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COVID-19 pandemic in France

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

COVID-19 pandemic in France
COVID-19 outbreak France per capita deaths map.svg
Deaths per 100,000 residents by department up to July 2020.
COVID-19 Outbreak Cases in France 13 Regions.svg
Map of positives tests by regions as of 2 May 2021[1]
  1-49,999 Confirmed cases
  50,000-99,999 Confirmed cases
  100,000-199,999 Confirmed cases
  200,000-299,999 Confirmed cases
  300,000-499,999 Confirmed cases
  500,000-699,999 Confirmed cases
   ≥700,000 Confirmed cases
DiseaseCOVID-19
Virus strainSARS-CoV-2
LocationFrance
First outbreakWuhan, Hubei, China
Index caseBordeaux
Arrival date24 January 2020
(1 year, 3 months, 2 weeks and 1 day)
DateAs of 5 May 2021[2][3]
Confirmed cases5,706,378 (total)[3]
Hospitalized cases
  • 27,686 (active)[3]
Critical cases5,402 (active)[3]
Recovered346,184 (after hospitalisation)[2][4]
Deaths
105,660 (total)[3]
79,364 (hospital)[2]
26,267 (care homes)[2][4]
Fatality rate1.99%
Government website
Public Health France

The COVID-19 pandemic in France is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus was confirmed to have reached France on 24 January 2020, when the first COVID-19 case in both Europe and France was identified in Bordeaux. The first five confirmed cases were all individuals who had recently arrived from China.[5][6] A Chinese tourist who was admitted to hospital in Paris on 28 January 2020, died on 14 February 2020, making it the first COVID-19 death in France as well as the first COVID-19 death outside Asia.[7][8][9][10] A key event in the spread of the disease across metropolitan France as well as its overseas territories was the annual assembly of the Christian Open Door Church between 17 and 24 February 2020 in Mulhouse which was attended by about 2,500 people, at least half of whom are believed to have contracted the virus.[11][12] On 4 May 2020, retroactive testing of samples in one French hospital showed that a patient was probably already infected with the virus on 27 December 2019, almost a month before the first officially confirmed case.[13][14]

On 12 March 2020, President Emmanuel Macron announced on public television that all schools and all universities would close from Monday 16 March 2020 until further notice. The next day, Prime Minister Édouard Philippe banned gatherings of more than 100 people, not including public transport. The following day, the prime minister ordered the closure of all non-essential public places, including restaurants, cafés, cinemas and nightclubs, effective from that midnight.[15] On 16 March 2020, Macron announced mandatory home lockdown for 15 days starting at noon on 17 March 2020.[16] This was extended twice and ended on 11 May 2020,[17] after a progressive lifting of lockdown and as face masks were made available to all citizens.[18] On 2 May 2020, Health Minister Olivier Véran announced that the government would seek to extend the health emergency period until 24 July 2020.[19] Several mayors opposed the 11 May 2020 lifting of the lockdown, which had been announced by the president a few weeks earlier in a televised address to the nation,[17] saying it was premature. Véran's bill was discussed in Senate on 4 May 2020.[20]

From August 2020, there was an increase in the rate of infection and on 10 October 2020, France set a record number of new infections in a 24-hour period in Europe with 26,896 recorded. The increase caused France to enter a second nationwide lockdown on 28 October 2020. On 15 October 2020, police raided the homes and offices of key government officials, including Véran and Philippe, in a criminal negligence probe opened by the Cour de Justice de la République.[21] According to a team of French epidemiologists, under 5% of the total population of France, or around 2.8 million people, may have been infected with COVID-19. This was believed to have been nearly twice as high in the Île-de-France and Alsace regions.[22]

On 31 March 2021, Macron announced a third national lockdown to commence on 3 April 2021, which mandated for all of April 2021; the closure of non-essential shops, the suspension of school attendance, a ban on all domestic travel and a nationwide curfew from 7pm-6am.

Background

The pandemic occurred following a series of national protests, which were followed by a strike against pension reform which had been proposed by President Emmanuel Macron in his election manifesto.[23][24] The pension reform strike was the longest strike in modern French history.[25] In President Emmanuel Macron's second address to the nation on the pandemic on 16 March 2020, he announced the suspension of all reforms, notably those of pensions.[26]

On 12 January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) confirmed that a novel coronavirus was the cause of a respiratory illness in a cluster of people in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China, who had initially come to the attention of the WHO on 31 December 2019.[27][28] On 21 January 2020, Agnès Buzyn, Minister of Solidarity and Health declared that "The risk of introduction into France is low but it cannot be excluded".[29]

Timeline

COVID-19 cases in France  ()
     Deaths        Recoveries        Active cases
2020202020212021
JanJanFebFebMarMarAprAprMayMayJunJunJulJulAugAugSepSepOctOctNovNovDecDec
JanJanFebFebMarMarAprAprMayMay
Last 15 daysLast 15 days
Date
# of cases
# of deaths
2020-01-24 3(n.a.) 0(n.a.)
3(=) 0(n.a.)
2020-01-28 4(+33%) 0(n.a.)
4(=) 0(n.a.)
2020-01-31 5(+25%) 0(n.a.)
5(=) 0(n.a.)
2020-02-09 11(+120%) 0(n.a.)
11(=) 0(n.a.)
2020-02-18 11(=) 0(n.a.)
11(=) 0(n.a.)
2020-02-24 11(=) 0(n.a.)
2020-02-25 13(+18%) 1([i])
2020-02-26 18(+38%) 2(+100%)
2020-02-27 38(+111%) 2(=)
2020-02-28 57(+50%) 2(=)
2020-02-29 100(+75%) 2(=)
2020-03-01
130(+30%) 3(+50%)
2020-03-02
191(+47%) 3(=)
2020-03-03
212(+11%) 4(+33%)
2020-03-04
285(+34%) 4(=)
2020-03-05
423(+48%) 7(+75%)
2020-03-06
613(+45%) 9(+29%)
2020-03-07
949(+55%) 16(+78%)
2020-03-08
1,126(+19%) 19(+19%)
2020-03-09
1,412(+25%) 25(+32%)
2020-03-10
1,784(+26%) 33(+32%)
2020-03-11
2,281(+28%) 48(+45%)
2020-03-12
2,876(+26%) 61(+27%)
2020-03-13
3,661(+27%) 79(+30%)
2020-03-14
4,499(+23%) 91(+15%)
2020-03-15
5,423(+21%) 127(+40%)
2020-03-16
6,633(+22%) 148(+17%)
2020-03-17
7,730(+17%) 175(+18%)
2020-03-18
9,134(+18%) 244(+39%)
2020-03-19
10,995(+20%) 375(+54%)
2020-03-20
12,612(+15%) 450(+20%)
2020-03-21
14,459(+15%) 562(+25%)
2020-03-22
16,689(+15%) 674(+20%)
2020-03-23
19,856(+19%) 860(+28%)
2020-03-24
22,302(+12%) 1,100(+28%)
2020-03-25
25,233(+13%) 1,331(+21%)
2020-03-26
29,155(+16%) 1,696(+27%)
2020-03-27
32,964(+13%) 1,995(+18%)
2020-03-28
37,575(+14%) 2,314(+16%)
2020-03-29
40,174(+6.9%) 2,606(+13%)
2020-03-30
44,550(+11%) 3,024(+16%)
2020-03-31
52,128(+17%) 3,523(+17%)
2020-04-01
56,989(+9.3%) 4,032(+14%)
2020-04-02
59,105(+3.7%) 5,387(+34%[ii])
2020-04-03
64,338(+8.9%) 6,507(+21%)
2020-04-04
68,605(+6.6%) 7,560(+16%)
2020-04-05
70,478(+2.7%) 8,078(+6.9%)
2020-04-06
74,390(+5.6%) 8,911(+10%)
2020-04-07
78,167(+5.1%) 10,328(+16%)
2020-04-08
82,048(+5%) 10,869(+5.2%)
2020-04-09
86,334(+5.2%) 12,210(+12%)
2020-04-10
90,676(+5%) 13,197(+8.1%)
2020-04-11
93,790(+3.4%) 13,832(+4.8%)
2020-04-12
95,403(+1.7%) 14,393(+4.1%)
2020-04-13
98,076(+2.8%) 14,967(+4%)
2020-04-14
103,573(+5.6%) 15,729(+5.1%)
2020-04-15
106,206(+2.5%) 17,167(+9.1%)
2020-04-16
108,847(+2.5%) 17,920(+4.4%)
2020-04-17
109,252(+0.37%) 18,681(+4.2%)
2020-04-18
111,821(+2.4%) 19,323(+3.4%)
2020-04-19
112,606(+0.7%) 19,718(+2%)
2020-04-20
114,657(+1.8%) 20,265(+2.8%)
2020-04-21
117,324(+2.3%) 20,796(+2.6%)
2020-04-22
119,151(+1.6%) 21,340(+2.6%)
2020-04-23
120,804(+1.4%) 21,856(+2.4%)
2020-04-24
122,577(+1.5%) 22,245(+1.8%)
2020-04-25
124,114(+1.3%) 22,614(+1.7%)
2020-04-26
124,575(+0.37%) 22,856(+1.1%)
2020-04-27
125,770(+0.96%) 23,293(+1.9%)
2020-04-28
126,835(+0.85%) 23,660(+1.6%)
2020-04-29
128,442(+1.3%) 24,087(+1.8%)
2020-04-30
129,581(+0.89%) 24,376(+1.2%)
2020-05-01
130,185(+0.47%) 24,594(+0.89%)
2020-05-02
130,979(+0.61%) 24,760(+0.67%)
2020-05-03
131,287(+0.24%) 24,895(+0.55%)
2020-05-04
131,863(+0.44%) 25,201(+1.2%)
2020-05-05
132,967(+0.84%) 25,531(+1.3%)
2020-05-06
137,150(+3.14%[iii]) 25,809(+1.1%)
2020-05-07
137,779(+0.46%) 25,987(+0.69%)
2020-05-08
138,421(+0.47%) 26,230(+0.94%)
2020-05-09
138,854(+0.31%) 26,310(+0.3%)
2020-05-10
139,063(+0.15%) 26,380(+0.27%)
2020-05-11
139,519(+0.33%) 26,643(+1%)
2020-05-12
140,227(+0.51%) 26,991(+1.3%)
2020-05-13
140,734(+0.36%) 27,074(+0.31%)
2020-05-14
141,356(+0.44%) 27,425(+1.3%)
2020-05-15
141,919(+0.4%) 27,529(+0.38%)
2020-05-16
142,291(+0.26%) 27,625(+0.35%)
2020-05-17
142,411(+0.08%) 28,108(+1.7%)
2020-05-18
142,903(+0.35%) 28,239(+0.47%)
2020-05-19
143,427(+0.37%) 28,022(−0.77%)
2020-05-20
143,845(+0.29%) 28,132(+0.39%)
2020-05-21
144,163(+0.22%) 28,215(+0.3%)
2020-05-22
144,566(+0.28%) 28,289(+0.26%)
2020-05-23
144,806(+0.17%) 28,332(+0.15%)
2020-05-24
144,921(+0.08%) 28,367(+0.12%)
2020-05-25
145,279(+0.25%) 28,432(+0.23%)
2020-05-26
145,555(+0.19%) 28,530(+0.34%)
2020-05-27
145,746(+0.13%) 28,596(+0.23%)
2020-05-28
149,071(+2.3%[iv]) 28,662(+0.23%)
2020-05-29
149,668(+0.4%) 28,714(+0.18%)
2020-05-30
151,496(+1.2%) 28,771(+0.2%)
2020-05-31
151,753(+0.17%) 28,802(+0.11%)
2020-06-01
152,091(+0.22%) 28,833(+0.11%)
2020-06-02
151,325(-0.5%[v]) 28,940(+0.37%)
2020-06-03
151,677(+0.23%) 29,021(+0.28%)
2020-06-04
152,444(+0.51%) 29,065(+0.15%)
2020-06-05
153,055(+0.4%) 29,111(+0.16%)
2020-06-06
153,634(+0.38%) 29,142(+0.11%)
2020-06-07
153,977(+0.22%) 29,155(+0.04%)
2020-06-08
154,188(+0.14%) 29,209(+0.19%)
2020-06-09
154,591(+0.26%) 29,296(+0.3%)
2020-06-10
155,136(+0.35%) 29,319(+0.08%)
2020-06-11
155,561(+0.27%) 29,346(+0.09%)
2020-06-12
156,287(+0.47%) 29,374(+0.1%)
2020-06-13
156,813(+0.34%) 29,398(+0.08%)
2020-06-14
157,220(+0.26%) 29,407(+0.03%)
2020-06-15
157,372(+0.1%) 29,436(+0.1%)
2020-06-16
157,716(+0.22%) 29,547(+0.38%)
2020-06-17
158,174(+0.29%) 29,575(+0.09%)
2020-06-18
158,641(+0.3%) 29,603(+0.09%)
2020-06-19
159,452(+0.51%) 29,617(+0.05%)
2020-06-20
160,093(+0.4%) 29,633(+0.05%)
2020-06-21
160,377(+0.18%) 29,640(+0.02%)
2020-06-22
160,750(+0.23%) 29,663(+0.08%)
2020-06-23
161,267(+0.32%) 29,720(+0.19%)
2020-06-24
161,348(+0.05%) 29,731(+0.04%)
2020-06-25
161,348(=[vi]) 29,752(+0.07%)
2020-06-26
162,936(+0.98%[vii]) 29,778(+0.09%)
163,980(=) 29,778(=)
2020-06-29
164,260(+0.17%) 29,813(+0.12%)
2020-06-30
164,801(+0.33%) 29,843(+0.1%)
2020-07-01
165,719(+0.56%) 29,861(+0.06%)
2020-07-02
166,378(+0.4%) 29,875(+0.05%)
2020-07-03
166,960(+0.35%) 29,893(+0.06%)
2020-07-06
168,335(n.a.) 29,920(n.a.)
2020-07-07
168,810(+0.28%) 29,933(+0.04%)
2020-07-08
169,473(+0.39%) 29,963(+0.1%)
2020-07-09
170,004(+0.31%) 29,979(+0.05%)
2020-07-10
170,752(+0.44%) 30,004(+0.08%)
170,752(=) 30,004(=)
2020-07-15
173,304(+1.5%) 30,120(+0.39%)
2020-07-16
173,838(+0.31%) 30,138(+0.06%)
2020-07-17
174,674(+0.48%) 30,152(+0.05%)
174,674(=) 30,152(=)
2020-07-20
176,754(+1.2%) 30,177(+0.08%)
2020-07-21
177,338(+0.33%) 30,165(−0.04%)
2020-07-22
178,336(+0.56%) 30,172(+0.02%)
2020-07-23
179,398(+0.6%) 30,182(+0.03%)
2020-07-24
180,528(+0.63%) 30,192(+0.03%)
2020-07-25
181,636(+0.61%) 30,180(−0.04%)
2020-07-26
182,565(+0.51%) 30,181(=)
2020-07-27
183,079(+0.28%) 30,209(+0.09%)
2020-07-28
183,804(+0.4%) 30,223(+0.05%)
2020-07-29
185,196(+0.76%) 30,238(+0.05%)
2020-07-30
186,573(+0.74%) 30,254(+0.05%)
2020-07-31
187,919(+0.72%) 30,265(+0.04%)
2020-08-01
189,547(+0.87%) 30,251(−0.05%)
2020-08-02
190,739(+0.63%) 30,252(=)
2020-08-03
191,295(+0.29%) 30,294(+0.14%)
2020-08-04
192,334(+0.54%) 30,296(+0.01%)
2020-08-05
194,029(+0.88%) 30,305(+0.03%)
2020-08-06
195,633(+0.83%) 30,312(+0.02%)
2020-08-07
197,921(+1.2%) 30,324(+0.04%)
2020-08-08
200,105(+1.1%) 30,306(−0.06%)
2020-08-09
201,990(+0.94%) 30,306(=)
2020-08-10
202,775(+0.39%) 30,340(+0.11%)
2020-08-11
204,172(+0.69%) 30,354(+0.05%)
2020-08-12
206,696(+1.2%) 30,371(+0.06%)
2020-08-13
209,365(+1.3%) 30,388(+0.06%)
2020-08-14
212,211(+1.4%) 30,406(+0.06%)
2020-08-15
215,521(+1.6%) 30,409(+0.01%)
2020-08-16
218,536(+1.4%) 30,410(=)
2020-08-17
219,029(+0.23%) 30,429(+0.06%)
2020-08-18
221,267(+1%) 30,451(+0.07%)
2020-08-19
225,043(+1.7%) 30,468(+0.06%)
2020-08-20
229,814(+2.1%) 30,480(+0.04%)
2020-08-21
234,400(+2%) 30,503(+0.08%)
2020-08-22
238,002(+1.5%) 30,512(+0.03%)
2020-08-23
242,899(+2.1%) 30,513(=)
2020-08-24
244,854(+0.8%) 30,528(+0.05%)
2020-08-25
248,158(+1.3%) 30,544(+0.05%)
2020-08-26
253,587(+2.2%) 30,544(=)
2020-08-27
259,698(+2.4%) 30,576(+0.1%)
2020-08-28
267,077(+2.8%) 30,596(+0.07%)
2020-08-29
272,530(+2%) 30,602(+0.02%)
2020-08-30
277,943(+2%) 30,606(+0.01%)
2020-08-31
281,025(+1.1%) 30,635(+0.09%)
2020-09-01
286,007(+1.8%) 30,661(+0.08%)
2020-09-02
293,024(+2.5%) 30,686(+0.08%)
2020-09-03
300,181(+2.4%) 30,706(+0.07%)
2020-09-04
309,156(+3%) 30,686(−0.07%)
2020-09-05
317,706(+2.8%) 30,698(+0.04%)
2020-09-06
324,777(+2.2%) 30,701(+0.01%)
2020-09-07
328,980(+1.3%) 30,726(+0.08%)
2020-09-08
335,524(+2%) 30,764(+0.12%)
2020-09-09
344,101(+2.6%) 30,788(+0.08%)
2020-09-10
353,944(+2.9%) 30,813(+0.08%)
2020-09-11
363,350(+2.7%) 30,893(+0.26%)
2020-09-12
373,911(+2.9%) 30,910(+0.06%)
2020-09-13
381,094(+1.9%) 30,916(+0.02%)
2020-09-14
387,252(+1.6%) 30,950(+0.11%)
2020-09-15
395,104(+2%) 30,999(+0.16%)
2020-09-16
404,888(+2.5%) 31,045(+0.15%)
2020-09-17
415,418(+2.6%) 31,095(+0.16%)
2020-09-18
428,696(+3.2%) 31,249(+0.5%)
2020-09-19
442,194(+3.1%) 31,274(+0.08%)
2020-09-20
453,763(+2.6%) 31,285(+0.04%)
2020-09-21
458,061(+0.95%) 31,338(+0.17%)
2020-09-22
468,069(+2.2%) 31,416(+0.25%)
2020-09-23
481,141(+2.8%) 31,459(+0.14%)
2020-09-24
497,237(+3.3%) 31,511(+0.17%)
2020-09-25
513,034(+3.2%) 31,661(+0.48%)
2020-09-26
527,446(+2.8%) 31,700(+0.12%)
2020-09-27
538,569(+2.1%) 31,727(+0.09%)
2020-09-28
542,639(+0.76%) 31,808(+0.26%)
2020-09-29
550,690(+1.5%) 31,893(+0.27%)
2020-09-30
563,535(+2.3%) 31,956(+0.2%)
2020-10-01
577,505(+2.5%) 32,019(+0.2%)
2020-10-02
589,653(+2.1%) 32,155(+0.42%)
2020-10-03
606,625(+2.9%) 32,198(+0.13%)
2020-10-04
619,190(+2.1%) 32,230(+0.1%)
2020-10-05
624,274(+0.82%) 32,299(+0.21%)
2020-10-06
634,763(+1.7%) 32,365(+0.2%)
2020-10-07
653,509(+3%) 32,445(+0.25%)
2020-10-08
671,638(+2.8%) 32,521(+0.23%)
2020-10-09
691,977(+3%) 32,630(+0.34%)
2020-10-10
718,873(+3.9%) 32,684(+0.17%)
2020-10-11
734,974(+2.2%) 32,730(+0.14%)
2020-10-12
743,479(+1.2%) 32,825(+0.29%)
2020-10-13
756,472(+1.7%) 32,933(+0.33%)
2020-10-14
779,063(+3%) 33,037(+0.32%)
2020-10-15
809,684(+3.9%) 33,125(+0.27%)
2020-10-16
834,770(+3.1%) 33,303(+0.54%)
2020-10-17
867,197(+3.9%) 33,392(+0.27%)
2020-10-18
897,034(+3.4%) 33,477(+0.25%)
2020-10-19
910,277(+1.5%) 33,623(+0.44%)
2020-10-20
930,745(+2.2%) 33,885(+0.78%)
2020-10-21
957,421(+2.9%) 34,048(+0.48%)
2020-10-22
999,043(+4.3%) 34,210(+0.48%)
2020-10-23
1,041,075(+4.2%) 34,508(+0.87%)
2020-10-24
1,086,497(+4.4%) 34,645(+0.4%)
2020-10-25
1,138,510(+4.8%) 34,761(+0.33%)
2020-10-26
1,165,278(+2.4%) 35,018(+0.74%)
2020-10-27
1,198,695(+2.9%) 35,541(+1.5%)
2020-10-28
1,235,132(+3%) 35,785(+0.69%)
2020-10-29
1,282,769(+3.9%) 36,020(+0.66%)
2020-10-30
1,331,984(+3.8%) 36,565(+1.5%)
2020-10-31
1,367,625(+2.7%) 36,788(+0.61%)
2020-11-01
1,413,195(+3.3%) 37,019(+0.63%)
2020-11-02
1,466,433(+3.8%) 37,435(+1.1%)
2020-11-03
1,502,763(+2.5%) 38,289(+2.3%)
2020-11-04
1,543,321(+2.7%) 38,674(+1%)
2020-11-05
1,601,367(+3.8%) 39,037(+0.94%)
2020-11-06
1,661,853(+3.8%) 39,865(+2.1%)
2020-11-07
1,748,705(+5.2%) 40,169(+0.76%)
2020-11-08
1,787,324(+2.2%) 40,439(+0.67%)
2020-11-09
1,807,479(+1.1%) 40,987(+1.4%)
2020-11-10
1,829,659(+1.2%) 42,207(+3%)
2020-11-11
1,865,538(+2%) 42,535(+0.78%)
2020-11-12
1,898,710(+1.8%) 42,960(+1%)
2020-11-13
1,922,504(+1.3%) 43,892(+2.2%)
2020-11-14
1,954,599(+1.7%) 44,246(+0.81%)
2020-11-15
1,981,827(+1.4%) 44,548(+0.68%)
2020-11-16
1,991,233(+0.47%) 45,054(+1.1%)
2020-11-17
2,036,755(+2.3%) 46,273(+2.7%)
2020-11-18
2,065,138(+1.4%) 46,698(+0.92%)
2020-11-19
2,086,288(+1%) 47,127(+0.92%)
2020-11-20
2,109,170(+1.1%) 48,265(+2.4%)
2020-11-21
2,127,051(+0.85%) 48,518(+0.52%)
2020-11-22
2,140,208(+0.62%) 48,732(+0.44%)
2020-11-23
2,144,660(+0.21%) 49,232(+1%)
2020-11-24
2,153,815(+0.43%) 50,237(+2%)
2020-11-25
2,170,097(+0.76%) 50,618(+0.76%)
2020-11-26
2,183,660(+0.62%) 50,957(+0.67%)
2020-11-27
2,196,119(+0.57%) 51,914(+1.9%)
2020-11-28
2,208,699(+0.57%) 52,127(+0.41%)
2020-11-29
2,218,483(+0.44%) 52,325(+0.38%)
2020-11-30
2,222,488(+0.18%) 52,731(+0.78%)
2020-12-01
2,230,571(+0.36%) 53,506(+1.5%)
2020-12-02
2,244,635(+0.63%) 53,816(+0.58%)
2020-12-03
2,257,331(+0.57%) 54,140(+0.6%)
2020-12-04
2,268,552(+0.5%) 54,767(+1.2%)
2020-12-05
2,281,475(+0.57%) 54,981(+0.39%)
2020-12-06
2,292,497(+0.48%) 55,155(+0.32%)
2020-12-07
2,295,908(+0.15%) 55,521(+0.66%)
2020-12-08
2,309,621(+0.6%) 56,352(+1.5%)
2020-12-09
2,324,216(+0.63%) 56,648(+0.53%)
2020-12-10
2,337,966(+0.59%) 56,940(+0.52%)
2020-12-11
2,351,372(+0.57%) 57,567(+1.1%)
2020-12-12
2,365,319(+0.59%) 57,761(+0.34%)
2020-12-13
2,376,852(+0.49%) 57,911(+0.26%)
2020-12-14
2,379,915(+0.13%) 58,282(+0.64%)
2020-12-15
2,391,447(+0.48%) 59,072(+1.4%)
2020-12-16
2,409,062(+0.74%) 59,361(+0.49%)
2020-12-17
2,427,316(+0.76%) 59,619(+0.43%)
2020-12-18
2,442,990(+0.65%) 60,229(+1%)
2020-12-19
2,460,555(+0.72%) 60,418(+0.31%)
2020-12-20
2,473,354(+0.52%) 60,549(+0.22%)
2020-12-21
2,479,151(+0.23%) 60,900(+0.58%)
2020-12-22
2,490,946(+0.48%) 61,702(+1.3%)
2020-12-23
2,505,875(+0.6%) 61,978(+0.45%)
2020-12-24
2,527,509(+0.86%) 62,268(+0.47%)
2020-12-25
2,547,771(+0.8%) 62,427(+0.26%)
2020-12-26
2,550,864(+0.12%) 62,573(+0.23%)
2020-12-27
2,559,686(+0.35%) 62,746(+0.28%)
2020-12-28
2,562,646(+0.12%) 63,109(+0.58%)
2020-12-29
2,574,041(+0.44%) 64,078(+1.5%)
2020-12-30
2020-12-31
2,620,425(n.a.) 64,632(n.a.)
2021-01-01
2,639,773(+0.74%) 64,765(+0.21%)
2021-01-02
2,643,239(+0.13%) 64,921(+0.24%)
2021-01-03
2,655,728(+0.47%) 65,037(+0.18%)
2021-01-04
2,659,750(+0.15%) 65,415(+0.58%)
2021-01-05
2,680,239(+0.77%) 66,282(+1.3%)
2021-01-06
2,705,618(+0.95%) 66,565(+0.43%)
2021-01-07
2,727,321(+0.8%) 66,841(+0.41%)
2021-01-08
2,747,135(+0.73%) 67,431(+0.88%)
2021-01-09
2,767,312(+0.73%) 67,599(+0.25%)
2021-01-10
2,783,256(+0.58%) 67,750(+0.22%)
2021-01-11
2,786,838(+0.13%) 67,750(=)
2021-01-12
2,806,590(+0.71%) 68,802(+1.6%)
2021-01-13
2,830,442(+0.85%) 69,031(+0.33%)
2021-01-14
2,851,670(+0.75%) 69,313(+0.41%)
2021-01-15
2,872,941(+0.75%) 69,949(+0.92%)
2021-01-16
2,894,347(+0.75%) 70,142(+0.28%)
2021-01-17
2,910,989(+0.57%) 70,283(+0.2%)
2021-01-18
2,914,725(+0.13%) 70,686(+0.57%)
2021-01-19
2,938,333(+0.81%) 71,342(+0.93%)
2021-01-20
2,965,117(+0.91%) 71,652(+0.43%)
2021-01-21
2,987,965(+0.77%) 71,998(+0.48%)
2021-01-22
3,011,257(+0.78%) 72,647(+0.9%)
2021-01-23
3,035,181(+0.79%) 72,877(+0.32%)
2021-01-24
3,053,617(+0.61%) 73,049(+0.24%)
2021-01-25
3,057,857(+0.14%) 73,494(+0.61%)
2021-01-26
3,079,943(+0.72%) 74,106(+0.83%)
2021-01-27
3,106,859(+0.87%) 74,456(+0.47%)
2021-01-28
3,130,629(+0.77%) 74,800(+0.46%)
2021-01-29
3,153,487(+0.73%) 75,620(+1.1%)
2021-01-30
3,177,879(+0.77%) 75,862(+0.32%)
2021-01-31
3,197,114(+0.61%) 76,057(+0.26%)
2021-02-01
3,201,461(+0.14%) 76,512(+0.6%)
2021-02-02
3,224,798(+0.73%) 77,238(+0.95%)
2021-02-03
3,251,160(+0.82%) 77,595(+0.46%)
2021-02-04
3,274,608(+0.72%) 77,952(+0.46%)
2021-02-05
3,296,747(+0.68%) 78,603(+0.84%)
2021-02-06
3,317,333(+0.62%) 78,794(+0.24%)
2021-02-07
3,337,048(+0.59%) 78,965(+0.22%)
2021-02-08
3,341,365(+0.13%) 79,423(+0.58%)
2021-02-09
3,360,235(+0.56%) 80,147(+0.91%)
2021-02-10
3,385,622(+0.76%) 80,443(+0.37%)
2021-02-11
3,406,685(+0.62%) 80,803(+0.45%)
2021-02-12
3,427,386(+0.61%) 81,448(+0.8%)
2021-02-13
3,448,617(+0.62%) 81,647(+0.24%)
2021-02-14
3,465,163(+0.48%) 81,814(+0.2%)
2021-02-15
3,469,539(+0.13%) 82,226(+0.5%)
2021-02-16
3,489,129(+0.56%) 82,812(+0.71%)
2021-02-17
3,514,147(+0.72%) 83,122(+0.37%)
2021-02-18
3,536,648(+0.64%) 83,393(+0.33%)
2021-02-19
3,560,764(+0.68%) 83,964(+0.68%)
2021-02-20
3,583,135(+0.63%) 84,147(+0.22%)
2021-02-21
3,605,181(+0.62%) 84,280(+0.16%)
2021-02-22
3,609,827(+0.13%) 84,613(+0.4%)
2021-02-23
3,629,891(+0.56%) 85,044(+0.51%)
2021-02-24
3,661,410(+0.87%) 85,321(+0.33%)
2021-02-25
3,686,813(+0.69%) 85,582(+0.31%)
2021-02-26
3,712,020(+0.68%) 86,121(+0.63%)
2021-02-27
3,736,016(+0.65%) 86,306(+0.21%)
2021-02-28
3,755,968(+0.53%) 86,428(+0.14%)
2021-03-01
3,760,671(+0.13%) 86,803(+0.43%)
2021-03-02
3,783,528(+0.61%) 87,220(+0.48%)
2021-03-03
3,810,316(+0.71%) 87,542(+0.37%)
2021-03-04
3,835,595(+0.66%) 87,835(+0.33%)
2021-03-05
3,859,102(+0.61%) 88,274(+0.5%)
2021-03-06
3,882,408(+0.6%) 88,444(+0.19%)
2021-03-07
3,904,233(+0.56%) 88,574(+0.15%)
2021-03-08
3,909,560(+0.14%) 88,933(+0.41%)
2021-03-09
3,932,862(+0.6%) 89,301(+0.41%)
2021-03-10
3,963,165(+0.77%) 89,632(+0.37%)
2021-03-11
3,990,331(+0.69%) 89,897(+0.3%)
2021-03-12
4,015,560(+0.63%) 90,120(+0.25%)
2021-03-13
4,045,319(+0.74%) 90,289(+0.19%)
2021-03-14
4,071,662(+0.65%) 90,429(+0.16%)
2021-03-15
4,078,133(+0.16%) 90,762(+0.37%)
2021-03-16
4,108,108(+0.74%) 91,170(+0.45%)
2021-03-17
4,146,609(+0.94%) 91,411(+0.26%)
2021-03-18
4,181,607(+0.84%) 91,679(+0.29%)
2021-03-19
4,216,695(+0.84%) 91,964(+0.31%)
2021-03-20
4,252,022(+0.84%) 92,140(+0.19%)
2021-03-21
4,282,603(+0.72%) 92,278(+0.15%)
2021-03-22
4,298,395(+0.37%) 92,621(+0.37%)
2021-03-23
4,313,073(+0.34%) 92,908(+0.31%)
2021-03-24
4,378,446(+1.5%) 93,153(+0.26%)
2021-03-25
4,424,087(+1%) 93,378(+0.24%)
2021-03-26
4,465,956(+0.95%) 94,275(+0.96%)
2021-03-27
4,508,575(+0.95%) 94,465(+0.2%)
2021-03-28
4,545,589(+0.82%) 94,596(+0.14%)
2021-03-29
4,554,683(+0.2%) 94,956(+0.38%)
2021-03-30
4,585,385(+0.67%) 95,337(+0.4%)
2021-03-31
4,644,423(+1.3%) 95,640(+0.32%)
2021-04-01
4,695,082(+1.1%) 95,948(+0.32%)
2021-04-02
4,741,759(+0.99%) 96,280(+0.35%)
2021-04-03
4,755,676(+0.29%) 96,465(+0.19%)
2021-04-04
4,822,470(+1.4%) 96,650(+0.19%)
2021-04-05
4,833,263(+0.22%) 96,847(+0.2%)
2021-04-06
4,841,308(+0.17%) 97,273(+0.44%)
2021-04-07
4,854,259(+0.27%) 97,694(+0.43%)
2021-04-08
4,939,258(+1.8%) 98,037(+0.35%)
2021-04-09
4,980,501(+0.84%) 98,367(+0.34%)
2021-04-10
5,023,785(+0.87%) 98,574(+0.21%)
2021-04-11
5,058,680(+0.69%) 98,750(+0.18%)
2021-04-12
5,067,216(+0.17%) 99,135(+0.39%)
2021-04-13
5,106,329(+0.77%) 99,480(+0.35%)
2021-04-14
5,149,834(+0.85%) 99,777(+0.3%)
2021-04-15
5,187,879(+0.74%) 100,073(+0.3%)
2021-04-16
5,224,321(+0.7%) 100,404(+0.33%)
2021-04-17
5,260,182(+0.69%) 100,593(+0.19%)
2021-04-18
5,289,526(+0.56%) 100,733(+0.14%)
2021-04-19
5,296,222(+0.13%) 101,180(+0.44%)
2021-04-20
5,339,320(+0.81%) 101,568(+0.38%)
2021-04-21
5,374,288(+0.65%) 101,881(+0.31%)
2021-04-22
5,408,606(+0.64%) 102,164(+0.28%)
2021-04-23
5,440,946(+0.6%) 102,496(+0.32%)
2021-04-24
5,473,579(+0.6%) 102,713(+0.21%)
2021-04-25
5,498,044(+0.45%) 102,858(+0.14%)
2021-04-26
5,503,996(+0.11%) 103,256(+0.39%)
2021-04-27
5,534,313(+0.55%) 103,603(+0.34%)
2021-04-28
5,565,852(+0.57%) 103,918(+0.3%)
2021-04-29
5,592,390(+0.48%) 104,224(+0.29%)
2021-04-30
5,616,689(+0.43%) 104,514(+0.28%)
2021-05-01
5,642,359(+0.46%) 104,706(+0.18%)
2021-05-02
5,652,247(+0.18%) 104,819(+0.11%)
2021-05-03
5,656,007(+0.07%) 105,130(+0.3%)
2021-05-04
5,680,378(+0.43%) 105,416(+0.27%)
2021-05-05
5,706,378(+0.46%) 105,631(+0.2%)
2021-05-06
5,728,090(+0.38%) 105,850(+0.21%)
2021-05-07
5,747,214(+0.33%) 106,101(+0.24%)
2021-05-08
5,767,959(+0.36%) 106,277(+0.17%)
Source: French Government [30]
  1. ^ Recoveries are not counted by official sources; the reported numbers correspond to cases returned home after hospitalization.
  2. ^ Start of adding death cases from Établissement d'hébergement pour personnes âgées dépendantes (EHPADs - Retirement homes) since 1 April, previously not taken into account.
  3. ^ A new laboratory transmits data since May 4, retrospectively from March 16. The new number of cases in the last 24 hours takes this into account.
  4. ^ The increase in cases compared to data of the previous day is an aggregation of additional data from 13th May, previously not taken into account.
  5. ^ Some positive patients were counted twice, this is no longer the case, therefore the decrease in cases compared to data of the previous day.
  6. ^ Some discrepancy has been found in the aggregation report. Public authorities are working towards resolving this anomaly. However, as per the common usage, figures reported for that day in Wikipedia are strictly the figures shown in the daily report of the public authorities.
  7. ^ This percentage reflects previously unreported data from preceding days as well as data of the current day.

December 2019–March 2020: First cases to lockdown

First cases

On 2 December 2019, a man was admitted to Hôpital Albert Schweitzer (Colmar); on 7 May 2020, the director of the medical imagery department claimed that the man had been positive for COVID-19 in December 2019.[31] It is possible the sample was contaminated.[32] His thoracic scan, taken in December 2019, was one of several suspicious scans identified by the hospital as being typical of COVID-19, the earliest of these suspicious scans having been on 16 November 2019.[33]

On 27 December 2019, a man was admitted to Avicenne Hospital and tested for influenza, which came back as negative. On 3 May 2020, Yves Cohen, head of resuscitation at the hospital, said that following a retest of the man's December sample, it had come back positive for COVID-19. Cohen said it was too early to know if the man had been France's "patient zero".[13][14]

On 23 January 2020, the French Minister of Health's office published an analysis of the situation,[34] and on the same day Air France suspended its flights from and to Wuhan, and reduced the frequency of its flights from and to Beijing and Shanghai.[35]

On 24 January 2020, the first COVID-19 case in Europe was confirmed in Bordeaux. The victim, a 48-year-old French citizen from China, who arrived in France on 22 January 2020, was hospitalised at Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Bordeaux. He was placed in isolation, and the authorities tried to trace people who had been in contact with him.[36] On the same day that Agnès Buzyn said that "The risks of propagation of the virus in France are extremely low",[37] two more cases were confirmed in Paris – a couple who had returned from China on 18 January 2020.[5][38][39] The 31-year-old man and his 30-year-old partner, both from Wuhan, tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and were hospitalised at Bichat–Claude Bernard Hospital in Paris. On 26 January 2020, Buzyn declared that the French government had millions of masks which could be distributed to the population if necessary.[40][41]

On 28 January 2020, an 80-year-old Chinese tourist from Hubei tested positive and was hospitalised at Bichat–Claude Bernard Hospital.[7] The following day, his 50-year-old daughter tested positive and was admitted to the same hospital.[42] The death of the 80-year-old on 14 February 2020 marked the first death from COVID-19 outside of Asia.[8]

On 30 January 2020, a Paris doctor who had come into contact with a Chinese tourist whose infection was confirmed upon her return to China was confirmed positive for COVID-19.[43] The same day, Air France suspended all flights to mainland China, except for a single daily flight to Beijing and Shanghai.[44]

On 31 January 2020, Marie Fontanel, the President counselor for solidarity and health, quit her job to help her husband in the coming municipal elections. She would be replaced only one month later.[45] The same day, all the countries of the Schengen Area, except France, suspended the issuing of visas in China.[46]

Les Contamines-Montjoie cluster

On 8 February 2020, then-Minister of Health Agnès Buzyn confirmed five new cases which originated from a group of people who were on a holiday in Les Contamines-Montjoie, Haute-Savoie.[47] They contracted the infection from a British national who had attended a conference in Singapore a few days before.[48][49] Another British national, who had stayed in the same chalet as the five other individuals at Les Contamines-Montjoie, tested positive for COVID-19.[50] On 18 February 2020, Minister of Health, Olivier Véran – who replaced Agnès Buzyn after she stood down to run in the Paris mayoral election for La République En Marche! – announced that only four people remained infected in France. These four, all British nationals, three from the first group of Les Contamines-Montjoie and a fourth case which was discovered later, underwent quarantine at the hospital.[51] The last remaining British national was discharged six days later.[52]

Sundry cases

In late February 2020, multiple cases appeared in France, notably within three new clusters, in Oise,[53] Haute-Savoie,[54] and Morbihan.[55]

Number of cases (blue) and number of deaths (red) on a logarithmic scale.
Number of cases (blue) and number of deaths (red) on a logarithmic scale.

On 25 February 2020, a French teacher from Crépy-en-Valois died;[56] on the same day, a Chinese man who had returned from China was confirmed as a carrier of SARS-CoV-2, but showed signs of recent recovery. A 64-year-old man from La Balme-de-Sillingy, who returned from a trip to Lombardy on 15 February, tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and was treated in Centre Hospitalier Annecy-Genevois, Épagny-Metz-Tessy.[57][58][59] His wife also tested positive and was admitted to the same hospital as her husband.[60][61]

On 26 February 2020, a 36-year-old man, who had made multiple trips to Lombardy, tested positive and was treated in Nouvel Hôpital Civil, Strasbourg.[62][63][64][65] A 60-year-old French teacher from Oise was first admitted to Creil Hospital, then transferred to Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris, where he died a few hours later.[65][66][67] A 55-year-old man from Oise was admitted to the intensive care unit at CHU Amiens-Picardie, Amiens.[68]

The same day, during an audition by the French Senate, Jérôme Salomon, the French Directeur général de la Santé, declared that "A mask shortage is not a subject".[69]

On 27 February 2020, the Minister of Health Olivier Véran announced that France had 38 cases of COVID-19 on its soil, with 20 new cases detected including a cluster in the Oise caused by close contacts with patients that were infected in Egypt.[70]

On 28 February 2020, one new case was confirmed, a 23-year-old fashion student from Nice who had recently returned from Milan.[71] Landes confirmed the first case of COVID-19 in the region, a woman who tested positive at Centre Hospitalier de Mont-de-Marsan and underwent isolation.[72]

Mulhouse cluster

A religious week in Mulhouse that took place from 17 to 24 February 2020 was involved in the rapid spread of the virus to eastern France and beyond. Linked cases developed from early March in Orléans, Besançon, Saint-Lô, Belfort, Dijon, Mâcon, Agen, Briançon, Paris, Corsica, and French Guiana.[73][12]

The annual gathering of the Christian Open Door Church between 17 and 24 February 2020 in Mulhouse which was attended by about 2,500 people became a significant cluster in the spread of coronavirus in France.[11] Alerted by a parishioner and by 18 family members who tested positive on 1 March, the pastor notified the health authorities.[12][74] A man who lived alone in Nîmes – and who had driven back alone from Mulhouse and who otherwise had no close contacts – tested positive, and the flurry of reported cases locally on 2 March brought the existence of a Mulhouse cluster to light.[12]

On 3 March 2020, seven participants in the evangelical rally – including five members of a local family and a general practitioner from Bernwiller – had tested positive for the virus.[75][76][77] Starting on the evening of 3 March 2020, the local helpline of the Emergency medical services recorded an unprecedented flood of distress calls, from people who had attended the gathering.[11] According to an investigative report by Radio France, at least half of the attendees had contracted the virus; in an interview on France Info, the pastor of the church admitted that 2000 attendees may have been infected.[11] It is said that no specific health advice existed in light of the threat at the time.[12][74] The source of the initial infection has not been determined; furthermore, as different attendees were welcomed each day, and due to the absence of any attendance register, epidemiological followup subsequent to the discovery of attendees who tested positive was rendered impossible.[12] Even President Emmanuel Macron had spent several hours electioneering on 18 February 2020 in the Bourtzwiller district close to the church. It was only on 2 March 2020 when the health authorities woke up to data that there was an outbreak all over the country linked to the religious meeting, by which time secondary infections had spread out of control.[12]

A Radio France investigation identified that one nurse who had attended the event was the origin of a subsequent cluster in Strasbourg at her workplace at the Strasbourg University Hospitals involving some 250 hospital colleagues.[11] Five returnees from the Mulhouse rally were confirmed in French Guiana on 4 March 2020.[78] On 5 March 2020, a retired couple from Lot-et-Garonne and another person from Deux-Sèvres who had attended the same Mulhouse gathering were declared positive for the disease.[79] Five new cases from this cluster were registered in Corsica,[80] and three in Normandy.[81] On 6 March 2020, with 81 cases that had been detected in the previous 24 hours in Mulhouse, the departmental prefect declared that the means were no longer sufficient to systematically screen all suspected cases; only the most serious patients were to be hospitalised.[82] The department of Haut-Rhin, in which Mulhouse is situated, imposed strict limits on the gatherings; all schools were closed henceforth.[83]

Repatriations

On 31 January 2020, approximately 220 French returnees from China landed at Istres-Le Tubé Air Base, aboard an Airbus A340 from Esterel 3/60 transport squadron stationed at Creil Air Base.[84] These evacuees were quarantined in a holiday camp in Carry-le-Rouet.[85][86][87] A second wave of repatriation took place on 2 February 2020 when 65 evacuated French nationals on board a chartered Airbus A380-800 Hi Fly Malta landed at the Istres air base.[88] A third repatriation of 38 French occurred on 8 February 2020 under the auspices of the British government.[89]

On 21 February 2020, a further thirty French people who had been staying in Wuhan were repatriated to France and placed in quarantine at Branville, in the Calvados.[90][91] On 13 March 2020, twelve trainee gendarmes at the School of Gendarmerie of Tulle (Corrèze) saw their internship in Spain terminated, with them and their 20 companions repatriated.[92] They had been confined from 10 March 2020 following the positive test results of two of their Spanish cohort.[93]

Municipal elections

The first round of municipal elections in France took place on 15 March 2020 against the backdrop of the government decision to move to Stage III of measures to prevent the spread of the coronavirus. Stringent restrictions on public life involving the closure of bars, restaurants and other businesses considered non-essential were set to begin the following day.[94] Then-Health Minister, Agnès Buzyn, resigned on 16 February 2020 to run for the Paris mayor for La République En Marche!.[95] She is succeeded by Olivier Véran, a neurologist. The decision to press ahead with the election was justified as being critical to democratic life in the country, despite concerns about how a second round could be held as the toll of infections and deaths continued to rise.[94] In the end, the turnout of registered voters was 40%, lower than achieved in 1971 – the previous record lowest turnout.[94]

A number of communes in various parts of the country reported that despite the safety measures put in place by the government, some candidates and assessors had subsequently developed symptoms or tested positive for the virus.[96][97][98]

Lockdown measures

In Noisy-le-Grand in the suburbs of Paris, strolling along the river Marne has been forbidden "until further notice"
In Noisy-le-Grand in the suburbs of Paris, strolling along the river Marne has been forbidden "until further notice"

On 11 March 2020, the government named 11 prominent scientists to a committee to advise on scientific matters pertaining to the epidemic in France.[99] On 17 March 2020, the Direction générale de la Santé (DGS) asked Santé publique France to buy urgently 1,1 million of FFP2 masks.[100]

On 12 March 2020, Emmanuel Macron announced in a televised address that all schools and universities across the country would be closed.

On 13 March 2020, the Prime Minister, Édouard Philippe announced the closure of all pubs, restaurants, cinemas and nightclubs.

On 16 March 2020 (one day after the first round of the municipal elections), Emmanuel Macron announced the beginning of a lockdown period from the 17 March 2020 at noon.[101]

After the announcement of the lockdown, the Fédération Française du Bâtiment decided to stop non-essential work because of the danger for construction workers. On 19 March 2020, Muriel Pénicaud, the French Minister of Labour, criticized this decision, saying that it showed a lack of civic spirit. On 20 March 2020, the President of the federation replied in an open letter that what the Minister said was "scandalous".[102][103] After several days, an agreement allowing a few construction sites to reopen was signed.[104]

April–May 2020: First peak

During early April 2020, the numbers of deaths from coronavirus increased dramatically, with more than 10,000 people dying during that period of time.

The lockdown had initially been planned for 15 days, then for 30 days, but on 13 April 2020, Macron announced that the lockdown period would be extended until 11 May 2020.[17]

On 4 May 2020, scientists retesting old samples found that a man had been infected with COVID-19 on 27 December 2019, almost a month before France reported its first case. The patient had not travelled abroad which sparked fears that the coronavirus might have been spreading in Europe earlier than leaders had thought.

On 11 May 2020, as daily cases had dropped to under 100 per day, primary schools and some middle schools were allowed to reopen in what was the first steps to reopening the economy.

On 28 May 2020, Édouard Philippe announced that a travel ban of 100 km (62 miles) would be lifted on 2 June 2020. Cafes, bars and restaurants were also allowed to reopen on the same day. This easing of restrictions did not apply to Paris.

June–July 2020: Easing of restrictions

On 14 June 2020, Cafes, Restaurants and Pubs were allowed to reopen in Paris.

On 22 June 2020, Cinemas, holiday centres, sports halls for group sports, all crèches, schools, and collèges (middle school) were allowed to reopen in what was the third stage of reopening the economy.

On 1 July 2020, France reopened its borders with non-European Union countries.

On 3 July 2020, Philippe resigned as Prime Minister and was replaced by Jean Castex. Castex had previously been appointed coordinator of the phasing out of the lockdown (confinement) implemented in France.

On 10 July 2020, the State of Health Emergency in France came to an end, essentially ending the lockdown. However, there were still restrictions on social distancing.

On 15 July 2020, Olivier Véran announced that from 24 July 2020, face coverings would be compulsory in all public indoor spaces and some outdoor public areas such as the Eiffel Tower.

August–October 2020

During August 2020, cases began to rise again. In the week ending 16 August 2020, more than 10,000 case were reported during that week.

On 28 August 2020, France set a new record for the number of new cases in a single 24-hour period with 7,379 new cases reported. With this in mind, Paris made it compulsory to wear face coverings in most public spaces.

On 12 September 2020, France recorded more than 10,000 new cases in a single 24-hour period for the first time. Deaths had also begun to rise again, with 154 recorded on 18 September 2020, the highest since 17 May 2020 and the first time daily deaths increased by more than 100 since 16 June 2020.

On 5 October 2020, Paris once again shut its pubs, restaurants and cafes over a resurgence in cases, the second city to do so after Marseille. However, the government kept insisting that they would not impose a second nation-wide lockdown.

On 10 October 2020, France recorded its then biggest daily increase in new cases with 26,896 new infections. President Macron announced in an interview on prime-time television on 14 October 2020 that in view of the vertiginous spread of the disease in several major cities, there would be 9pm–6am curfews imposed in areas which have become hotspots for the virus in the country, to last for 4 weeks; the financial aid measures and furloughing scheme for affected business would be re-introduced.[105]

On 15 October 2020, France became the first country in Europe to record more than 30,000 cases in a day, with 30,621 cases reported. This increase pushed France over the 800,000 mark in terms of cases, only the third country in Europe to reach this figure.[106]

On 22 October 2020, Prime Minister of France Jean Castex extended the overnight curfew to 38 more departments as cases surged, affecting 46 million people (67% population).[107]

On 23 October 2020, France's confirmed cases of COVID-19 passed 1 million. The total number of confirmed cases was 1,048,075, with an increase of 42,032, the highest daily rise in a 24-hour period.

On 25 October 2020, daily cases topped 50,000 for the first time, with a total of 52,013 new cases reported.

On 28 October 2020, Macron announced on a televised address that France would enter a second nationwide lockdown from 30 October 2020 that would last until at least 1 December 2020. Non-essential businesses such as pubs and restaurants would close but schools and factories would remain open.[108]

November 2020

On 5 November 2020, Paris Mayor Anne Hidalgo announced further restrictions in Paris after some citizens were caught disobeying existing rules. These included requiring food shops to close at 10:00 pm in order to prevent people from gathering there.[109]

On 12 November 2020, French Prime Minister Jean Castex said in a press conference that any loosening of restrictions at the start of December would be "strictly limited", meaning businesses like restaurants, bars and sports halls would remain closed. He also stated that 1 in 4 deaths in France were at that time due to COVID-19.[110]

December 2020

On 17 December 2020, Macron tested positive for COVID-19.[111]

On 27 December 2020, a 78-year-old woman became the first person in France to get vaccinated against COVID-19. She received the first dose of Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine at the René-Muret Hospital in Sevran, Seine-Saint-Denis.[112]

April 2021

On 31 March 2021, in a televised address to the nation, President Macron announced a third national lockdown to begin on 3 April 2021, and to last for at least a month. Macron warned that the country would "lose control if we do not move now".[113] Principal measures announced included the closure of non-essential shops during the national lockdown and the suspension of attendance at schools for three weeks.[113] During the national lockdown, domestic travel was banned and a nationwide curfew from 7pm-6am remained in place.[113]

On 25 April, health authorities that the country has 5,473,579 confirmed cases with 76,502 deaths and 13,834,667 people have been given the first dose of vaccine.[114]

On 29 April, President Macron announced dates for the easing of restrictions from the third national lockdown:

  • May 19: Curfew moves from 19:00 to 21:00. Shops, museums, cinemas, terraces, outdoor sports venues can reopen. Gatherings of more than ten people are prohibited.
  • June 9: Curfew extended to 23:00. Cafes and restaurants can reopen inside with tables of up to six people.
  • June 30: Curfew comes to an end.[115]

Timeline of measures

National restrictions relating to the COVID-19 Pandemic
Legend
  1.      School closures
  2.      Closure of restaurants and museums
  3. Travel restrictions:      full stay-at-home order,      part-time curfew,      beyond 100 km
  4. Legal regime :      sanitary state of emergency,      lifting of state of emergency


Measures enacted Effective from
4–14 March 2020 : First bans on gatherings
Ban on gatherings of more than 5000 people in enclosed spaces 5 March 2020[116]
Ban on all gatherings of more than 1000 people 10 March 2020[117]
Ban on all gatherings of more than 100 people 14 March 2020[118][119]
Ban on ships carrying more than 100 passengers from calling in on or anchoring in inland and territorial waters 14 March 2020[118][120][119]
17 March 2020 – 10 May 2020: First national lockdown
Closure of most public establishments. Only "essential services (food shops, pharmacies, banks, newsagents, petrol/service stations…) and all essential public services" are authorised to remain open.[121] Citizens asked to "avoid gatherings where possible, limit meetings with friends and family, only use public transport to go to work if presence at the workplace is essential, and to only leave the home to buy essential groceries, to briefly exercise or to vote in local elections" 15 March 2020[120][119]
Closure of schools and institutes of higher education 16 March 2020[120][119]
Ban on all religious gatherings except for funeral services with fewer than 20 attendees 16 March 2020[120][119]
Ban on all travel except relating to professional activity, buying essential goods, health or family reasons or brief individual exercise. Those outside the home were required to carry identification and a signed and dated declaration (attestation) for any travel. 17 March 2020[122][123][124]
Ban on embalming. All suspected or confirmed cases of death due to COVID-19 were to be placed in coffins immediately. 24 March 2020[119]
11 May 2020 – 1 June 2020: Progressive lifting of lockdown restrictions
Ban on gatherings of more than 10 people in a public space across all French territory. More generally, all gatherings, meetings, activities, travel and users of public transport were required to respect social distancing rules. Public access to parks, gardens and green spaces in urban areas was prohibited in areas of France classified as 'red zones'. Most businesses could re-open but restaurants, cafes and bars remained shut. A travel declaration (attestation) was no longer needed for travel outside one's place of residence. Full lockdown restrictions remained in the overseas department of Mayotte. 11 May 2020[125]
Ban on travel outside the department of residence or exceeding a 100 km radius from one's place of residence, except in specified circumstances. Citizens were still required to carry identification, and a signed declaration, for any travel outside a 100 km radius of one's residence or for travel on public transport during peak hours. Masks were made compulsory on public transport. More generally, all gatherings, meetings, activities, travel and usage of public transport were required to respect social distancing rules. Public access to parks, gardens and green spaces in urban areas was prohibited in areas of France that are classified as 'red zones'. Full lockdown restrictions remained in the overseas department of Mayotte. 12 May 2020[126]
Parks in red zones reopened. 30 May 2020[127]
2–22 June 2020
Restaurants and museums allowed to re-open across most of France, although a ban on indoor seating in restaurants is maintained in the 'orange zones' of Île-de-France, French Guiana and Mayotte. A declaration was no longer required for travel exceeding 100 km. 2 June 2020[128]
Demonstrations that abide by social distancing guidelines are permitted. Île-de-France becomes a 'green' zone, allowing restaurants and cafes to open fully, although French Guiana and Mayotte remain 'orange'. 15 June 2020[129]
A declaration (attestation) is no longer required to travel on public transport during rush hour. 16–21 June 2020[citation needed]
Cinemas were re-opened. 22 June 2020[130]
11–19 July 2020
Majority of restrictions lifted, although a ban on gatherings of more than 5000 people remained, and nightclubs stayed closed, and masks remained obligatory on public transport. The state of emergency remained in effect in the overseas departments of French Guiana and Mayotte. 11 July[131]
20 July 2020 – 16 October 2020: Extension of mask-wearing rules
Masks made mandatory in an extended range of public places. 20 July 2020[132]
Prefectures given powers to expand mandatory mask-wearing measures 29 July 2020
On 4 August 2020, Paris makes mask wearing compulsory for pedestrians outdoors in some streets in the city and extends the area several times over the following weeks. 4 August 2020[133]
Paris and the department of Bouches-du-Rhône are classed as 'red' departments in which the virus is actively circulating. 13 August 2020[134]
19 additional departments are classed as 'red': Alpes-Maritimes, Essonne, Gard, Gironde, Guadeloupe, Haute-Garonne, Hauts-de-Seine, Hérault, Loiret, Martinique, Rhône, Sarthe, Seine-et-Marne, Seine-Saint-Denis, Val-d'Oise, Val-de-Marne, Var, Vaucluse and Yvelines. 27 August 2020
Mask-wearing is made compulsory outdoors in the whole of Paris and its inner suburbs (Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis and Val-de-Marne) for pedestrians age 11 and older. 28 August 2020
Mask-wearing required in workplaces. 1 September 2020[135]
Schools reopen with mask requirements for teachers and students age 11 and older. 1 September 2020[136]
17 October 2020 - 14 December 2020: Introduction of curfews and second national lockdown
Overnight curfew (9pm to 6am) in Paris and suburbs; Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Saint-Etienne, Rouen, Toulouse, Grenoble and Montpellier. Gatherings of more than six people discouraged. 17 October 2020[137]
Overnight curfews extended to 38 French departments. 24 October 2020[138]
Second national lockdown begins, with similar restrictions to the first national lockdown except that primary- and secondary school children can still attend school. 30 October 2020[139]
Non-essential services can re-open and exercise restrictions relaxed to 3 hours a day within a 20 km radius of one's place of residence. 28 November 2020[140]
15 December 2020 - 26 February 2021
Travel restrictions are lifted and a declaration (attestation) is no longer needed to leave one's residence apart from during overnight curfew hours of between 8pm and 6am every day. 15 December 2020[141]
Curfew hours extended nationally to between 6pm and 6am every day. 16 January 2021[142]
Closure of shops above a given size 31 January 2021[143]
26 February 2021 - 2 May 2021: Third set of regional and national lockdowns
Weekend lockdowns imposed in the Côte d'Azur and Dunkirk regions 26 February 2021[144]
Daily lockdowns imposed in 16 departments including the whole of Île-de-France, Hauts-de-France, Upper Normandy and the department of Alpes-Maritimes in Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. For these areas, a declaration (attestation) is required for travel beyond 10 km of one's place of residence while non-essential travel to other regions is prohibited. All non-essential shops are to close, albeit with an expanded definition of what is considered essential.

Curfew hours shifted nationally to between 7pm and 6am every day.

20 March 2021[145]
Daily lockdown rules as above, but extended to the whole of Metropolitan France. 3 April 2021
Closure of schools and higher education establishments 5 April 2021[146]
3 May 2021 – : Progressive lifting of lockdown restrictions
Non-essential travel permitted beyond 10 km during the day, secondary schools re-open (with primary schools re-opening on the 25th of April). 3 May 2021[147]

Situation by region

Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes

On 25 February 2020, a man from La Balme-de-Sillingy, who had returned from Italy, was declared infected and hospitalised in Annecy. He had been asymptomatic the previous evening, and so was the trigger for a cluster in Haute-Savoie.[148][149] One day later his wife was hospitalised.[61] On 27 February, a friend and his daughter followed him into the hospital.[150] On 2 March 2020, 26 people were COVID-19 positive in Haute-Savoie. The hospital in Annecy being saturated, a case was transferred to Chambéry.[151] François Daviet, the mayor of La Balme-de-Sillingy was also hospitalised.[152]

On 27 February 2020, a man from Francheville was admitted to a Lyon hospital and tested positive for coronavirus.[153] Three new cases were reported in the city of Lyon on 1 March.[152]

A couple from Divonne-les-Bains were infected after a journey in Italy and hospitalised in neighbouring Switzerland on 29 February 2020.[154][155] On the same day, two other men from Ferney-Voltaire, one French national who works in Switzerland and one Italian national, were also hospitalised in the Helvetic Country.[156]

On 2 March 2020, an 89-year-old woman from Nyons was treated at Valréas hospital in the Enclave of the Popes in Vaucluse and tested COVID-19 positive.[157] On the same day there were four new cases in Haute-Savoie.[158]

Burgundy-Franche-Comté

On 2 March 2020, 10 cases were reported at the Dijon hospital.[159] The first wave was reported on 27 February with cases related to the Oise cluster[160][161] who subsequently infected their relatives. Five new cases of COVID-19 were confirmed on 3 March. The 15 cases in the region received care at Dijon CHU. Four cases in Côte-d'Or had been in contact with someone who was already hospitalised, while another case in Saône-et-Loire was in Italy the previous week.[162]

Brittany

On 2 March 2020, 19 cases were reported in Brittany.[163] Two were in the western city of Brest, an elderly man from Plougonvelin, returning from a trip from Egypt[164][165] and his wife.[166] There were also four cases in the regional capital Rennes, a firefighter and his wife, and two people who had returned from Veneto.[163] 13 others cases were reported in Morbihan, around a cluster of 6 in Crac'h, 3 in Auray, 3 in Carnac and 1 in Saint-Philibert.[163]

Also on 2 March 2020, the fourth death in France, and the first one in Brittany occurred, a 92-year-old man, who had been hospitalised in Vannes.[167][168]

As of 29 March 2020, 962 cases had been reported as follows : 208 in Ille-et-Vilaine, 230 in Finistère, 313 in Morbihan and 107 in Côtes d'Armor.[169]

Grand Est

On 26 February 2020, a 36-year-old man who had made repeated trips to the Italian region of Lombardy was hospitalised in Strasbourg but didn't have severe symptoms.[66][64]

On 2 March 2020, it was announced that ten more people tested positive in the Grand Est, eight hospitalised in Strasbourg and three in Nancy. In Alsace, a Molsheim couple was hospitalised. The man had returned from Italy and was hospitalised first, followed by his wife. Four members of a family from Hésingue, a 27-year-old mother and her two children aged five and one, as well as one of the grandfathers, a 57-year-old man, were infected. Two others cases identified in the Bas-Rhin, a 49-year-old man and his 14-year-old son, had been in contact with a person from the Oise hospitalised in Amiens.[170] Three family members were hospitalised in Nancy, a father and his son, aged 50 and 23, and the girl-friend of the 50-year-old patient, all from the department of Aisne.[171]

Hauts-de-France

As of 2 March 2020, 67 people[172] were infected by COVID-19 in the Hauts-de-France region. This figure, the highest in France, was linked to a major cluster originating in the city of Creil, in the Oise, whose source remains unknown. The five departments of Hauts-de-France now each had at least one proven case of people infected by the coronavirus. In Aisne and Pas-de-Calais, spared by the epidemic until 1 March, the authorities confirmed the presence of patients with COVID-19, except the Nord where hospitalisations without local infections had taken place.[citation needed] Some days before, on 26 February, a man died overnight after being rushed to a Paris hospital from Creil where he was hospitalised for 6 days in ICU in serious condition, bringing the total death toll in the country to two at that time.[66][65] On 2 March 2020, it was announced the second death in Hauts-de-France and the third at the national level, a woman of 89 "diagnosed post-mortem" at the hospital of Compiègne. She had other serious pre-existing conditions.[172]

Île-de-France

On 25 February 2020, a young woman returned from China was hospitalised in the Bichat–Claude Bernard Hospital, Paris but showed signs of recovery and was out of hospital on 26 February 2020.[148][173][54]

On 28 February 2020, an infected person from the Val-d'Oise, returning from Italy was hospitalised in Bichat–Claude Bernard Hospital, Paris. He was working for a contractor of Charles de Gaulle Airport.[174][175] On the same day, Hôpital Tenon [fr], which had received a patient from the Oise before he had been diagnosed, announced that it had been directly affected by the coronavirus with three infected medical personnel.[176]

Two cases of Coronavirus had been identified in Seine-Saint-Denis in Montreuil in the same family, a father and his child, on 2 March 2020.[177]

Despite the coronavirus pandemic a substantial International Women's Day march occurred in Paris on 8 March 2020.[178]

Normandy

On 27 February 2020, a doctor from the Rouen University Hospital was declared a positive carrier of COVID-19 and was confined to his home, after a professional journey to Munich.[179] A second case of coronavirus was confirmed in Normandy on 2 March. He is a French resident in Eure. He was hospitalised at the Rouen University Hospital.[180]

New Aquitaine

After news of the first infected individuals in Europe had been released in late January,[181] three new patients were declared COVID-19 positive in February, a patient in Bordeaux who was hospitalised at the Bordeaux University Hospital after returning from a stay in Italy, a soldier from Rochefort, Charente-Maritime who had had contact with people from the Creil air base in the Oise, who was hospitalised in Poitiers, and a woman from Mont-de-Marsan was had also been in contact with cases in Creil, who was hospitalised in Bordeaux.[182]

Occitania

Residents of Toulouse maintain social distance while queueing
Residents of Toulouse maintain social distance while queueing

Three cases were declared in Occitania in February 2020, all in Montpellier. A man who recently returned from Italy was diagnosed on 27 February 2020,[183] followed the next day by his wife and a 41-year-old man recently returned from Emilia-Romagna.[184] On 1 March 2020, the two children of the couple were hospitalised and one was COVID-19 positive.[185] On 2 March 2020, two new cases were announced there: a 31-year-old man and his 29-year-old wife, also back from Emilia-Romagna.[186] One day later, a 70-year-old man from the village of Boisset-et-Gaujac in the Gard was hospitalised in Nîmes.[187]

On 2 March 2020, a case in Nimes was traced to the mid-February Mulhouse Megachurch event. This case helped identify the Mulhouse cluster.[188]

Pays de la Loire

A 58-year-old female general practitioner, tested positive for coronavirus and was hospitalised on 27 February 2020, at the Nantes University Hospital. Hers was the first confirmed case in the Pays de la Loire region. She lived near Compiègne, in the Oise department, where a dozen cases had already been identified. On 13 February 2020, she had seen a patient who was later hospitalised in an intensive care unit in Amiens.[189][190]

On 2 March 2020, four people were hospitalised at the Angers University Hospital for cases of coronavirus.[191] The first case was detected on 28 February 2020; a 27-year-old woman from the Sarthe declared herself to the SAMU centre 15 after a stay in Milan in Italy. Three other cases have since been detected in Mayenne and Maine-et-Loire. They were infected by a patient from Brest.[192]

Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur

The first case of the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region was announced on 28 February 2020. A young woman from Cannes was infected after a journey in Milan.[193] One day later three new cases were hospitalised, two French vacationers returned from a risk zone and an Italian tourist.[194] Two new cases appeared during the weekend of 29 February 2020 and 1 March 2020: a 15-year-old adolescent and a 23-year-old woman.[195] On 2 March 2020, a seventh case was announced, a 3-year-old girl.[195]

On 29 February 2020, Monaco announced its first COVID-19 case, a man who was admitted to the Princess Grace Hospital Centre, then transferred to the Nice University Hospital in France.[196]

On 22 March 2020, the Alpes-Maritimes prefecture issued a decree putting into place a curfew from 10 pm to 5 am affecting cities of more than 10,000 residents and all towns on the Mediterranean coast until 31 March 2020. This replaced local measures which had already been taken in Nice, Béziers, and Cannes.[197]

Overseas regions

French Guiana

As of 4 March 2020, French Guiana had five confirmed cases, all in Saint-Laurent du Maroni.[198] The first death was announced on 20 April 2020.[199]

Guadeloupe

By 26 March 2020, there had been 84 positive cases and 1 death in Guadeloupe.[200]

Martinique

The COVID-19 pandemic was confirmed to have reached the Martinique on 5 March 2020.[201] By 15 March 2020, the first virus-related death had occurred and there were 15 infected patients in Martinique.[202]

Mayotte

The COVID-19 pandemic was confirmed to have reached Mayotte on 10 March 2020.[203] On 31 March 2020, the first person died of COVID-19.[204]

Réunion

The COVID-19 pandemic was confirmed to have reached Réunion on 11 March 2020.[205]

Overseas collectivities

French Polynesia

Maina Sage, a French politician representing French Polynesia at the French national assembly, was diagnosed with the first case of COVID-19 in French Polynesia on 11 March 2020.[citation needed]

New Caledonia

As of 19 March, there have been two cases in New Caledonia.[206]

Saint Barthélemy

A resident of the French island of Saint Barthélemy was diagnosed with COVID-19 on 1 March 2020. His parents on the neighbouring island of Saint Martin also tested positive.[207]

Saint Martin

A couple from the French part of Saint Martin island was diagnosed with COVID-19 on 1 March 2020. Their son, who lives on the neighbouring island of Saint Barthélemy, also tested positive.[207]

Wallis and Futana

The first case in Wallis and Futuna was reported on 16 October 2020.

Charles de Gaulle aircraft carrier

The Ministry of Armed Forces reported infections on board one of its ships on 8 April 2020. After about 40 crew members aboard the aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle showed symptoms, the ship cut short its mission and returned to its home port of Toulon on 12 April 2020, 11 days earlier than planned.[208][209] The ministry initially announced that out of 66 personnel tested, 50 were positive.[210][211] Three sailors were evacuated by air to Saint Anne Army Teaching Hospital [fr].[210][212] On 18 April 2020, the final count of infected crew members was announced as 1,046 with nearly 50 percent diagnosed as asymptomatic.[213]

The carrier arrived in Toulon on the afternoon of 12 April 2020, when a 14-day quarantine for the crew began. The source of the infection remains unknown, as the last port of call had been Brest from 13 to 15 March.[214][215][216][217][excessive citations]

There was criticism in France the carrier mission was not interrupted after the first cases were detected,[218] and rumours that the carrier had asked permission to interrupt its mission in mid March during its stopover in Brest, which had been refused. Florence Parly, the French Minister of Armed Forces, said that these rumours were false when questioned by French deputies.[219]

Effects on civilian life

Empty streets in Paris
Some stores that remain open impose disciplined queuing for customers waiting to enter
Some stores that remain open impose disciplined queuing for customers waiting to enter
Major supermarket chains installed equipment to safeguard staff and customers
Major supermarket chains installed equipment to safeguard staff and customers

Closures

On 28 February 2020, the fashion designer agnès b. cancelled fashion shows in Paris Fashion Week, which had been scheduled to run until 3 March.[220] The following day, the Paris half marathon scheduled for Sunday 1 March 2020, with 44,000 participants was cancelled as one of a number of measures announced by health minister Olivier Véran (which also included the banning of all indoor public gatherings of more than 5,000 people).[221]

In a televised statement on 12 March 2020, President of the Republic Emmanuel Macron decreed the closure of nurseries, schools, colleges, high schools and universities.[222] The Ministry of Health requested the deprogramming of non-urgent surgical procedures.[222] From the next day, gatherings of more than 100 people were prohibited.[223]

On 13 March 2020, the Ligue de Football Professionnel suspended Ligue 1 and Ligue 2 (the top two divisions of football in France) indefinitely due to health risks.[224]

On 14 March 2020, many cultural institutions announced their closure. These are mainly Parisian institutions or institutions in the Paris region, such as Louvre, Centre Georges Pompidou, Eiffel Tower, Musée d'Orsay, and Château de Versailles,[225] but also institutions in the provinces such as Château de Montsoreau – Museum of Contemporary Art,[226] CAPC – Musée d'Art Contemporain de Bordeaux, MUCEM in Marseille.[227]

Restrictions on movement

Starting from 23 March 2020,[228] everyone in a public space was required to carry a self-completed declaration, known as an "Attestation de déplacement dérogatoire", which stated one's reasons for being out in public. Without this declaration individuals could be fined if found engaging in non-essential movement.[229] Acceptable reasons for being outside included: shopping for food and essential needs, traveling to and from a place of work, if the work could not be performed at home, accessing necessary healthcare, traveling for essential family matters including childcare or care of the elderly or to assist vulnerable people, exercising within 1 km of the home for up to 1 hour during permitted hours, for an administrative legal matter (such as a summons), or at the direction of an administrative authority. Initially it was necessary to carry a paper copy of the declaration but later a QR code based electronic equivalent for smartphones became an option. Most of the requirements of these measures expired on 11 May 2020 with the expiration of the general stay-at-home order however new requirements subsequently came into effect limiting general travel to a range of 100 km from one's residence without a permit. The 100 km limitation remained in effect until 2 June.[citation needed]

Police around the country set up road blocks to check those outside their homes had good reason and that their exemption declarations were in order. Up to 7 April 2020, more than 8 million checks had been made, and half a million fines had been issued for failure to respect rules of confinement. Police report receiving hundreds of telephone denunciations from citizens complaining of their neighbours walking their dogs too often; a woman also denounced her husband for going out to see his mistress.[230]

On 28 September 2020, according to an Amnesty International report French authorities wrongly punished thousands of peaceful protesters under draconian laws in pre and post COVID-19 crackdowns. Many people were arbitrarily fined, arrested, and detained for peaceful protests.[231]

Unemployment

President Macron announced on 12 March 2020 that companies could postpone the payment of social security contributions and taxes due in March without justification, formalities, or penalties. An "exceptional and massive" mechanism of state-funded furloughing (partial lay-offs) was envisaged.[222] Employees were encouraged to practise teleworking where possible.[232] During the second half of March, 4 million French workers applied for temporary unemployment benefits.[233][234][235] As at April 2020, approximately 8.6 million employees in France were furloughed. The total cost of the operation for the three months from March amounts to €24 billion.[236]

The French state, which has hitherto borne 100% of the costs of furloughing, reduced the indemnity to 85% from 1 June 2020, with businesses footing 15% of the bill; employees will receive 70% of their gross pay, or around 84% of their net salary. Employees in sectors of activity related to restaurants, culture and tourism, which remain subject to forced closure, continue to receive 100% state indemnity.[236]

Riots in the Paris region

From 18 April 2020, suburbs near Paris saw several nights of violent clashes over police treatment of ethnic minorities in the banlieues during the coronavirus lockdown.[237][238][239]

Fatal bus attack

On 5 July 2020, a 59-year-old male bus driver in Bayonne was left brain dead after being attacked by passengers who refused to pay for tickets and to wear face masks on his bus. Five people were arrested;[240] two men were charged with attempted murder, two others with non-assistance to a person in danger and a fifth with attempting to hide a suspect.[247] The driver died on 10 July, five days after the attack.[248]

Shortage of masks controversy

Cloth face masks certified by AFNOR. The white mask is made of polypropylene and the black one is made of cotton.
Cloth face masks certified by AFNOR. The white mask is made of polypropylene and the black one is made of cotton.

Strategic stocks of masks in 2009 under Roselyne Bachelot, minister of health from May 2007 to November 2010, amounted to 1 billion surgical masks and 600 million FFP2 masks .[249] According to the French government, a change of doctrine had occurred upon recommendations from the General Health Directorate in July 2011, the decision was taken then to allow depletion of strategic stocks on the grounds of cost of maintaining the stockpile – including arbitrating the cost of obsolescence.[250][249] Stock of surgical masks and FFP2 masks in late 2019 had dropped to 140 million and zero units respectively.[249]

Then-health minister Agnès Buzyn declared on 26 January that there would be no shortage of masks in France during the outbreak.[250] Later on 26 February, Jérôme Salomon, the French Directeur général de la Santé, declared during a debate by the French Senate that "A mask shortage is not a subject".[69] However, health professionals complained that they were ill-equipped to face the crisis, due to inadequate stocks of protective equipment.[250] On 3 March, with France still facing a shortage, President Macron commandeered all masks produced and stored in the country for distribution to health professionals and people who had contracted the virus.[249][251]

France was subsequently accused of seizing medical equipment intended for other nations. On 5 March 2020, French authorities confiscated four million masks from the Swedish health care company Mölnlycke, which were in a distribution centre in Lyon and destined for Spain and Italy. Two weeks later, after pressure from the Swedish government, France released the masks, allowing two million of them through, with the rest remaining in France either to be used there or for re-export.[252] Mölnlycke estimated that a total of "six million masks were seized by the French. All had been contracted for, including a million masks each for France, Italy and Spain. The rest were destined for Belgium, the Netherlands, Portugal and Switzerland."[253]

On 27 April 2020, it was revealed by Libération that, contrary to government claims in March, a change of doctrine was not the main cause of the mask shortage, and that the government had been fully informed as early as 2018 that strategic reserves were depleted.[254]

On 8 May 2020, the government announced that 200 million masks per week would be available starting on 11 May: 100 million for medical workers and 100 million for the general public.[255]

Hydroxychloroquine controversy

On 17 March 2020, Didier Raoult of the Mediterranean infectious and tropical disease institute in Marseille and member of the scientific council advising the government announced in a YouTube video entitled "Coronavirus: endgame!” that a trial by his team involving 24 patients supported the claim that hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin were effective in treating COVID-19.[256][257][258] The design of the study as well as its conclusions are controversial and generally viewed as flawed and inconclusive.[259][258] Raoult has nevertheless offered testing of those with symptoms at his institute and prescribed hydroxychloroquine for those who tested positive.[259] The French Health Minister, Olivier Véran, announced that "new tests will now go ahead to evaluate the results of Raoult, to independently replicate the trials and ensure the findings are scientifically robust, before any possible decision might be made to roll any treatment out to the wider public".[260][261]

On 30 March 2020, hospitals reported that there had been two dozen cases with three deaths of individuals who were suspected of self-medication with Plaquenil – a brand name for hydroxychloroquine. Drug safety agency (ANSM) warned against potentially fatal side effects, notably cardiac arrhythmia and heart attack. The agency banned its use, even with prescriptions, outside of hospitals, and in clinical trials, while stepping up its surveillance.[262]

Raoult later resigned from the committee, and defended chloroquine as a drug that has been safely used for 80 years.[99]

Chinese Embassy article

In mid-April 2020, the Chinese embassy published an online article entitled "Restoring distorted facts – Observations of a Chinese diplomat posted to Paris", which criticised western countries' slow response and accused workers at nursing homes in France of "abandoning their posts overnight … and leaving their residents to die of hunger and disease". French Foreign Minister Jean-Yves Le Drian summoned the Chinese ambassador, and said that the remarks were not in line with the "quality of the bilateral relationship" between France and China.[263]

Cooperation with neighbouring states

On 29 February 2020, Monaco announced the first COVID-19 case, a man who was admitted to the Princess Grace Hospital Centre, then transferred to Nice University Hospital in France.[196] Also on 29 February 2020, three French nationals and one Italian resident of Ain were being hospitalised in Lausanne or other places in Switzerland.[264]

On 22 March 2020, Switzerland announced that three hospitals near the Alsace region had agreed to take in any French-based patients after Alsace officials made a request for assistance.[265] Patients from Grand Est were also taken into hospitals in Baden-Württemberg, Rhineland-Palatinate, Saarland, and Hesse in Germany.

Up to 1 April 2020 over 100 COVID-19 patients from Alsace had been transferred for treatment to Germany, Luxembourg, and Switzerland.[266]

Statistics

(Source: official daily statistics from Minister of Health[2])

Deaths from retirement homes (EHPAD) and assisted living facilities March to June 2020.



Location statistics

Death excess by town density

Death by administrative region


Apart from the Petite Couronne,[267] cases have been detected either by a late discovery[clarification needed] or by a local infection in the following departments: Gironde,[268] Haute-Savoie,[54] Bas-Rhin,[66] Val-d'Oise,[175] Hérault,[183] Finistère,[165] Lyon Metropolis,[153] Côte-d'Or,[160] Alpes-Maritimes,[193] Seine-Maritime,[179] Loire-Atlantique,[269] Ain,[270] Landes,[72] Charente-Maritime,[271] Mayenne,[192] Ille-et-Vilaine,[272] Morbihan,[163] Haut-Rhin,[170] Eure,[180] Sarthe,[191] Gard,[187] Drôme,[157] Saône-et-Loire,[162] all the departments of the region Hauts-de-France, except the Nord,[273] and in the overseas territories of Saint Barthélemy and Saint Martin.[207]

COVID-19 cases in France by region ()
Region Cases[274] Deaths[275][276]
Metropolitan France Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes 800,638 11,120
Bourgogne-Franche-Comté 227,511 4,587
Brittany 133,561 1,535
Centre-Val de Loire 168,793 2,558
Corse 14,698 198
Grand Est 406,268 9,753
Hauts-de-France 586,928 8,534
Île-de-France 1,345,397 19,250
Normandie 218,002 3,097
Nouvelle-Aquitaine 298,616 3,575
Occitanie 401,683 4,251
Pays de la Loire 218,381 2,560
Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur 542,874 7,617
Overseas territories and possessions Réunion 22,656 168
St Martin 1,745 12
Saint-Barthélemy 974 1
Martinique 11,361 84
Guadeloupe 15,204 252
Mayotte 20,094 170
Guyane 19,882 104
Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon 25 0
Nouvelle-Calédonie 124 0
Wallis-et-Futuna 454 7
Total 5,433,685 79,433
Last update 6 May 2021 (Data of 2 May 2021)


COVID-19 cases in France by region and date ()
Metropolitan France Overseas territories and possessions Confirmed cases Deaths
Date ARA BFC BRE CVL COR GES HDF IDF NOR NAQ OCC PDL PAC LRE MF BL MQ GUA MAY GF
New Total New Total
2020-01-24 2 1 3 3 0
2020-01-28 1 1 4 0
2020-01-29 1 1 5 0
2020-01-30 1 1 6 0
2020-02-08 5 5 11 0
2020-02-14 11 1 1
2020-02-15 1 1 12 1
2020-02-25 1 1 2 14 1
2020-02-26 1 1 2 4 18 1 2
2020-02-27 3 4 1 2 3 1 1 1 16 34 2
2020-02-28 2 1 1 2 2 2 3 1 14 48
2020-02-29 4 4 3 1 1 1 3 17 65
2020-03-01 5 4 44 3 2 58 123
2020-03-02 15 4 15 7 8 25 1 2 1 2 80 203
2020-03-03 3 1 2 1 1 1 9 212
2020-03-04 9 3 4 25 6 18 3 2 2 3 3 78 290
2020-03-05 15 23 6 2 3 39 9 21 4 2 1 5 2 132 422
2020-03-06 11 39 3 9 59 23 13 5 3 7 8 8 2 190 612
2020-03-07 27 28 8 5 2 114 76 89 6 18 2 12 387 999
2020-03-08 45 6 19 1 28 12 65 11 12 11 7 14 231 1230
2020-03-09 35 7 12 5 48 8 57 3 10 13 1 20 219 1449
2020-03-10 29 27 10 1 4 154 28 34 12 15 1 1 17 1 334 1783
2020-03-11 53 9 13 2 9 114 54 158 17 12 26 7 22 1 497 2280
2020-03-12 65 64 23 10 13 121 86 85 14 21 46 7 36 2 1 1 595 2875
2020-03-13 87 53 38 3 21 212 48 144 29 27 39 14 65 2 2 1 785 3660
2020-03-14 38 67 27 21 21 174 69 228 30 16 42 27 69 1 4 2 1 1 838 4498
2020-03-15 69 73 25 17 9 293 41 260 16 14 29 16 49 3 2 5 3 924 5422
2020-03-16 95 95 26 19 11 165 78 553 13 34 19 10 75 1 12 4 1210 6632
2020-03-17 92 42 14 13 19 277 27 415 18 22 49 18 73 3 1 3 9 2 1097 7729
2020-03-18 148 44 26 25 7 343 53 516 34 37 60 2 93 2 1 4 6 1401 9130
2020-03-19 291 64 27 18 3 299 152 503 6 20 62 28 100 1 1574 10704
2020-03-20 136 102 -2 29 99 387 76 609 32 26 63 27 97 2 1683 12387
2020-03-21 80 38 18 9 5 214 -2 413 20 44 48 9 77 1 974 13361
2020-03-22 145 152 27 16 -1 288 88 491 29 49 68 29 80 6 1467 14828
2020-03-23 277 121 17 53 11 475 174 862 40 75 87 56 149 2397 17225
2020-03-24 204 176 21 30 11 620 171 799 36 89 90 63 128 1 5 2444 19669
2020-03-25 360 194 44 44 22 566 168 1031 76 123 128 65 170 10 3001 22670
2020-03-26 311 163 57 54 27 529 191 1072 62 116 131 75 162 8 19 2977 25647
2020-03-27 357 107 35 69 14 498 134 1067 55 119 106 110 175 15 11 2872 28519
2020-03-28 390 117 42 68 7 521 217 1179 96 36 140 103 167 12 11 18 3124 31643
2020-03-29 298 158 53 75 -2 356 144 860 84 91 111 82 168 43 8 1 2530 34173
2020-03-30 342 107 30 130 13 458 170 1029 44 165 103 37 211 4 2 2845 37018
2020-03-31 325 110 31 66 10 609 278 1661 114 91 122 72 237 5 10 4 3745 40763
2020-04-01 413 32 63 101 606 296 1712 85 98 147 90 201 6 4 6 1 10 3871 44634
2020-04-02 307 199 82 126 491 384 1321 102 98 134 74 211 5 5 12 1 3552 48186
2020-04-03 339 132 44 94 11 504 337 1301 66 62 103 103 223 4 -1 6 9 2 3339 51525
2020-04-04 223 142 31 110 9 339 256 1030 71 57 59 80 160 3 -1 1 2 2572 54097
2020-04-05 201 95 28 57 -1 258 147 685 57 48 85 47 130 5 1 3 1846 55943
2020-04-06 204 126 71 90 -1 327 231 967 48 70 83 44 220 3 2 5 4 2494 58437
2020-04-07 233 156 38 69 2 464 341 1212 75 82 103 80 124 1 4 2 2986 61423
2020-04-08 208 114 71 103 -7 332 256 1260 46 88 63 68 184 5 4 7 2 2804 64227
Date ARA BFC BRE CVL COR GES HDF IDF NOR NAQ OCC PDL PAC LRE MF BL MQ GUA MAY GF New Total New Total
Total 6502 3198 1101 1539 384 11304 4874 23757 1452 1884 2407 1470 3945 106 5 2 102 122 45 28 - 64227
Subtotal 63817 410
Source: ARS / Santé Publique France / Ministère des Solidarités/Santé


Simulation statistics

Simulation studies helped convince the government that taking no action would result in large numbers of civilian casualties. In such a case between 30,000 and 100,000 more ICU beds would be required in the hospitals. In France there are 5,000 reanimation service [fr] beds and 7,364 ICU beds. These simulations were provided by Neil Ferguson, epidemiologist at the Imperial College London.[277]

See also

References

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  127. ^ "Décret #2020-645 complétant le décret #2020-548 du 11 mai 2020 prescrivant les mesures générales nécessaires pour faire face à l'épidémie de covid-19 dans le cadre de l'état d'urgence sanitaire". legifrance.gouv.fr. Legifrance.
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  137. ^ "Décret #2020-1262 du 16 octobre 2020 prescrivant les mesures générales nécessaires pour faire face à l'épidémie de covid-19 dans le cadre de l'état d'urgence sanitaire".
  138. ^ "Décret #2020-1294 du 23 octobre 2020 prescrivant les mesures générales nécessaires pour faire face à l'épidémie de covid-19 dans le cadre de l'état d'urgence sanitaire".
  139. ^ "Décret #2020-1310 du 29 octobre 2020 prescrivant les mesures générales nécessaires pour faire face à l'épidémie de covid-19 dans le cadre de l'état d'urgence sanitaire"..
  140. ^ "Décret #2020-1454 du 27 novembre 2020 modifiant le décret #2020-1310 du 29 octobre 2020 prescrivant les mesures générales nécessaires pour faire face à l'épidémie de covid-19 dans le cadre de l'état d'urgence sanitaire"..
  141. ^ "Décret #2020-1582 du 14 décembre 2020 modifiant les décrets #2020-1262 du 16 octobre 2020 et #2020-1310 du 29 octobre 2020 prescrivant les mesures générales nécessaires pour faire face à l'épidémie de covid-19 dans le cadre de l'état d'urgence sanitaire"..
  142. ^ "Décret #2021-31 du 15 janvier 2021 modifiant les décrets #2020-1262 du 16 octobre 2020 et #2020-1310 du 29 octobre 2020 prescrivant les mesures générales nécessaires pour faire face à l'épidémie de covid-19 dans le cadre de l'état d'urgence sanitaire"..
  143. ^ "Décret #2021-99 du 30 janvier 2021 modifiant les décrets #2020-1262 du 16 octobre 2020 et #2020-1310 du 29 octobre 2020 prescrivant les mesures générales nécessaires pour faire face à l'épidémie de covid-19 dans le cadre de l'état d'urgence sanitaire"..
  144. ^ "Décret #2021-217 du 25 février 2021 modifiant les décrets #2020-1262 du 16 octobre 2020 et #2020-1310 du 29 octobre 2020 prescrivant les mesures générales nécessaires pour faire face à l'épidémie de covid-19 dans le cadre de l'état d'urgence sanitaire"..
  145. ^ "Décret #2021-296 du 19 mars 2021 modifiant les décrets #2020-1310 du 29 octobre 2020 prescrivant les mesures générales nécessaires pour faire face à l'épidémie de covid-19 dans le cadre de l'état d'urgence sanitaire"..
  146. ^ "Décret #2021-384 du 2 avril 2021 modifiant les décrets #2020-1262 du 16 octobre 2020 et #2020-1310 du 29 octobre 2020 prescrivant les mesures générales nécessaires pour faire face à l'épidémie de covid-19 dans le cadre de l'état d'urgence sanitaire"..
  147. ^ "Décret #2021-541 du 1 mai 2021 modifiant les décrets #2020-1310 du 29 octobre 2020 prescrivant les mesures générales nécessaires pour faire face à l'épidémie de covid-19 dans le cadre de l'état d'urgence sanitaire"..
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External links

  • Data and maps, frequently updated:
    • "Coronavirus France updates and news" [Latest news and statistics of coronavirus in France.] (in English, French, Spanish, Portuguese, German, Italian, Swedish, Norwegian, Finnish, Estonian, and Russian). Retrieved 4 April 2020.