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Campaigns of 1792 in the French Revolutionary Wars

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The French Revolutionary Wars began in April 1792.

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We finished the last video with the Reign of Terror, which lasted essentially from April of 1793 to July of 1794, where Robespierre himself got the losing end of the guillotine. So it looks like France was done with the low point of the Revolution. And that is true, especially from the point of view of the French people. Then we go into 1795. France is doing well in its wars with essentially the rest of Europe. And peace is declared with Prussia and Spain. So the only two major enemies left are Great Britain and Austria. So slowly, France is dealing with its enemies. And this was essentially a victory for France. So France victorious with this huge citizen army that it created. And then this was in April of 1795. And then in August of 1795-- let me do that in a different color-- in August of 1795, the new republic constitution gets approved. And it gets ratified through a vote of the people, which makes France officially a republic. They don't need kings anymore. And it set up a governing structure where the executive was essentially this group five directors. So the executive is called the Directory. So you don't have one president, you had five directors. And then the legislature, and this was significant because this was the first bicameral legislature for France, it had two houses. It had the Council of 500, which is analogous to the U.S. House of Representatives. It had 500 members in it, 500 representatives. Let me write that down. It was by bicameral. It had two houses, just like the U.S. Congress. So it's Council of 500. And then you had your Counsel of Elders, which had 250 representatives. And that, if you want to view it from a U.S. point of view, that was analogous to the U.S. Senate. And the Directory, the directors, the candidates were submitted by the Council of 500 to of the Council of Elders, who then picked the five directors-- the five people who would essentially be the executive in France. Already, things are looking really well. But, even though they had the military victories, there was still a lot of unrest. You still had Royalist out there. You still had Great Britain causing trouble. Great Britain was attacking the western regions of France. There were Royalists throughout Paris. And then, in October of 1795, there was a Royalist uprising. And Royalists are the people who wanted to bring back the crown. Or they were against the revolutionary government. And to a large degree, they weren't just upset about the fact that the royalty is gone. There were also upset that they were excluded from the Directory. So it excluded the Royalists. So before the Directory could even form in any major way, you had a Royalist uprising in Paris. And they stormed the Tuileries. This is the same place that you might remember earlier on, a couple of videos ago, where the king and queen were in house arrest. And later, they were assaulted by the revolutionary government. That was this painting right here. This was only three years ago. This was in 1792 and this is when they actually took the king and queen prisoner. And then they executed Louis XVI only a few months after that. So now it was on the other way. Instead of the royalty being in the Tuileries, and being sieged by the revolutionaries, the revolutionary government was in the Tuileries and it was being sieged by Royalists. And actually, the situation did not look good for the revolutionary government. They were out numbered. It looked like the Royalists had better numbers. But lucky for the revolutionary government, there was a young, very ambitious, very egotistical, military captain at this point, who had observed the Siege of the Tuileries when Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette were captured. And back then, he made a mental note. He said, they would have been able to stop the siege if only they had good artillery. Remember, he was an artillery captain. That's where he first became famous. In the Siege of Toulon he was able to use artillery effectively to suppress a rebellion. So he was actually observing this scene three years later. And now, in 1795, as the revolutionary government is in the Tuileries and the Royalists are about to essentially take it over, Napoleon, using what he learned when he observed the first time, he was able to place cannons and artillery in such a way. And he shot what they call grapeshot. And it's essentially like a shotgun coming out of a canon. And even though they were significantly outnumbered by the Royalists, he was essentially able to mow them down with the canons. So even though you had more numbers, you had all these cannons. Let me draw one. You had a canon and the actual ammunition would have these little pellets. That's why it was called grapeshot, it looked like a bundle of grapes. And when you shot it out, it would go in every direction. So you could imagine, it would just mow down whoever is in the way of the canon. And so essentially, Napoleon was able to save the revolutionary government. And allow the actual Directory to come to power. So this once again, Napoleon was in the right place at the right time. And he was very competent in military tactics. By all measure he was egotistical, he narcisistic, but the dude knew what he was doing. And so Napoleon becomes even more famous. This event, October 5, 1795 where Napoleon is able to defend the revolutionary government, this is know as 13 Vendemiaire. I know I'm saying it wrong. But once again, this was the month of October in the new French Revolutionary Calendar. But it made Napoleon even more of a national hero, or even revolutionary hero. People are starting to realize that this guy, he definitely knows what he's doing. But you could imagine at the same time, the Directory really didn't like this dude hanging around too close to the seats of power. He was obviously ambitious. He was obviously competent. And at some point, he might be a threat himself to the Directory. So they gave him power. But they made sure that he was far away from France. So he was essentially put in charge of the campaign into Italy. Remember, we're still fighting Austria and Great Britain. So we're fighting Austria in Italy. And Napoleon is made a Commander in Chief of the Italian forces. And he's tremendously successful. This was kind of the least important front of the war with Austria at this point. But out of all of the generals of the different fronts, Napoleon is the one that proves himself to be tremendously innovative and tactical and an all-route good general. So this Napoleon kicking butt in Italy. So once again, he becomes even more famous, even more well known. Eventually, Austria admits that hey gee, we're not going to beat the French anymore. They're really taking care of us quite well. And they make peace with the French in October of 1797. The Italian campaign occurred in 1796. So he defended the revolutionary government in 1795. He kicks butt in 1796 in Italy. In 1797 there's peace with Austria. So you only have Great Britain left. But this peace with Austria is actually going to be very temporary. This is from the Treaty of Campo-Formio. Let me write that down. And once again, this was peace with Austria. But France was the victor. So this is another French victory. And the only real enemy left was Great Britain. But the main problem was that Great Britain had the dominant navy in the world at the time. So France, and especially Napoleon, wasn't in a position to confront Great Britain on the water. And this was kind of a controversial decision. In 1798-- and remember, the Directory really didn't want Napoleon hanging around France. They're like OK, you're hugely popular, you're a good general, you're a great general. You go do what you want. Whatever you think is proper. So Napoleon gets it into his head to attack Egypt. And people aren't 100% sure what was the main strategic goal of attacking Egypt. So in 1798, he leaves from Toulon. Remember Toulon was the port that he helped suppress. He leaves from Toulon, he takes Malta along the way. And then eventually, he arrives in Egypt to essentially take over Egypt. And people believe that his desire to take over Egypt was essentially to, at some point, undermine the British in India. He'd maybe make some Muslim allies in Egypt and then maybe befriend some of the Muslim insurgents, if you will. Especially they were talking about Tipu Sultan, who he wanted to meet up with and maybe help undermine the British in India. But people aren't quite sure. It might have been just Napoleon having some visions of grandeur. And he wanted to go to Egypt because Egypt was a formerly great empire. So in 1798, Napoleon goes to Egypt. These are paintings of him in Egypt. And once again, he was able to kind of route the Mamluk forces who are in power at the time in Egypt. This is the Battle of the Pyramids. Once again, Napoleon is hugely successful. Except for one problem. He brings his 20,000 troops into Egypt, obviously by ship. They're sitting here, they're kicking butt in Egypt. But they're still at war with the British. So what the British do, with their dominant Navy, they send Horatio Nelson in charge of a fleet. And he comes here where the French navy was parked. And he just destroys them. So Horatio Nelson destroys the French fleet in the Battle of the Nile. And this is a depiction. This is Horatio Nelson right here. This is a depiction of the Battle of the Nile, which essentially strands Napoleon 20,000-person army. They're stuck in Egypt. So not knowing what else to do-- they can't leave with all of their forces-- Napoleon then goes into Damascus and Syria. And then he causes all sorts of havoc in raping and pillaging and whatnot. But still that kind of begs the question of, how are they going to get back? And you could imagine, for someone as ambitious and egotistical as Napoleon, he didn't really care a lot about what happened to his troops. And so when an opportunity arose in 1799, he left. He left his entire army. This gives you a lot of view into Napoleon's character, that he was willing to leave his entire army in Egypt and in Syria to essentially be left to die at the hands of the Ottomans. And then he sneaks his way back to France. So in 1799, Napoleon goes back to France. Let me write this down. And once he gets back there, he sees that the Directory is unbelievably unpopular. And the main reason is the reason that every government in France throughout this whole series of videos has been unpopular. People are still hungry. France is still poor. Notice in everything I've talked about, in all of these videos, we still haven't addressed the issue that France is essentially broke and that people are still going hungry. So throughout all of the violence, all of the wars, the Directory is hugely unpopular. And then a few of the directors, two in particular, actually three of the directors, want to plot with Napoleon, who was hugely popular. And they essentially plan a coup. And the way that they allow themselves to come to power is they resign. And then they tell the legislature that's meeting at the Tuileries, hey, there's a Jacobian revolt and you're in danger. Why don't you go to this estate west of Paris. So that's Paris, where they normally meet. They tell them to go to an estate west of Paris. So the legislature goes here to this estate. And you'll be protected by Napoleon. And they're protected by Napoleon and his army. Now once they're there, Napoleon goes in and starts making these speeches about you guys being essentially illegitimate. And he looks like he really wants to take power. And they just jostle him out of the room. But once he gets jostled out of the room, his brother points to the bruises on Napoleon. He tells the guards outside of where the legislature is meeting, hey those guys in there, they're becoming violent. You have to go in there and take order. So that convinces the military. And they go in and they essentially dissolve the Council of 500. So essentially, you've dissolved the legislature, Napoleon is in charge of the military that dissolved the legislature. And so that allowed Napoleon and two of the plotting directors to take power. They became the three consuls of France. They form the Consulate, or the new executive of France. And very shortly they'll have their own constitution. But this really marks the point where Napoleon takes power of France. Because even though he took power with these other two dudes, he eventually is able to scheme his way to be called First Consul. At which point he is the authoritarian ruler of France. So we've gone from, over the course of the French Revolution, from 1789 where we had an absolute monarch in Louis XVI, now we go all the way to 1799, 10 years later, after all of this bloodshed, after multiple revolutions and counter revolutions. We end up with Napoleon, essentially being in charge of France.



From 1789 to early 1792, the French Revolution gradually radicalised, breaking with old institutions and practices as it went, and targeting defenders of the Ancien Régime. Some of these defenders, or people who were unintentionally caught in the crossfire, emigrated from France to avoid persecution. King Louis XVI himself attempted to escape with his family in June 1791, but this flight to Varennes failed. The French king was put under surveillance, and increasingly suspected of conspiring with other European monarchs, who wished to preserve the House of Bourbon in France and restore its pre-revolutionary authority. This was explicitly stated in the Declaration of Pillnitz (17 August 1791) by king Frederick William II of Prussia and emperor Francis II (Austria, Hungary and Bohemia), who called on all monarchs in Europe to 'liberate' Louis.[1] Leading radical revolutionaries called for the complete abolition of the monarchy, but the republican movement was dealt a severe blow in the July 1791 Champs de Mars Massacre.[2] Although this cleared the way for the establishment of the constitutional monarchy in September,[2] it did not secure the Louis XVI's position. The uncertain future of the Bourbon monarchy caused tensions to rise between France and other European states.

In early 1792, conservative royalist Armées des Émigrés were forming just across the borders in cities such as Koblenz, readying themselves to invade and end Revolution with the help of other monarchies. The Girondin majority in the Legislative Assembly favored war, especially with Austria, in order to display the Revolution's strength and defend its achievements (such as the Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen of 1789 and the early beginnings of parliamentary democracy) against a possible return to an (Enlightened) absolutist regime.[3] They cited the Declaration of Pillnitz to justify the urgent need to strike first.[2] Many of the French revolutionaries wanted to spread their Revolution to other countries, and refugees from recently failed revolutions, such as Dutch Patriots and Belgian-Liégois rebels, urged their French comrades to 'liberate' the Low Countries.[4] However, there was a real risk that France would be overwhelmed by foreign forces if a large anti-French coalition were to be formed. This is why many leftist deputies within the Assembly such as Robespierre opposed a war,[5] arguing France was not ready for it and could lose all progress (as they saw it) made thus far during the Revolution.



Major-general Charles François Dumouriez was appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs in March 1792, and by mid-April had managed to obtain the neutrality of all European great powers except Austria and Prussia through his cunning diplomacy. Meanwhile, he organized plans to incite a rebellion in the Austrian Netherlands by cooperating with the Committee of United Belgians and Liégeois, who represented remnants of the rebel armies formed during the recently failed anti-Austrian Brabant Revolution and Liège Revolution (August 1789 – January 1791).[6]


Finally, France declared war on Austria on 20 April 1792. Dumouriez planned to defeat the Austrian army within 15 days to achieve a successful quick victory. From Dunkirk to Strasbourg, the French northern frontier comprised 164,000 soldiers, divided into three armies under the leadership of general Lafayette (Armée du Centre;[7] targets: from Givet to Namur and Liège), marshal Luckner (Armée du Rhin;[7] targets: Flemish cities such as Menen and Kortrijk) and marshal Rochambeau (Armée du Nord;[7] targets: Quiévrain, Mons and Brussels).[6]

The invasion heavily relied on the presumption that Belgian and Liégois patriotic rebellions would break out spontaneously the moment French troops crossed the border, aiding them in driving out the Habsburg forces as they had done themselves 2.5 years before. Dumouriez assured his fellow ministers:[8]

As soon as the French army enters the Belgian provinces, it will be helped by the people, who are ashamed of their own futile revolutionary efforts of [1789–1790]. They will join forces with our troops and will easily drive the dispersed hordes of Austrian mercenaries from their towns or scatter them. Paris will be defended on the banks of the Meuse. For the Country of Liège, the one most worthy of freedom of all those who have raised its flag, our negotiators will depart to dictate a wise peace, which we will under no circumstances spoil by the spirit of conquest.

State of the French military

The French army was plagued by troubles: leading generals such as Lafayette and Rochambeau were moderate royalists, and had doubts about the republican minister's intentions as well as the feasibility of his strategies; the troops were poorly equipped, many of them untrained volunteers, and they distrusted their aristocratic officers; and finally, queen Marie Antoinette, who was Austrian and feared further republican radicalization would result in her execution, secretly passed war plans to the Austrian government in Brussels, with Louis XVI's approval.[6] Moreover, Prussia soon joined Austria against France, later followed by other powers and the armies of émigrés, while the ferment of the Revolution caused political instability, and want of materiel and funds left France's armed forces disorganized.

More than 50% of the army's officers, which consisted solely of noblemen, had fled the country in the past three years of revolutionary upheaval. It took time to replace these by non-commissioned officers and volunteers from the middle class. There was also animosity between the old regulars (the "whites", from their uniform) and the new soldiers who joined the army as volunteers in 1791–2 (the so-called "blues"). And because of the revolutionary egalitarian ideas penetrating the ranks of the military, there was distrust against the remaining noble officers; their loyalty to the cause of the Revolution and their orders were questioned.[9]

One lasting morale-boosting effect was the composition of the battle hymn Chant de guerre pour l'armée du Rhin ("War Song for the Rhine Army") by Rouget de Lisle in April 1792. It became popular among French soldiers nationwide, and was soon identified with a battalion from Marseille. Thus, the song became known as La Marseillaise, and on 26 Messidor III (14 July 1795) and again on 14 February 1879 it was officially recognized as the national anthem of France.[10]

Belgian front

April: first French invasion

Austrian field marshal Beaulieu defeated the French invaders.
Austrian field marshal Beaulieu defeated the French invaders.

Despite protesting that the army was not in condition to fight, Rochambeau obeyed his orders.[7] He departed Paris and moved towards Valenciennes on 21 April to assume command of the northern army, and make final preparations for the invasion.[11] Rochambeau's subordinate general Biron and maréchal du camp Théobald Dillon would lead the invasion.[6]

The French army performed poorly in the first engagements. At the Battle of Marquain near Tournai (29 April), French soldiers fled almost at first sight of the Austrian outposts and murdered their general Théobald Dillon, whom they accused of treason. Meanwhile, general Biron suffered a defeat at Quiévrain near Mons. On 30 April, the Dunkirk column marched 15 miles to Veurne, but encountered no enemy and retreated back to Dunkirk.[12]

When both his subordinates Dillon and Biron failed in their missions, Rochambeau resigned. On 30 April, Lafayette heard of the defeats and Rochambeau's resignation, cancelled his assault on Namur and Liège as well and awaited new orders from Paris. The Belgian-Liégois Committee was disappointed and felt betrayed, claiming Lafayette could have easily taken both cities by sheer superior numbers.[6]

May: French troops regroup

The commanders-in-chief of the armies became political "suspects"; and before a serious action had been fought, the three armies commanded respectively by Rochambeau, Lafayette and Luckner had been reorganized into two commanded by Dumouriez and Kellermann. Thus the disciplined soldiers of the Allies had apparently good reason to expect an easy campaign.[citation needed]

June: second French invasion

On 9 June, a 20,000 strong force commanded by Luckner invaded the Austrian Netherlands again, this time capturing Menen and Kortrijk (19 June). The Austrian troops under Johann Peter Beaulieu counter-attacked, however, blocking further advance. The French withdrew back to Lille on 30 June, effectively putting an end to their second northward incursion.[13]

Rhine front

July: allies rally and issue Brunswick Manifesto

On the Rhine, a combined army of Prussians, Austrians, Hessians and French émigrés under the Duke of Brunswick was formed for the invasion of France, flanked by two smaller armies on its right and left, all three being under the supreme command of King Frederick William II of Prussia. In the Southern Netherlands, plans called for the Austrians to besiege Lille, and in the south the Piedmontese also took the field.[citation needed] Observing the enemy coalition gathering at its borders, the Assembly declared the 'nation in danger', and commanded 100,000 National Guards (Fédérés) to strengthen the defence of Paris; the king vetoed the decision, but he was ignored.[14]

The first step was the issue of the Brunswick Manifesto (25 July), a proclamation which, couched in terms most insulting to the French nation, generated the spirit that was afterwards to find expression in the "armed nation" of 1793–1794, and sealed the fate of King Louis. It was issued against the advice of Brunswick himself, whose signature appeared on it; the duke, a model sovereign in his own principality, sympathised with the constitutional side of the French Revolution, while as a soldier he had no confidence in the success of the enterprise.[citation needed] Brunswick stressed that civilians would not be harmed or looted, unless they harmed the royal family: "If the least violence, the least outrage, be done to their majesties... [my troops] will take... unforgettable vengeance [on] the city of Paris...".[14] The Brunswick Manifesto reached Paris on 1 August and was posted in numerous places across the capital, and received much hostility and mockery. Instead of intimidating the Parisians, it confirmed their determinacy to oppose any foreign invasion, and to get rid of the royals who were increasingly, and with ever more evidence, suspected of treason against the Revolution, the Assembly and the French people.[14]

10 August: storming of the Tuileries

With the imminent invasion of the allied European monarchies against it, radical revolutionaries in Paris could no longer tolerate the king's rule, as his foreign friends might soon restore his former powers and crush the Revolution. In the night of 9 to 10 August, the insurrectional Paris Commune was formed at the Hôtel de Ville under the leadership of Georges Danton, Camille Desmoulins and Jacques Hébert from the ranks of radical Jacobins, the sans-culottes and a patriot regiment from Marsaille. In a complicated series of actions by various groups, king Louis was isolated within his Tuileries Palace and gradually abandoned its defence until he and the royal family left it when Roederer persuaded him to seek 'safety' in the building of the Legislative Assembly instead. Most of the National Guard defected to the rebels and eventually the Tuileries were successfully stormed and most of the remaining Swiss guards slaughtered. Louis became a de facto prisoner of the Assembly, was stripped from his kingship and the royal family was imprisoned in the Temple on 13 August. The monarchy was not abolished yet, however; the question of which form of government the country should install was postponed for five more weeks. For the revolutionaries, the most important issue was quelling possible treason from within, to avoid being stabbed in the back while the armies were fighting the monarchist forces on the frontiers.

August/September: Prussian-led invasion of France

The 20 September Battle of Valmy was the first significant French victory. Up until then, France had suffered one defeat after another, leading desperate revolutionaries to radicalise and turn against the monarchy.
The 20 September Battle of Valmy was the first significant French victory. Up until then, France had suffered one defeat after another, leading desperate revolutionaries to radicalise and turn against the monarchy.

After completing its preparations in the leisurely manner of the previous generation, Brunswick's army crossed the French frontier on 19 August 1792. The Allies readily captured Longwy (23 August) and slowly marched on to besiege Verdun (29 August), which appeared more indefensible even than Longwy. The commandant there, Colonel Beaurepaire, shot himself in despair, and the place surrendered on 2 September 1792. Radical revolutionaries in Paris and other cities panicked, and started the September Massacres (2–7 September), killing hundreds of prisoners suspected of royalist sympathies and being in league with the enemy.

Brunswick now began his march on Paris and approached the defiles of the Argonne Forest. But Dumouriez, who had been training his raw troops at Valenciennes in constant small engagements, with the purpose of invading Belgium, now threw himself into the Argonne by a rapid and daring flank march, almost under the eyes of the Prussian advance guard. He barred all five road to Paris through the Argonne.[15] Although Clerfayt seized one of the five roads and outflanked Dumouriez at Grandpré, Brunswick did not attack, instead camping for three days at Landres (15–17 September). The majority of his troops were plagued by dysentery, likely due to eating green apples in the Argonne, and needed to recover first.[15] War Minister Servan ordered Kellermann to Dumouriez' assistance from Metz to Sainte-Menehould.[15] Although having only 16,000 men from the Armée du Centre, these were the most professional.[15] Kellermann moved but slowly, reaching Dampierre-le-Château on 18 September,[15] and before he arrived the northern part of the line of defence had been forced. Dumouriez, undaunted, changed front so as to face north, with his right wing on the Argonne and his left stretching towards Châlons (where Luckner camped[15]), and in this position Kellermann joined him at Sainte-Menehould on 19 September 1792.[15]

Meanwhile, Brunswick had left Landres on 18 September, passed the northern defiles and then swung round to cut off Dumouriez from Châlons. He himself wanted to fight Dumouriez at Sainte-Menehould, but Prussian king Frederick William II, misled by false news that Dumouriez was withdrawing to Paris, ordered Brunswick to cut the retreat.[15] At the moment when the Prussian manoeuvre was nearly completed, Kellermann, commanding in Dumouriez's momentary absence, advanced his left wing and took up a position between Sainte-Menehould and Valmy. The result was the Cannonade of Valmy (20 September 1792). Kellermann’s infantry, nearly all regulars, stood steady. The French artillery justified its reputation as the best in Europe, and eventually, with no more than a half-hearted infantry attack, the duke broke off the action and retired.[16]

This seemingly minor engagement proved the turning point of the campaign. Ten days later, without firing another shot, the invading army began its retreat (30 September). Dumouriez did not press the pursuit seriously; he occupied himself chiefly with a series of subtle and curious negotiations which, with the general advance of the French troops, brought about the complete withdrawal of the enemy from the soil of France. Once gone, Dumouriez refocused his military efforts on the 'liberation' of Belgium.[16]

Post-Valmy campaigns

Launch of the Flanders Campaign

19th-century painting romanticising the Battle of Jemappes, with Dumouriez urging his troops forward.
19th-century painting romanticising the Battle of Jemappes, with Dumouriez urging his troops forward.

In the north, the Austrian siege of Lille had completely failed by 8 October, and Dumouriez now resumed his interrupted scheme for the invasion of the Southern Netherlands. He took commanded of the newly formed Armée de la Belgique – comprising 40,000 soldiers from the Valmy campaign – at Valenciennes on 20 October.[16] Controlling enormously superior forces, ten days later he made his advance to Mons,[17] late in the season and surprising the Austrians. On 6 November, he won the first great victory of the war at Jemappes near Mons and, this time advancing boldly, he overran the whole country from Namur to Antwerp within a month. He began planning the invasion of the Dutch Republic.[17]

Piedmontese front

Meanwhile, the French forces in the south had driven back the Piedmontese and had conquered Savoy and Nice in September, annexing them in November. Army of the Var commander Anselme invaded the county of Nice on 28 September, and forced the city of Nice to surrender the next day at 4 pm. On 7 November, the army was renamed Army of Italy.

Rhineland campaign

Another French success was the daring expedition from Alsace into Germany made by Custine, leading the newly created 14,300 strong Armée des Vosges from 19 September onward.[18] He attacked Speyer on 29 September and conquered it the next day. He went on the occupy Worms and Philippsburg without a fight. Custine captured Mainz on 21 October 1792 and penetrated as far as Frankfurt, which surrendered on 31 October.[17]

Cultural representations

  • The situation of 1792, and the feeling of dire threat felt by the invaded French, are reflected in large parts of the wording of the French anthem "La Marseillaise", written at the time: Against us, tyranny's/Bloody banner is raised./Do you hear in the countryside/Those ferocious soldiers roaring?/They come right into our bosom/To slit the throats of our sons, our wives!
  • Custine's invasion of the German Palatinate forms the background for Goethe's Hermann and Dorothea, written a few years later. The epic poem's plot takes place in a small town near Mainz, flooded by refugees who fled their villages on the western side of the Rhine in order to seek refuge from the French troops on the eastern side.


  1. ^ Encarta-encyclopedie Winkler Prins (1993–2002) s.v. "Pillnitz, Conferentie van". Microsoft Corporation/Het Spectrum.
  2. ^ a b c Encarta-encyclopedie Winkler Prins (1993–2002) s.v. "Franse Revolutie. §1.1 Eerste periode".
  3. ^ Encarta-encyclopedie Winkler Prins (1993–2002) s.v. "girondijnen". Microsoft Corporation/Het Spectrum.
  4. ^ Encarta-encyclopedie Winkler Prins (1993–2002) s.v. "Bataafse Republiek. §1. Ontstaan"; "Brabantse Omwenteling. §4. De mislukking van de Verenigde Belgische Staten ". Microsoft Corporation/Het Spectrum.
  5. ^ Encarta-encyclopedie Winkler Prins (1993–2002) s.v. "Robespierre, Maximilien de". Microsoft Corporation/Het Spectrum.
  6. ^ a b c d e Howe, Patricia Chastain (2008). Foreign Policy and the French Revolution: Charles-François Dumouriez, Pierre LeBrun, and the Belgian Plan, 1789–1793. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 73–77. ISBN 9780230616882. Retrieved 28 July 2018.
  7. ^ a b c d Connelly, p. 23.
  8. ^ Howe, p. 70.
  9. ^ Connelly, Owen (2012). The Wars of the French Revolution and Napoleon, 1792-1815. London: Routledge. p. 22. ISBN 9781134552894. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
  10. ^ Encarta-encyclopedie Winkler Prins (1993–2002) s.v. "Marseillaise, La". Microsoft Corporation/Het Spectrum.
  11. ^ Grandin (2016). Les Prussiens en France : Longwy, Verdun, Thionville, Valmy: Récits d'un soldat - 1792 (in French). Collection XIX. p. 25. ISBN 9782346090051. Retrieved 29 July 2018.
  12. ^ Connelly, p. 23.
  13. ^ Connelly, p. 24.
  14. ^ a b c Connelly, p. 25.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h Connelly, p. 28.
  16. ^ a b c Connelly, p. 30.
  17. ^ a b c Connelly, p. 32.
  18. ^ Connelly, p. 31.


Preceded by
French Revolutionary Wars
Succeeded by
This page was last edited on 5 January 2019, at 04:39
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