UP TO THE CENTER AND THEN WE'LL START FROM THE OTHER END AND THE LAST RIB WE PUT IN WILL BE THIS ONE. AND WHAT YOU'LL SEE IS THE PROBLEM WITH PUTTING THE LAST RIB IN, IS AS YOU NOTICE WHEN WE PUT THE RIBS IN, WHEN WE SET THEM IN, WE HAD TO SET THEM AT QUITE AN ANGLE. THIS RIB STARTED WAY OUT HERE. THE PROBLEM IS WHEN WE GET TO THE LAST RIB, THERE'S ALREADY A RIB THAT'S IN THE WAY HERE. AND WHEN YOU PUT IT OUT THIS WAY, IF IT'S ON TOP OF THAT RIB, DOESN'T FIT. BECAUSE THE THICKNESS OF RIB TAKES UP LOTS OF SPACE. SO WHEN WE GET TO THAT, WE'LL BE DOING A LOT OF BEATING RIBS BACK AND FORTH AND PUTTING THEM IN ONE END AT A TIME. THE LAST RIB WHEN IT GOES IN, WE GOT TO LEAVE ONE END WAY OUT HERE AND WE POUND IT IN AND POUND IT WAY PAST. SO IT ENDS UP LIKE AN S-CURVE FOR A LITTLE WHILE UNTIL WE GET IT ALL STRAIGHTENED OUT. WELL, WE'VE FILMED GETTING THE FIRST HALF OF THE RIBS IN, BASICALLY THE SECOND HALF OF THE RIBS WAS JUST A MIRROR IMAGE OF WHAT WE DID ON THE FIRST HALF. WE BENT THE ENDS OF THE OUTSIDE GUNNELS UP. SO THEY CAME UP, DID A LITTLE MORE TRIMMING HERE. AND KEVIN AND MYRA ARE DOING THE LOW FILL-IN STITCHING. THERE'S A LITTLE OPENING HERE BETWEEN THE HEADBOARD AND THE GUNNELS. WE HAVE ONE MORE PIECE OF WOODWORK THAT GOES ON THE TOP OF THE FUNDRAISES. AND -- THE GUNNELS. THAT PROTECTS THE LACING AGAINST BEING SCARED UP OR BROKEN. PEOPLE ALWAYS ASK US, YOU KNOW, THEY THINK OF A BIRCHBARK CANOE AS BEING, WELL, DO YOU REALLY HAVE TO BE CAREFUL WITH IT? BECAUSE IT'S JUST BIRCHBARK BECAUSE IT'S KIND OF FRAGILE. NO, IT'S NOT A FRAGILE CRAFT. IT'S A BIG IRON CLUB AND IT'S HEAVY. THINK BASEBALL BAT. YOU CAN TAKE A LOT OF BEATING. YOU CAN RUN IN THE ROCKS. YOU'RE NOT GOING TO HURT THIS CANOE. IT'S WHOLE LOT MORE STURDY THAN PEOPLE. WE'VE GOT THESE ALL CARVED OUT HERE. WE'RE HEATING THE ENDS BECAUSE THE ENDS HAVE TO BEND UP TO FIT THIS CURVE. SO WE'RE GOING TO GET THAT STARTED, HEAT THEM UP IN THE WATER. AND GET THAT CURVE STARTING BEFORE WE PUT THEM ON. WHAT EAR GOING TO DO IS WE'RE GOING TO START PEGGING THIS DOWN. AGAIN WE USE OUR SQUARE PEGS APPROACH. WE PUT A PEG IN AT THIS ANGLE AND THE NEXT PEG IS SLIGHTLY AT THIS ANGLE, INSTEAD OF PUTTING THEM VERTICALLY. WE SWITCH THE ANGLE AT EACH ONE. THAT GIVES IT A LITTLE MORE HOLDING STRENGTH. WE'LL BE LACING THROUGH HERE, BUT THEY'LL HAVE A TENDENCY TO SLIP OFF. SO WHAT WE DO HE WE JUST MAKE THIS LITTLE NOTCH IN HERE WHERE THAT LACE IS GOING TO GO. SO THEN THERE'S A LITTLE EDGE FOR IT TO CATCH ON RIGHT HERE WHEN WE SEW IT. THERE. WE DO THAT. WE SEWED THIS ONE. SO THIS TRIM THESE ENDS AND THE CANOE IS BASICALLY DONE. WE'LL HAVE TO LET IT DRY OUT A FOR A FEW DAYS AND WE'LL PITCH THE SEAMS AND PUT IT IN THE LAKE. THIS CANOE NOW HAS NICE, SMOOTH, EVEN CURVES. YOU CAN SEE HERE'S THE JOINT BETWEEN THE TWO PIECES OF BARK THAT WE USED. THIS PIECE GOES TO THAT END. THIS PIECE GOING GOSS THAT END. THIS SEAM WILL BE SEALED. ALL OF THESE WILL BE SEALED AND THEN WE'LL GO OVER ANYPLACE THERE'S A LITTLE CRACK OR A LITTLE OPENING IN THE BARK. THERE'S A LITTLE BITTY HOLE RIGHT HERE. WE'LL PITCH THOSE ALL OVER AND SEAL EVERYTHING UP. THAT'S THE BLACK STRIPES YOU SEE ON BIRCHBARK CANOES. IT'S THE SEALER. TRADITIONALLY THIS WOULD BE DONE WITH A MIXTURE OF SPRUCE PITCH, POWDERED UP CHARCOAL AND A LITTLE BIT OF ANIMAL FAT TO KEEP IT FLEXIBLE, BECAUSE SPRUCE PITCH BY ITSELF IS CELEBRATION. THE ONLY THING THAT WE USE IN MATERIALS THAT'S NONTRADITIONAL, WE USE A POLYURETHANE CALLING THAT'S BLACK. IT LOOKS JUST LIKE THE PITCH AND CHARCOAL MIX. IT DOESN'T COME OFF. IT DOESN'T CHIP. DOESN'T NEED CONSTANT ATTENTION AND REPAIR. WHAT WE'D LIKE TO SEE HAPPEN IS THIS EXPAND. AND WE CAN TAKE THIS KNOWLEDGE THAT WE'RE TRYING TO MORE OR LESS RESURRECT START GETTING MORE PEOPLE INVOLVED AND SPREAD THIS BACK TO THE PEOPLE. AND THAT'S WHAT I WOULD HOPE TO DO IS GET MORE AND MORE PEOPLE INVOLVED AND HAVING PEOPLE COME OVER AND SAY I WANT TO PARTICIPATE. I WANT TO BECOME A PART OF THIS CANOE BUILDING. AND THAT'S WHERE MY INTERESTS ARE. >> THIS FILM IS MADE POSSIBLE BY THE MINNESOTA ARTS AND CULTURE HERITAGE FUND AND THE CITIZENS

Contents

History of organized recreational canoeing

Canoeing is an ancient mode of transportation. Modern recreational canoeing was established in the late 19th century. In 1924, canoeing associations from Austria, Germany, Denmark and Sweden founded the Internationalen Representation for Kanusport, forerunner of the International Canoe Federation. Canoeing became part of the Olympic Games in the summer of 1936.[1][2] The main form of competitive sport was canoe sprint using a sprint canoe. Others include canoe polo, whitewater canoeing, canoe marathon, ICF canoe marathon, and playboating.

National canoe associations include the American, Canadian, British, Scottish, and Welsh.

Recreational canoeing

Most present-day canoeing is done as or as a part of a sport or recreational activity. In some parts of Europe canoeing refers to both canoeing and kayaking, with a canoe being called an Open canoe. A few of the recreational forms of canoeing are canoe camping and canoe racing such as canoe sprint and canoe marathons. Other forms include a wide range of canoeing on lakes, rivers, oceans, ponds and streams.

The summer Olympics include canoeing competitions. Canoe slalom (previously known as whitewater slalom) is a competitive sport with the aim to navigate a decked canoe or kayak through a course of hanging downstream or upstream gates on river rapids in the fastest time possible. It is one of the two kayak and canoeing disciplines at the Summer Olympics, and is referred to by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) as Canoe/Kayak Slalom. The other Olympic canoeing discipline is canoe sprint.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Canoe/Kayak Sprint Equipment and History". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
  2. ^ "Rio 2016 Olympics: Know your sport — Canoeing". indianexpress.com. Retrieved 10 August 2016.

External links

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