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COVID-19 pandemic in Europe

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

COVID-19 pandemic in Europe
COVID-19 outbreak Europe per capita cases map.svg
Confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infected people in relation to the population of the country (cases per 100,000 inhabitants)
Persons died due to coronavirus COVID-19 per capita in Europe.svg
Cumulative number of deaths per 100,000 inhabitants from COVID-19 in Europe.
DiseaseCOVID-19
Virus strainSARS-CoV-2
LocationEurope
First outbreakWuhan, Hubei, China[1]
Index caseBordeaux, France
Arrival date21 January 2020
(8 months and 1 day ago)
Confirmed cases2,717,490
Recovered1,622,886
Deaths
200,147
Territories
57

As of 13 March 2020, when the number of new cases became greater than those in China, the World Health Organization (WHO) began to consider Europe the active centre of the COVID-19 pandemic.[2][3] Cases by country across Europe had doubled over periods of typically 3 to 4 days, with some countries (mostly those at earlier stages of detection) showing doubling every 2 days.[4]

As of 17 March, all countries within Europe had a confirmed case of COVID-19, with Montenegro being the last European country to report at least one case.[5] At least one death has been reported in all European countries, apart from the Vatican City.

As of 18 March, more than 250 million people were in lockdown in Europe.[6]

As of 24 May, 68 days since its first recorded case, Montenegro became the first COVID-19-free country in Europe,[7][8] but this situation lasted only 44 days before a newly imported case was identified there.[9]

Statistics by country and territory

Summary table of confirmed cases in Europe (as of 12 September 2020)[10][11]
Country/Territory Cases Deaths Recoveries Ref
Russia 1,057,362 18,484 873,535 [12]
Spain 576,697 29,747 150,376 [13]
France 363,350 30,893 89,059 [14][15]
United Kingdom 365,174 41,623 no data [16]
Turkey 289,635 6,999 257,731 [17][18]
Italy 286,297 35,603 213,191 [19]
Germany 260,443 9,427 234,850 [20][21]
Ukraine 151,859 3,148 68,346 [22]
Romania 102,386 4,127 42,811 [23]
Belgium 91,537 9,919 18,689 [24]
Sweden 86,505 5,846 no data [25][26]
Netherlands 81,012 6,253 no data [27]
Belarus 73,975 744 72,547 [28]
Poland 73,650 2,182 59,725 [29]
Portugal 63,310 1,860 43,894 [30]
Switzerland 46,704 2,020 38,500 [31][32]
Moldova 42,714 1,117 30,437 [33]
Czech Republic 34,744 453 21,150 [34]
Austria 32,696 754 26,579 [35]
Serbia 32,300 731 31,100 [36]
Ireland 33,444 1,792 24,000 [37][38]
Bosnia and Herzegovina 23,138 690 15,922 [39]
Denmark 19,557 630 16,247 [40]
Bulgaria 17,799 713 12,750 [41]
North Macedonia 15,694 646 13,128 [42]
Croatia 13,368 218 10,721 [43]
Greece 13,036 302 3,804 [44][45]
Kosovo* [a] 12,683 488 8,787 [46]
Norway 12,050 265 10,371 [47][48]
Hungary 11,825 633 4,058 [49]
Albania 11,185 330 6,494 [50]
Finland 8,557 337 7,500 [51]
Luxembourg 7,159 124 6,397 [52]
Montenegro 6,530 118 4,491 [53]
Slovakia 5,453 38 3,114 [54]
Slovenia 3,603 135 2,758 [55]
Lithuania 3,296 86 2,070 [56]
Estonia 2,655 64 2,252 [57][58]
Malta 2,274 15 1,850 [59][60]
Iceland 2,161 10 2,079 [61]
Cyprus 1,520 22 1,237 [62]
Latvia 1,464 35 1,248 [63]
Andorra 1,344 53 943 [64]
San Marino 722 52 662 [65]
Faroe Islands 418 0 410 [66]
Jersey 380 32 353 [67]
Isle of Man 337 24 312 [68]
Gibraltar 327 0 294 [69]
Guernsey 253 13 238 [70]
Monaco 168 1 123 [71]
Liechtenstein 111 1 105 [72]
Åland Islands 21 0 0 [73]
Vatican City 12 0 12 [74]
Total 3,814,177 216,296 2,114,882

In late August, 88% of COVID-19 deaths in Europe were among people over age 65, according to a 30 August report from the WHO.[75]

COVID-19 cases in Europe  ()
     Deaths        Recoveries        Active cases

Jan Jan Feb Feb Mar Mar Apr Apr May May Jun Jun Jul Jul Aug Aug Last 15 days Last 15 days

Date
# of cases
# of deaths
2020-01-27 4(n.a.)
2020-01-28 8(+100%)
2020-01-29 10(+25%)
2020-01-30 11(+10%)
2020-01-31 20(+82%)
2020-02-01 23(+15%)
2020-02-02 25(+8.7%)
2020-02-03 27(+8%)
2020-02-04 28(+3.7%)
2020-02-05 28(=)
2020-02-06 29(+3.6%)
2020-02-07 32(+10%)
2020-02-08 37(+16%)
2020-02-09 38(+2.7%)
2020-02-10 43(+13%)
2020-02-11 45(+4.7%)
2020-02-12 46(+2.2%)
2020-02-13 46(=)
2020-02-14 46(=)
2020-02-15 47(+2.2%) 1(n.a.)
2020-02-16 47(=) 1(=)
2020-02-17 47(=) 1(=)
2020-02-18 47(=) 1(=)
2020-02-19 47(=) 1(=)
2020-02-20 47(=) 1(=)
2020-02-21 64(+36%) 2(+100%)
2020-02-22
106(+66%) 3(+50%)
2020-02-23
199(+88%) 4(+33%)
2020-02-24
277(+39%) 8(+100%)
2020-02-25
382(+38%) 11(+38%)
2020-02-26
541(+42%) 14(+27%)
2020-02-27
805(+49%) 19(+36%)
2020-02-28
1,101(+37%) 23(+21%)
2020-02-29
1,466(+33%) 31(+35%)
2020-03-01
2,203(+50%) 36(+16%)
2020-03-02
2,730(+24%) 55(+53%)
2020-03-03
3,359(+23%) 85(+55%)
2020-03-04
4,340(+29%) 114(+34%)
2020-03-05
5,739(+32%) 160(+40%)
2020-03-06
7,514(+31%) 216(+35%)
2020-03-07
9,651(+28%) 259(+20%)
2020-03-08
12,197(+26%) 411(+59%)
2020-03-09
14,979(+23%) 522(+27%)
2020-03-10
18,494(+23%) 716(+37%)
2020-03-11
23,506(+27%) 959(+34%)
2020-03-12
24,851(+5.7%) 966(+0.73%)
2020-03-13
36,348(+46%) 1,516(+57%)
2020-03-14
46,501(+28%) 1,812(+20%)
2020-03-15
54,865(+18%) 2,295(+27%)
2020-03-16
65,656(+20%) 2,802(+22%)
2020-03-17
76,927(+17%) 3,392(+21%)
2020-03-18
90,513(+18%) 4,011(+18%)
2020-03-19
108,980(+20%) 4,876(+22%)
2020-03-20
129,618(+19%) 6,065(+24%)
2020-03-21
151,525(+17%) 7,497(+24%)
2020-03-22
170,433(+12%) 8,836(+18%)
2020-03-23
194,465(+14%) 10,263(+16%)
2020-03-24
220,645(+13%) 12,139(+18%)
2020-03-25
250,939(+14%) 14,236(+17%)
2020-03-26
286,339(+14%) 16,464(+16%)
2020-03-27
321,506(+12%) 18,833(+14%)
2020-03-28
358,633(+12%) 21,580(+15%)
2020-03-29
386,469(+7.8%) 24,051(+11%)
2020-03-30
422,714(+9.4%) 26,784(+11%)
2020-03-31
462,047(+9.3%) 30,204(+13%)
2020-04-01
501,236(+8.5%) 33,658(+11%)
2020-04-02
541,244(+8.0%) 38,459(+14%[i])
2020-04-03
579,564(+7.1%) 42,491(+10%)
2020-04-04
615,810(+6.3%) 46,545(+9.5%)
2020-04-05
649,701(+5.5%) 49,664(+6.7%)
2020-04-06
679,154(+4.5%) 52,973(+6.7%)
2020-04-07
712,107(+4.9%) 57,966(+9.4%)
2020-04-08
749,358(+5.2%) 61,811(+6.6%)
2020-04-09
786,264(+4.9%) 66,367(+7.4%)
2020-04-10
829,826(+5.5%) 70,915(+6.9%)
2020-04-11
867,006(+4.5%) 74,470(+5%)
2020-04-12
899,943(+3.8%) 77,851(+4.5%)
2020-04-13
927,621(+3.1%) 81,013(+4.1%)
2020-04-14
960,852(+3.6%) 84,724(+4.6%)
2020-04-15
994,391(+3.5%) 89,394(+5.5%)
2020-04-16
1,030,500(+3.6%) 93,570(+4.7%)
2020-04-17
1,065,012(+3.3%) 97,459(+4.2%)
2020-04-18
1,099,626(+3.3%) 101,078(+3.7%)
2020-04-19
1,132,826(+3%) 103,931(+2.8%)
2020-04-20
1,163,340(+2.7%) 106,466(+2.4%)
2020-04-21
1,194,863(+2.7%) 110,098(+3.4%)
2020-04-22
1,225,549(+2.6%) 113,486(+3.1%)
2020-04-23
1,254,649(+2.4%) 116,504(+2.7%)
2020-04-24
1,275,321(+1.6%) 119,842(+2.9%)
2020-04-25
1,303,974(+2.2%) 122,740(+2.4%)
2020-04-26
1,329,187(+1.9%) 124,600(+1.5%)
2020-04-27
1,351,924(+1.7%) 126,755(+1.7%)
2020-04-28
1,375,029(+1.7%) 129,239(+2%)
2020-04-29
1,401,006(+1.9%) 135,871(+5.1%)
2020-04-30
1,427,457(+1.9%) 138,269(+1.8%)
2020-05-01
1,455,189(+1.9%) 140,326(+1.5%)
2020-05-02
1,479,631(+1.7%) 142,135(+1.3%)
2020-05-03
1,506,199(+1.8%) 143,784(+1.2%)
2020-05-04
1,530,263(+1.6%) 145,522(+1.2%)
2020-05-05
1,555,165(+1.6%) 147,597(+1.4%)
2020-05-06
1,586,711(+2%) 150,193(+1.8%)
2020-05-07
1,615,829(+1.8%) 152,080(+1.3%)
2020-05-08
1,642,659(+1.7%) 154,137(+1.4%)
2020-05-09
1,665,991(+1.4%) 155,299(+0.75%)
2020-05-10
1,689,705(+1.4%) 156,493(+0.77%)
2020-05-11
1,714,993(+1.5%) 157,738(+0.8%)
2020-05-12
1,738,539(+1.4%) 159,620(+1.2%)
2020-05-13
1,759,901(+1.2%) 161,115(+0.94%)
2020-05-14
1,782,396(+1.3%) 162,793(+1%)
2020-05-15
1,805,712(+1.3%) 164,308(+0.93%)
2020-05-16
1,826,985(+1.2%) 165,658(+0.82%)
2020-05-17
1,846,704(+1.1%) 166,784(+0.68%)
2020-05-18
1,864,700(+0.97%) 167,650(+0.52%)
2020-05-19
1,883,325(+1%) 168,856(+0.72%)
2020-05-20
1,899,491(+0.86%) 169,871(+0.6%)
2020-05-21
1,917,867(+0.97%) 170,925(+0.62%)
2020-05-22
1,938,904(+1.1%) 172,474(+0.91%)
2020-05-23
1,957,316(+0.95%) 173,452(+0.57%)
2020-05-24
1,974,880(+0.9%) 174,073(+0.36%)
2020-05-25
1,990,094(+0.77%) 172,739(-0.77%)
2020-05-26
2,009,554(+0.98%) 173,850(+0.64%)
2020-05-27
2,025,815(+0.81%) 174,934(+0.62%)
2020-05-28
2,047,457(+1.1%) 175,906(+0.56%)
2020-05-29
2,065,761(+0.89%) 176,908(+0.57%)
2020-05-30
2,084,121(+0.89%) 177,703(+0.45%)
2020-05-31
2,100,581(+0.79%) 178,179(+0.27%)
2020-06-01
2,111,480(+0.52%) 178,389(+0.12%)
2020-06-02
2,130,499(+0.9%) 180,008(+0.91%)
2020-06-03
2,148,448(+0.84%) 180,935(+0.51%)
2020-06-04
2,166,200(+0.83%) 181,594(+0.36%)
2020-06-05
2,184,075(+0.83%) 182,479(+0.49%)
2020-06-06
2,201,763(+0.81%) 183,130(+0.36%)
2020-06-07
2,218,429(+0.76%) 183,522(+0.21%)
2020-06-08
2,234,346(+0.72%) 183,958(+0.24%)
2020-06-09
2,250,942(+0.74%) 184,792(+0.45%)
2020-06-10
2,266,676(+0.7%) 185,572(+0.42%)
2020-06-11
2,284,256(+0.78%) 186,118(+0.29%)
2020-06-12
2,302,933(+0.82%) 186,738(+0.33%)
2020-06-13
2,320,965(+0.78%) 187,275(+0.29%)
2020-06-14
2,338,318(+0.75%) 187,582(+0.16%)
2020-06-15
2,353,967(+0.67%) 187,939(+0.19%)
2020-06-16
2,370,724(+0.71%) 188,693(+0.4%)
2020-06-17
2,388,681(+0.76%) 189,423(+0.39%)
2020-06-18
2,406,292(+0.74%) 190,026(+0.32%)
2020-06-19
2,422,316(+0.67%) 191,743(+0.9%)
2020-06-20
2,438,171(+0.65%) 192,228(+0.25%)
2020-06-21
2,452,759(+0.6%) 192,490(+0.14%)
2020-06-22
2,470,479(+0.72%) 192,810(+0.17%)
2020-06-23
2,487,150(+0.67%) 193,526(+0.37%)
2020-06-24
2,503,307(+0.65%) 194,009(+0.25%)
2020-06-25
2,519,914(+0.66%) 194,452(+0.23%)
2020-06-26
2,536,204(+0.65%) 195,047(+0.31%)
2020-06-27
2,552,033(+0.62%) 195,477(+0.22%)
2020-06-28
2,565,494(+0.53%) 195,740(+0.13%)
2020-06-29
2,582,958(+0.68%) 196,069(+0.17%)
2020-06-30
2,597,425(+0.56%) 196,609(+0.28%)
2020-07-01
2,612,967(+0.6%) 197,201(+0.3%)
2020-07-02
2,628,067(+0.58%) 197,586(+0.2%)
2020-07-03
2,613,500(-0.55%) 198,198(+0.31%)
2020-07-04
2,626,669(+0.5%) 198,580(+0.19%)
2020-07-05
2,639,197(+0.48%) 198,854(+0.14%)
2020-07-06
2,655,867(+0.63%) 199,170(+0.16%)
2020-07-07
2,669,036(+0.5%) 199,760(+0.3%)
2020-07-08
2,684,001(+0.56%) 200,288(+0.26%)
2020-07-09
2,698,841(+0.55%) 200,746(+0.23%)
2020-07-10
2,714,637(+0.59%) 201,169(+0.21%)
2020-07-11
2,728,679(+0.52%) 201,660(+0.24%)
2020-07-12
2,741,585(+0.47%) 201,914(+0.13%)
2020-07-13
2,758,022(+0.6%) 202,180(+0.13%)
2020-07-14
2,771,605(+0.49%) 202,661(+0.24%)
2020-07-15
2,787,359(+0.57%) 203,159(+0.25%)
2020-07-16
2,803,113(+0.57%) 203,589(+0.21%)
2020-07-17
2,819,733(+0.59%) 204,050(+0.23%)
2020-07-18
2,834,508(+0.52%) 204,363(+0.15%)
2020-07-19
2,847,548(+0.46%) 204,589(+0.11%)
2020-07-20
2,864,817(+0.61%) 204,823(+0.11%)
2020-07-21
2,880,748(+0.56%) 205,258(+0.21%)
2020-07-22
2,898,528(+0.62%) 205,698(+0.21%)
2020-07-23
2,917,126(+0.64%) 206,090(+0.19%)
2020-07-24
2,935,264(+0.62%) 206,547(+0.22%)
2020-07-25
2,949,475(+0.48%) 206,885(+0.16%)
2020-07-26
2,963,550(+0.48%) 202,445(-2.1%)
2020-07-27
2,977,870(+0.48%) 202,674(+0.11%)
2020-07-28
3,002,466(+0.83%) 203,011(+0.17%)
2020-07-29
3,020,256(+0.59%) 203,425(+0.2%)
2020-07-30
3,040,846(+0.68%) 203,757(+0.16%)
2020-07-31
3,063,319(+0.74%) 204,154(+0.19%)
2020-08-01
3,078,282(+0.49%) 204,400(+0.12%)
2020-08-02
3,092,739(+0.47%) 204,648(+0.12%)
2020-08-03
3,115,449(+0.73%) 204,878(+0.11%)
2020-08-04
3,138,862(+0.75%) 205,323(+0.22%)
2020-08-05
3,156,747(+0.57%) 205,688(+0.18%)
2020-08-06
3,182,883(+0.83%) 206,030(+0.17%)
2020-08-07
3,209,248(+0.83%) 206,370(+0.17%)
2020-08-08
3,225,109(+0.49%) 206,666(+0.14%)
2020-08-09
3,239,497(+0.45%) 206,874(+0.1%)
2020-08-10
3,268,865(+0.91%) 207,221(+0.17%)
2020-08-11
3,287,140(+0.56%) 207,558(+0.16%)
2020-08-12
3,313,751(+0.81%) 207,917(+0.17%)
2020-08-13
3,338,986(+0.76%) 208,330(+0.2%)
2020-08-14
3,367,976(+0.87%) 208,689(+0.17%)
2020-08-15
3,391,697(+0.7%) 209,157(+0.22%)
2020-08-16
3,407,029(+0.45%) 209,371(+0.1%)
2020-08-17
3,441,579(+1%) 209,634(+0.13%)
2020-08-18
3,464,111(+0.65%) 209,978(+0.16%)
2020-08-19
3,489,057(+0.72%) 210,439(+0.22%)
2020-08-20
3,515,608(+0.76%) 210,782(+0.16%)
2020-08-21
3,559,563(+1.3%) 211,218(+0.21%)
2020-08-22
3,573,804(+0.4%) 211,425(+0.1%)
2020-08-23
3,599,059(+0.71%) 211,785(+0.17%)
2020-08-24
3,642,767(+1.2%) 212,052(+0.13%)
2020-08-25
3,670,364(+0.76%) 212,475(+0.2%)
2020-08-26
3,702,616(+0.88%) 212,766(+0.14%)
2020-08-27
3,735,680(+0.89%) 213,166(+0.19%)
2020-08-28
3,773,176(+1%) 213,533(+0.17%)
2020-08-29
3,791,345(+0.48%) 213,847(+0.15%)
2020-08-30
3,820,332(+0.76%) 214,085(+0.11%)
2020-08-31
3,864,980(+1.2%) 214,458(+0.17%)
Sources:
  • Real-time map by Berliner Morgenpost.
  • Last updated: 26.7.2020, 20:59 UTC. Note that due to different release times throughout the day, the shown steps do not always correspond to 24 hours.

Notes:

  1. ^ Includes 884 death cases from Établissement d'hébergement pour personnes âgées dépendantes (French Old People's Homes - EHPADs), previously not taken into account in France's Statistics
Cumulative number of deaths per million inhabitants for a selection of European countries, over time. The legend is sorted in descending order of these values. Logarithmic vertical axis. Data source: ECDC.[76]
Cumulative number of deaths per million inhabitants for a selection of European countries, over time. The legend is sorted in descending order of these values. Logarithmic vertical axis. Data source: ECDC.[76]

Pandemic by country and territory

Albania

The COVID-19 pandemic in Albania is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The first case in the Republic of Albania was reported in Tirana on 8 March 2020, when a patient and its child who had come from Florence, Italy was tested positive.[77]

As of 21 September 2020, a total of 12,535 confirmed cases, 6,995 recoveries, and 364 deaths have been reported in the country.[78]

Andorra

The COVID-19 pandemic in Andorra is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus was confirmed to have reached Andorra on 2 March 2020, when a 20-year-old man returned to the country from Milan, Italy.[79] With a total population of 77,543 (as of 31 December 2019) on 26 April, the infection rate was 1 case per 105 inhabitants and the death rate was 1 case per 1,939 inhabitants.[citation needed]

Austria

The COVID-19 pandemic in Austria is part of the ongoing worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In Austria, a pair of cases were confirmed on 25 February 2020. The cases involved a 24-year-old man and a 24-year-old woman who were travelling from Lombardy, Italy, and were treated at a hospital in Innsbruck.[80][81][82][83] According to new figures released by Austrian authorities on 23 June, the first case in the country was recorded in Ischgl, Tyrol on 8 February.[84]

Belarus

The COVID-19 pandemic in Belarus is part of the ongoing worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus was confirmed to have spread to Belarus, when the first case of COVID-19 in the country was registered in Minsk on 28 February 2020.[85]

Belgium

Map of Belgium and its provinces with the spread of COVID-19 as of 9 July 2020[86]
Map of Belgium and its provinces with the spread of COVID-19 as of 9 July 2020[86]

The COVID-19 pandemic in Belgium forms part of the ongoing worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus was confirmed to have spread to Belgium on 4 February 2020, when a Belgian national out of a group of nine Belgians repatriated from Wuhan to Brussels was reported to have tested positive for the coronavirus.[87][88] Transmission within Belgium was then confirmed in early March; authorities linked this to holidaymakers returning from Northern Italy at the end of the half-term holidays.[89][90] The epidemic increased rapidly in March–April 2020. By the end of March all 10 provinces of the country had registered cases.[citation needed]

As of 25 June, the Belgian authorities had reported 61,007 confirmed cases, with a total of 9,726 deaths and at least 17,688 discharged patients. The actual number of infections, however, is likely to be much higher than the number of diagnosed cases, as laboratory tests are limited to specific people and/or people with severe symptoms, and because many people with mild or no symptoms do not seek medical help, even as they are likely to be transmitting the virus.[91]

Belgium was among the world's worst-affected countries in terms of the number of deaths per head of population (excluding microstates). For example, on 1 June 2020, it was reported that there had been 819 deaths per one million head of population, compared to 442 in France, 580 in Spain, 592 in the United Kingdom,[92] and seven in Japan.[93] However, Belgium may have been over-reporting the actual number of cases.[94] Unlike many other countries, which publish figures based primarily on confirmed hospital deaths, the death figures reported by the Belgian authorities include deaths in the community, especially in care homes, confirmed to have been caused by the coronavirus, as well as a much larger number of such deaths suspected to have been caused by the virus, even if the person was not tested.[95] Such differences in methods of counting complicate any attempt to compare death rates in different countries.

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Map of municipalities in Bosnia and Herzegovina with confirmed coronavirus cases (as of 18 July 2020)
Map of municipalities in Bosnia and Herzegovina with confirmed coronavirus cases (as of 18 July 2020)

The COVID-19 pandemic in Bosnia and Herzegovina is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus was confirmed to have reached Bosnia and Herzegovina on 5 March 2020, when a patient in Banja Luka, who had travelled to Italy, tested positive. Later on the same day, a second case, who was the son of the first case, was reported.[96] On 21 March, the first death in the country from COVID-19 was announced in a hospital in Bihać. The patient was an elderly woman who had been hospitalized two days before.[97]

As of 3 September, there were 20,892 confirmed coronavirus cases in the country, of which 7,584 were in Republika Srpska,[98][99] 12,931 in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina,[100][101] and 377 in Brčko District.[102]

On 17 March, the Council of Ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina declared a state of emergency in the entire country.[103]

Bulgaria

Rolling 14-days new cases prevalence of COVID-19 in Bulgaria by region.svg

The COVID-19 pandemic in Bulgaria is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus was confirmed to have spread to Bulgaria when the country's first cases, a 27-year-old man from Pleven and a 75-year-old woman from Gabrovo, were confirmed on 8 March 2020. Neither of the two had traveled to areas with known coronavirus cases. The man tested positive for the virus after being hospitalized for a respiratory infection, and authorities announced plans to test several people who were in contact with the two individuals.[104] Two other samples in Pleven and Gabrovo were positive on 8 March.[105] Patient zero remains unknown.[106]

After the number of patients in the country had reached 23, the Bulgarian Parliament voted unanimously to declare a state of emergency from 13 March until 13 April.[107] A 14-day preventive house quarantine was introduced for citizens who have been in contact with a COVID-19 patient or have returned from an overseas region with a high number of cases. For patients tested positive for the virus a 21-day house quarantine was introduced. This time span is counted from the day a subsequent test comes out negative after they have been treated in a hospital or at home. After the World Health Organization (WHO) has established that COVID-19 is more resilient than the initial data was showing, the National Crisis-management Staff increased the recovery house quarantine by a week to 28 days.[108] With the continuing increase of COVID-19 cases on a daily basis, the Bulgarian government requested on 1 April that Parliament extend the state of emergency by one month until 13 May.[109]

As of 21 September 2020, there are 18,863 officially confirmed cases spread throughout all Bulgarian provinces, with 761 recorded deaths and 13,580 recoveries. A total of 493,029 PCR tests (or 71,074 per million citizens) had been performed by 21 September, with 3.82% being positive.[110]

Croatia

On 25 February, Croatia confirmed its first case, a 26-year-old man who had been in Milan, Italy.[111] On 26 February, two new cases were confirmed, one being the twin brother of the first.[112] In March 2020, a cluster of cases were reported in numerous Croatian cities. On 12 March, the first recovery was reported, and on 18 March the first death from the virus was confirmed. On 19 March, the number of recorded cases surpassed 100. On 21 March, it surpassed 200. On 25 March, it surpassed 400. On 31 March, it surpassed 800. The pandemic in Croatia occurred during the Croatian Presidency of the Council of the European Union.[113]

On 22 March, an intense earthquake hit Zagreb, the capital of Croatia, causing problems in enforcement of social distancing measures set out by the Government. The earthquake could also be felt across much of Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Hungary, Slovenia, and Austria.[114][115]

According to Oxford University, as of 24 March, Croatia is the country with the world's strictest restrictions and measures for infection reduction in relation to the number of infected.[116] The government set up a website for all information about the virus and a new phone line 113 that has volunteers answering questions.[117]

Cyprus

On 9 March, Cyprus confirmed its first two cases, one in Nicosia and one in Limassol.[118][119][120]

Czech Republic

It is forbidden to enter the front section of buses of the Brno Public Transport during the pandemic (14 March 2020)
It is forbidden to enter the front section of buses of the Brno Public Transport during the pandemic (14 March 2020)

The first case was reported in the country on 1 March.[34] As of 22 March there had been 1120 confirmed cases, with one lethal outcome.[34]

On 12 March, the Czech Republic declared a 30-day state of emergency and barred entry to non-residents from China, South Korea, Iran, Italy, Spain, Austria, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, UK, Norway, Denmark and France.[121]

The Czech Republic banned people from going out in public without wearing a face mask or covering their nose and mouth.[122]

Denmark

On 27 February, Denmark confirmed its first case.[123]

As of 16 March, there have been 898 confirmed cases in Denmark, including 11 in the Faroe Islands (see below).[124]

Numerous preventive measures gradually were implemented. Starting on 13 March, schools, universities and similar places were closed, while most people in non-essential functions have been sent home to work.[125] On 14 March, the borders were closed for all entries, except Danish citizens, people with a residence permit, people with an important reason for visiting, and transport of goods.[126][121]

Estonia

On 27 February Estonia confirmed its first case, an Iranian citizen, travelling from Iran via Turkey.[127]

As of 11 March there were 17 confirmed cases in Estonia. 12 of them had returned with the infection from Northern Italy, one from France, one from Iran and one from undisclosed risk area.[128][129] First two cases of virus transmitting locally were in Saaremaa after international volleyball competition involving a team from Milan.[130]

From 12 March the virus was spreading locally. The number of infected grew fast reaching 109 on 14 March.[131]

Finland

The first case was reported in the country on 28 January.[132][133] As of 21 July there were over 7,000 confirmed cases.[134]

France

Empty supermarket shelves in Annonay, France, on 14 March 2020.
Empty supermarket shelves in Annonay, France, on 14 March 2020.

On 24 January, the first case in Europe was confirmed in Bordeaux. Two more cases were confirmed in Paris by the end of the day, all of them originated from China. A cluster of infections was discovered in Haute-Savoie which originated from a British national who had visited Singapore.[135][136][137]

From 31 January to 9 February, nearly 550 people were repatriated from Wuhan on a series of evacuation flights arriving at Creil Air Base in Oise and Istres-Le Tubé Air Base in Istres.[138]

On 14 February, an 80-year-old Chinese tourist died in Bichat–Claude Bernard Hospital, Paris, marking the first death from COVID-19 in Europe and France.[139]

According to regional council president Jean Rottner, the starting point for the first intense wave in Alsace was the Fasting Meeting of the Protestant Free Church of La Porte Ouverte in Mulhouse, with more than 2500 visitors, in mid-February.[140] On 12 March, French president Emmanuel Macron announced on public television that all schools and all universities would close from Monday 16 March until further notice. The next day, the Prime Minister Édouard Philippe banned gatherings of more than 100 people, not including public transportation. The following day, the prime minister ordered the closure of all nonessential public places, including restaurants, cafés, cinemas, and discothèques, effective at midnight.[141]

As of 14 March, there had been 4,499 confirmed cases (a near-four-fold increase over the number 5 days previously), and 91 deaths in France.[142]

As of 20 March, the number of confirmed cases had risen to 12,612, while the number of deaths reached 450.[citation needed] As of 30 March, more than six hundred doctors and other medical workers are suing the former Minister of Health and the Prime Minister for "culpable negligence" in failing to prepare for the epidemic.[143]

Until 1 April, the daily update of the number of deaths in France included only deaths in hospitals, with deaths in retirement homes or at home not included in the update.[144] Deaths in retirement homes were included in the reported figures from 2 April, causing totals to increase substantially.[145]

On 4 May, retroactive testing of samples in one French hospital showed a patient "who had COVID-19 as early as Dec. 27, nearly a month before the French government confirmed its first cases."[146] According to the researchers who reported the discovery, this indicates that the virus was present in the population well before the first confirmed cases, a finding also echoed by US researchers.[147] In July 2020, Prime Minister of France Jean Castex, announced that health care pay workers will see $9 billion in pay raises, as a result of their efforts during the corornavirus pandemic.[148]

Germany

In Germany, the first case of COVID-19 was recorded in the state of Bavaria on 27 January 2020. Daily case numbers began to decrease after 8 April. As of 19 April 2020, 145,742 cases have been reported with 4,642 deaths and approximately 81,800 recoveries.[149][150][151][152] That makes Germany the world's 4th and Europe's 3rd worst-hit country in terms of total cases. The coronavirus mortality rate is, however, reported comparatively lesser at 1.3%, ranking 8th in the world and 5th in Europe in the total number of deaths.[153] The low preliminary fatality rate in Germany, compared to Italy and Spain, has resulted in a discussion and explanations that cite among others the country's higher number of tests performed, absence of COVID-19 analyses in autopsies and higher proportion of positive cases among younger people. Hessian state finance minister Thomas Schäfer committed suicide on 28 March 2020. News reports about the causes for his decision to end his life cited stress and worries over the state of the country's economic situation due to COVID-19,[154] and handling the developing pandemic.[155]

Greece

On 26 February, the first case in Greece was confirmed, a 38-year-old woman from Thessaloniki who had recently visited Northern Italy.[156] The next day, the first patient's 9-year-old child and another 40-year-old woman, who had travelled to Italy, also tested positive.[157][158][159] Subsequent cases is Greece were mainly related to people who had travelled to Italy and a group of pilgrims who had travelled to Israel and Egypt, as well as their contacts.[160][161] Health and state authorities issued precautionary guidelines and recommendations, while measures up to that point were taken locally and included the closure of schools and the suspension of cultural events in the affected areas (particularly Ilia, Achaea and Zakynthos).[161] The first confirmed death from COVID-19 in Greece was a 66-year-old man, who died on 12 March.[162]

By 27 July there were 4,227 confirmed cases in Greece, some of which detected among tourists arriving to the country from mid-June onwards, 202 deaths and 3,562 recoveries.[44][45] The Greek National Public Health Organization (NPHO), in collaboration with local authorities and doctors, is tracking and testing everyone who came in close contact with the patients.[163][164] By 10 March, with 89 confirmed cases and no deaths in the country, the government decided to suspend the operation of educational institutions of all levels nationwide and then, on 13 March, to close down all cafes, bars, museums, shopping centres, sports facilities and restaurants in the country.[165][166] On 16 March, all retail shops were also closed and all services in all areas of religious worship of any religion or dogma were suspended.[167][168] On 18 and 19 March, the government announced a series of measures of more than 10 billion euros to support the economy, businesses and employees.[169]

On 22 March the Greek authorities announced significant restrictions on all nonessential transport and movement across the country, starting from 6 a.m. on 23 March.[170] Starting from 4 May, Greece has begun easing its lockdown restrictions after a 42-day lockdown, with the gradual lifting of movement restrictions and restart of business activity.[171]

Guernsey

On 9 March, the first case in the Crown dependency was confirmed.[172] On 27 May it was announced that there were no known active cases in the Bailiwick.[173] There were no active cases for 129 days before an arrival from the UK tested positive on 6 September.[174]

Hungary

On 4 March Prime Minister Viktor Orbán announced that two Iranian students had been infected with the virus.[175] The students are asymptomatic and have been transported to Saint Ladislaus Hospital in Budapest.[175]

Iceland

The first case was confirmed in Iceland on 28 February, an Icelandic male in his forties who had been on a ski trip to Andalo in Northern Italy and returned home on 22 February.[176]

Iceland's Department of Civil Protection and Emergency Management declared a state of emergency on 6 March after two cases of community transmission in Iceland were confirmed, bringing the total number of confirmed cases to 43.[177] On 13 March, it was announced at an official press conference that a four-week ban on public gatherings of more than 100 persons would be put into effect as of Monday 16 March. Universities and secondary schools will be closed for four weeks. International airports and harbours will remain exempt from these measures.[178]

Ireland

Number of cases (blue), number of deaths (red) and reported deaths last ten days (dotted black) in Ireland on a logarithmic scale
Number of cases (blue), number of deaths (red) and reported deaths last ten days (dotted black) in Ireland on a logarithmic scale

The National Public Health Emergency Team of Ireland announced the first case in the Republic of Ireland on 29 February, involving a male student from the east of the country, who had arrived there from Northern Italy.[179][180][181] On 3 March, a second case was confirmed of a female in the east of the country who had been to Northern Italy.[182] Response to the outbreak has included cancellation of St Patrick's Day parades and all festivals.[183] On 11 March, an elderly patient in Naas General Hospital in County Kildare became Ireland's first fatality from the virus.[184] On 12 March, Taoiseach Leo Varadkar announced the closure of all schools, colleges and childcare facilities.[185] On 20 March, an emergency legislation was signed into law by President Michael D. Higgins giving the state permission to detain people, restrict travel and keep people in their homes to help combat the spread of the pandemic.[186]

Lockdown

On 27 March, Taoiseach Leo Varadkar announced a national stay-at-home order. All non-essential shops and services, including all pubs, bars, hotels and nightclubs closed and all public and private gatherings of any number of people was banned.[187][188]

Starting from 18 May there has been staged easing of restrictions.[189]

As of 22 September, the Department of Health have confirmed 33,444 confirmed cases and 1,792 deaths.[190]

Italy

Paramedics carrying a patient under biocontainment, in Cervia, Emilia-Romagna
Paramedics carrying a patient under biocontainment, in Cervia, Emilia-Romagna

On 31 January, the first two cases were confirmed in Rome. Two Chinese tourists, who arrived in Milan on 23 January via Milan Malpensa Airport and travelled to Rome on a tourist bus, tested positive for and were hospitalised in Lazzaro Spallanzani National Institute for Infectious Diseases.[191]

On 6 February, one of the Italians repatriated from Wuhan, China, tested positive, bringing the total number of cases in Italy to three.[192] On 22 February, the repatriated Italian recovered and was discharged from the hospital.[193] On 22 and 26 February, the two Chinese tourists hospitalized in Rome tested negative.[194]

On 21 February, a cluster of cases was detected starting with 16 confirmed cases in Lombardy,[195] with additional 60 cases on 22 February,[196] and Italy's first deaths reported on the same day.[197] As of late February, Italy was hit harder than anywhere else in the EU by the COVID-19 outbreak.[198]

As of 17 March 2020, there have been 2,503 deaths and 31,506 confirmed cases.[199] By 15 May 2020, there had been 223,885 cases and 31,610 deaths, according to Protezione Civile bulletins.

On 3 June 2020 Italy reopens its borders to EU residents and ends travel restrictions and on 13 July 2020 the Head of the ICU at a Bergamo hospital says former patients treated for COVID-19 develop serious long-term health issues.[200]

Lockdown

On 8 March, Italian prime minister Giuseppe Conte signed a decree enacting a quarantine for the entire region of Lombardy – home to more than 10 million people and the financial capital, Milan – and multiple other provinces, totalling around 16 million residents. The lockdown decree included the power to impose fines on anyone caught entering or leaving Lombardy, the worst-affected region, until 3 April.[201]

On 9 March, the lockdown orders were extended to the whole of Italy, effectively quarantining more than 60 million people.[202]

Jersey

The first case was recognised on 10 March which resulted within days in flights and ferries being cancelled except for essential travel and freight, thus isolating the island by the end of March.[203][204] By 30 June there were no active cases although there have since been small numbers of cases brought into the island when lockdown was relaxed and travel permitted.

Kosovo

The first two cases in Kosovo[a] were reported on 13 March. In the ten-day period 13–23 March, the number of positive cases with coronavirus rose to 35. In midnight of 23 March 26 new cases were confirmed, bringing the total number of cases to 61.[205] On 25 March, the government collapsed with a vote of no confidence in Prime Minister Albin Kurti.[206]

Latvia

Confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Latvia by municipalities.
Confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Latvia by municipalities.

The COVID-19 pandemic was confirmed to have reached Latvia on 2 March 2020.[207][208]

On 13 March, the government closed all educational institutions and banned mass gatherings until 14 April, which was later extended to 12 May. Many concerts and events were cancelled and moved to other dates. As of 20 March at least 1,600 culture and entertainment events had been disrupted.[209]

Liechtenstein

The first case was reported in the country on 3 March.[210]

Lithuania

The first case was reported in the country on 28 February. By 17 March there were 21 cases, mostly in Vilnius, Kaunas and Klaipėda. The first infected Lithuanian recovered on 14 March.[211]

Luxembourg

The first case was reported in the country on 29 February. Positive cases exceeded 6,600 on 30 June.

Malta

On 7 March, Malta reported its first 3 cases of coronavirus: an Italian family consisting of a 12-year-old girl and her parents, who arrived in Malta on 3 March from Rome after a holiday in Trentino.[212]

Moldova

Map of cases of COVID-19 in Moldova(22 August 2020)
Map of cases of COVID-19 in Moldova
(22 August 2020)

The COVID-19 pandemic in Moldova is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus was confirmed to have reached the Republic of Moldova on 7 March 2020, when a Moldovan woman that returned from Italy was tested positive for the novel coronavirus. As the number of infected people started to rise during the next days, on 17 March 2020 the Parliament declared the state of emergency for the entire territory of the Republic of Moldova for a period of 60 days (17 March - 15 May 2020). On 18 March 2020 the first death caused by COVID-19 was registered. On 23 March 2020 the total number of confirmed cases surpassed 100 and on 7 April 2020 this number exceeded 1000. By 10 April 2020, cases had been confirmed in all the regions of the country, including the Transnistrian region. On 27 April 2020, the total number of deaths surpassed 100.

On 15 May 2020, in the last day of the state of emergency declared by the Parliament on 17 March 2020, the Extraordinary National Commission of Public Health declared the state of emergency in public health for the entire territory of the Republic of Moldova for the period of 16 May - 30 June 2020. On 9 June 2020 the total number of confirmed cases surpassed 10,000. On 1 September 2020, the number of deaths surpassed 1,000. As of 21 September 2020, there have been registered 46,796 confirmed cases in the country, out of which 35,018 patients recovered and 1,211 died.

Monaco

The first case was reported in the country on 29 February.[213][214]

Montenegro

Map of cases of COVID-19 in Montenegro.
Map of cases of COVID-19 in Montenegro.

The COVID-19 pandemic was confirmed to have spread to Montenegro when its first case was confirmed on 17 March 2020,[215][216] making it the last European country to register a case of SARS-CoV-2.[217]

As of 7 September 2020, the total number of cases in Montenegro is 5,875.[218]

On 24 May 2020, 68 days after the first case was recorded in Montenegro, it became the first corona-free country in Europe.[219][220] Within the first outbreak, indexed cases counted 9% of the total reported, 80% of cases were infected due to contact with primary cases, while the origin of infection of the other 11% of cases was not certain.[221] The Government of Montenegro estimated that the country needs EUR 59.2 million private and international relief to address the health, social and economical impact of COVID-19.[222]

Montenegro had no active cases from 24 May until 14 June when the first imported case was reported.

Netherlands

On 27 February, the Netherlands confirmed its first case, a man who had been in the Lombardy region of Italy.[223]

On 6 March, RIVM announced the first death.[224]

On 9 March, RIVM announced 56 more confirmed cases in addition to the total of the 77 infected patients declared in the previous day, bringing the total to 321 infected and 3 dead.[225]

On 15 March, the Dutch government announced in a press conference that all schools, day care facilities, colleges, universities, and universities of applied sciences would close until 6 April, though children of parents in vital industries could still go to school or the day care if they could not be taken care of otherwise.[226]

As of 16 March, the total number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 had risen to 1,413 and the total number of confirmed deaths had risen to 24. This was an increase of 278 infections and 4 deaths in comparison to 15 March.[227]

On the same date, the Prime Minister of the Netherlands, Mark Rutte, had announced that the country would not go into complete lockdown. Instead the situation would be controlled as much as possible by delaying the spread of the virus, relying on measures taken earlier by the government, such as social distancing and prohibiting gatherings of 100 people and over.[228] It is expected the coronavirus will keep spreading and a large part of the population will become infected. Instead of opting to lock down the Netherlands for the time required, which would have many (negative) consequences while the benefits remain uncertain and would have to stay in place, it will be attempted to build herd immunity in a controlled manner. Depending on how the virus behaves, the government will decide if additional measures are required.[228][229]

Further measures were introduced on 23 March. All events will be banned until 1 September. Gatherings of more than three people, except for families, are prohibited. City mayors received greater authorization to enforce the rules. Fines will be issued to those not complying with the new rules.[230]

North Macedonia

On 26 February, North Macedonia confirmed its first case, a woman that had returned from Italy.[231] On 10 March every school, kindergarten and university was closed. As of 24 August, the country has reported 13,595 cases, 564 deaths and a total of 10,110 recovered.[232]

To stop the spreading of the virus, the country had a strict 61 hour curfew every weekend. For holidays, as Easter the country had a 85-hour curfew.[233][234] Furthermore, the state of emergency which had expired was extended for 14 more days until 30 May, and then again for 14 more days until 13 June.[235]

Norway

Separation of an area near the driver, bus in Trondheim, 15 March
Separation of an area near the driver, bus in Trondheim, 15 March

On 26 February, Norway confirmed its first case, in a person who had returned from China the previous week.[236][237]

On 7 March, there were 147 confirmed cases in Norway. Most of the cases could either be linked to outbreaks abroad or close encounters with these. Altogether 89 have been infected on travel in Italy.[238]

On 12 March 2020, all kindergartens, schools, colleges and universities were closed until at least 26 March 2020.[239]

Poland

An animated map of the confirmed SARS-CoV-2 cases
An animated map of the confirmed SARS-CoV-2 cases
Per capita map of SARS-CoV-2 cases in Poland
Per capita map of SARS-CoV-2 cases in Poland

The COVID-19 pandemic in Poland is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In February and March 2020, health authorities in Poland carried out laboratory testing of suspected cases of infection by SARS-CoV-2, one of the seven known human coronaviruses, as well as home quarantining and monitoring.[240][241] The first case of a laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in Poland was that of a man hospitalised in Zielona Góra, with confirmation announced officially on 4 March 2020.[242][243] The local transmission phase of SARS-CoV-2 in Poland was declared to the World Health Organization on 10 March.[244][245] The first death from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Poland was that of a 56-year-old woman on 12 March.[246] Polish authorities did not participate in the 28 February 2020 European Union tender procedure for purchasing COVID-19 pandemic related medical equipment, in which 20 other member states participated. Poland applied on 6 March for the 17 March tender for the purchase of gloves, goggles, face shields, surgical masks, and protective clothing. The European Commission stated that all requests in the tender were satisfied by offers.[247]

As of 22 September 2020, a total of 80,699 laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 cases, 64,972 recoveries, and 2,316 deaths have been reported in the country.[248][249]

Lockdown-type control measures started on 10–12 March, closing schools and university classes and cancelling mass events,[250][251][252] and were strengthened on 25 March, limiting non-family gatherings to two people and religious gatherings to six and forbidding non-essential travel.[253] On 20 March, the Ministry of Health tried to prevent medical personnel from commenting on the pandemic. The Polish Ombudsman Adam Bodnar defended medical personnel's right to speak publicly about the epidemic on constitutional grounds of freedom of speech and the right of the public to information. Doctors opposed the self-censorship orders.[254] Fatality counts initially only included deaths from lab-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (U07.1[255]).[256] Starting on 1 April 2020, fatalities that were clinically or epidemiologically diagnosed as COVID-19 (U07.2)[255]) were also considered as COVID-19 deaths by NIPH–NIH.[257] As of 28 March 2020, people in Poland who died in quarantine from suspected COVID-19 were not tested post mortem for SARS-CoV-2.[258] As of 29 March 2020, there were 269,307 people under quarantine for suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection and 42,783 SARS-CoV-2 tests had been made since the beginning of testing.[259] The lockdown restrictions were tightened starting on 31 March–1 April by a government regulation, requiring individuals walking in streets to be separated by two metres, closing parks, boulevards, beaches, hairdressers and beauty salons, and forbidding unaccompanied minors from exiting their homes.[260] A followup regulation on 10 April loosened the restrictions on public gatherings starting from 20 April, allowing religious gatherings and funerals to be held for up to a maximum of 50 people.[261]

Portugal

On 2 March, the first two cases were confirmed in Portugal, both in the city of Porto. One was a doctor who had returned from holiday in northern Italy, and the other a worker from Spain.[262][263]

On 18 March, the President of the Republic, Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa, declared the entirety of the Portuguese territory in a state of emergency for the following fifteen days, with the possibility of renewal, the first since the Carnation Revolution in 1974.[264]

On 24 March the Portuguese Government admitted that the country could not contain anymore the COVID-19 as it is wide spreading and will enter the 'Mitigation Phase' on 26 March.[265]

Romania

Cases per 100,000 residents by county
Cases per 100,000 residents by county

The COVID-19 pandemic in Romania is part of the ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus was confirmed to have reached Romania on 26 February 2020, when the first case in Gorj County was confirmed.[266]

As of 1 August, the Government of Romania reports 4,342 people institutionalized, a further 20,852 at home under medical supervision, of which 4,742 have tested positive, and over one million tests having been processed.[267]

Russia

Russian President Vladimir Putin visits coronavirus patients at Moscow hospital on 24 March
Russian President Vladimir Putin visits coronavirus patients at Moscow hospital on 24 March

Russia implemented preventive measures to curb the spread of COVID-19 in the country by imposing quarantines, carrying raids on potential virus carriers and using facial recognition to impose quarantine measures.[268]

On 2 March, Western Russia confirmed its first case in Moscow Oblast.[269][270] Previously on 31 January Russia confirmed first two cases in its Asian part, one in Tyumen Oblast and another in Zabaykalsky Krai. Both were Chinese nationals, who have since recovered.[271][268]

On 7 March, four new cases were confirmed, three was in Lipetsk and one in Saint Petersburg. All people visited Italy in the previous two weeks.[272]

On 8 March, three news cases were confirmed, in Moscow, Belgorod and Kaliningrad Oblasts. All people returned from Italy.[273]

On 10 March, Moscow Mayor Sergey Sobyanin signed a decree for banning mass events in Moscow with more than 5000 participants from 10 March to 10 April.[274]

By 15 April, cases were confirmed in all of Western Russia's federal subjects with the confirmation of the first case in Nenets Autonomous Okrug.

San Marino

On 27 February, San Marino confirmed its first case, an 88-year-old man with pre-existing medical conditions, who came from Italy. He was hospitalised at a hospital in Rimini, Italy.[275] As of 25 March 2020: With 700 confirmed cases out of a population of 33,344 (as of 2018), it is the country with the highest percentage of confirmed cases per capita at 2.1% – 1 confirmed case per 48 inhabitants.[276] Also, with 42 confirmed deaths, the country has the highest rate of confirmed deaths per capita at 0.126% of the total population – 1 death per 794 inhabitants.[276]

Serbia

Disinfection of housing in Serbia during the COVID-19 pandemic

On 29 February, a massive infection occurred in the town of Valjevo after a private party involving a guest from Austria who had previously stayed in Italy.[277][278] On 6 March, the first case was confirmed in Serbia by Minister of Health Zlatibor Lončar,[279] of a man who had traveled to Budapest.[280] President Aleksandar Vucic and the Government of the Republic of Serbia introduced a state of emergency on 15 March. Two days later, curfew and quarantine were introduced as safeguards against massive infection.[citation needed]

Slovakia

A queue of cars and trucks waiting to cross the Slovak border on 13 March
A queue of cars and trucks waiting to cross the Slovak border on 13 March
People in Bratislava wearing masks on 16 March
People in Bratislava wearing masks on 16 March

On 6 March Slovakia confirmed its first case, a 52-year-old man from a small village near Bratislava. He had not travelled anywhere in recent weeks but his son, who didn't show any symptoms, had visited Venice.[281] On 7 March, the virus was also confirmed in his wife and son.[282]

Slovenia

On 4 March Slovenia confirmed its first case. A patient of about 60 years of age had returned from Morocco few days earlier (via Italy) and was admitted to a hospital in Ljubljana.[283][284]

On 6 March, a total of eight cases were reported, three of them medical professionals, who contracted the virus on holiday in Italy. By 9 March 16 people were confirmed to be infected.[citation needed]

Spain

Television cameras covering the first coronavirus cases in a hospital in Valencia
Television cameras covering the first coronavirus cases in a hospital in Valencia

On 31 January, Spain confirmed its first case, in the Canary Island of La Gomera. A tourist from Germany tested positive and was admitted to University Hospital of the Nuestra Señora de Candelaria.[285][286][287] On 19 February, 2,500 football fans from Valencia attended a Champions League game in Bergamo, the hot spot of the outbreak in Italy.[288]

On 24 February, a medical doctor from Lombardy, Italy who was vacationing in Tenerife, tested positive at the University Hospital of the Nuestra Señora de Candelaria in Spain.[289][290] Afterwards, multiple cases were detected in Tenerife involving people who had come in contact with the doctor. Other cases involving individuals who visited Italy were also discovered on Spanish mainland.[291]

On Saturday 14 March, the Spanish government imposed a nationwide quarantine, banned all trips that are not necessary and announced that companies may be intervened to guarantee supplies.[292][293] However, with universities and schools closed earlier that week, bars and parks were full, and due to slow enactment "part of the population of Madrid and other cities had dispersed across the country".[288] As of 17 March 2020, there had been 11,826 confirmed cases with 1,028 recoveries and 533 deaths in Spain.[294]

On 28 March, the Spanish government tightened up its national lockdown, ordering all non-essential workers to stay at home for the next two weeks.[295] Nearly 900,000 workers lost their jobs in Spain since it went into lockdown in mid-March 2020.[296]

Sweden

On 31 January, Sweden confirmed its first case. A woman in her 20s, who had visited Wuhan, tested positive and was admitted at Ryhov County Hospital in Jönköping.[297][298]

On 26 February, following the outbreak in Italy and in Iran, infection clusters originating from these two countries appeared in Sweden.[299] A number of individuals in Västra Götaland, Jönköping, Stockholm and Uppsala tested positive and were admitted to the infectious disease units in the respective counties.[300]

The country's first fatality came on 11 March, that of a man in Stockholm over 60 who had other illnesses prior to infection.

As of 12 March, national testing strategy shifted to only the elderly, the severely ill, and healthcare personnel. The official recommendation for symptoms that were not serious, as of 13 March, was to stay at home and not visit healthcare. This has led to statistics becoming less useful.[301]

As of 14 March 924 people were reported as having become infected. The Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Sweden made the recommendation to refrain from unnecessary travel to all countries.[citation needed]

Switzerland

On 25 February, following the outbreak in Italy, Switzerland confirmed its first case, a 70-year-old man in the Italian-speaking canton of Ticino, who had previously visited Milan.[302][303] Afterwards, multiple cases related to the Italy clusters were discovered in multiple cantons including Basel-City, Zürich and Graubünden.[304][305][306] Multiple isolated cases not related to the Italian clusters were also confirmed.[307]

On 28 February, the Federal Council announced an immediate ban on all events with more than 1,000 participants.[308]

As of 10 March, there were 500 confirmed cases in Switzerland.[309] On 16 March 2020, the Federal Council announced[310] further measures, and a revised ordinance.[311] Measures include the closure of bars, shops and other gathering places until 19 April, but leaves open certain essentials, such as grocery stores, pharmacies, (a reduced) public transport and the postal service.[312] Those measures were prolonged until 26 April 2020.[313]

Turkey

Confirmed cases per 100k inhabitants by NUTS-1 regions as of 9 September 2020    .mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;width:1.5em;height:1.5em;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{font-size:95%}  750+   300–750   200–300     150–200   <150
Confirmed cases per 100k inhabitants by NUTS-1 regions as of 9 September 2020

The COVID-19 pandemic in Turkey is part of the ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease was confirmed to have reached Turkey on 11 March 2020, after a man who had returned to Turkey from Europe, tested positive.[314] The first death due to COVID-19 in the country occurred on 15 March 2020 and by 1 April, it was confirmed that COVID-19 had spread all over Turkey.[315] On 14 April 2020, the head of the Turkish Ministry of Health Fahrettin Koca announced that the spread of the virus in Turkey has reached its peak in the fourth week and started to slow down.[316]

As of 22 September 2020, the total number of confirmed cases in the country is over 306,300. Among these cases, 269,600 have recovered and 7,600 have died.[317] On 18 April 2020, the total number of positive test results surpassed that of Iran, making it the highest in the Middle East.[318][319] Turkey also surpassed China in confirmed total cases on 20 April 2020.[320] The rapid increase of the confirmed cases in Turkey did not overburden the public healthcare system,[321] and the preliminary case-fatality rate remained lower compared to many European countries.[322][323] Discussions mainly attributed these to the country's relatively young population and high number of available intensive care units.[324][325]

Ukraine

Number of confirmed cases by oblast
Number of confirmed cases by oblast

The COVID-19 pandemic in Ukraine is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus was confirmed to have spread to Ukraine when the country's first case was confirmed to be hospitalized in Chernivtsi Oblast on 3 March 2020,[326] a man who had travelled from Italy to Romania by plane and then arrived in Ukraine by car.[327]

An emergency was declared on 20 March in Kyiv Oblast, Chernivtsi Oblast, Zhytomyr Oblast, Dnipropetrovsk Oblast, Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast, and the city of Kyiv.[328]

Statistics for the Russian-held Autonomous Republic of Crimea and city of Sevastopol, and for the unrecognized Donetsk People's Republic and Luhansk People's Republic in eastern Ukraine, are not reported by Ukraine's state agencies, and not included in the country's totals.[329]

United Kingdom

Man in London wearing a face mask on 19 March
Man in London wearing a face mask on 19 March

On 31 January, England confirmed the first two cases, both members of a family of Chinese nationals staying in a hotel in York who were taken to specialist facilities in Newcastle upon Tyne.[330] Afterwards, several confirmed cases were detected across the UK.[331][332][333] The UK government implemented preventive measures to curb the spread of infections which included contact tracing, isolation and testing, some of which were related to the Italy clusters.[334][335][336] The NHS set up drive-through screening centres at several hospitals to test members of the public showing symptoms.[337][338] This effort was later replaced with screening focused on diagnosing patients in secondary care.[citation needed]

On 2 March, Ministers approved the Department of Health and Social Care coronavirus action plan,[339] which sets out actions to date, future measures, cooperation between devolved political and health authorities, and the level of preparedness of the country's four National Health Services. It outlined the government's objectives to deploy phased actions to Contain, Delay, and Mitigate any outbreak, using Research to inform policy development.[340]

On 25 March, the UK Parliament legislated to provide the government and authorities with emergency powers to handle the 2020 coronavirus pandemic, such as the power to restrict public gatherings, order businesses to close, and the ability to detain those suspected of having the virus.[341] The Coronavirus Act 2020 received Royal Assent on 25 March and came into force on the same day.[342]

On 5 April, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Boris Johnson was admitted to hospital after testing positive to coronavirus 10 days earlier.[343] He was admitted into intensive care the following night, when his symptoms further worsened.[344] He left hospital on 12 April.[345]

As of 6 May, the total of confirmed cases was 201,101; the total of recorded deaths in all settings was 30,076, the highest in Europe and second highest in all the countries after United States. However, the death toll did not continue to increase throughout the summer, and Brazil and Mexico now have more deaths as of 1 August 2020.[346]

Vatican City

The Holy See reported the first case of infection in Vatican City during the COVID-19 pandemic at the end of March 2020.[347] Unlike other jurisdictions that report cases within a given territory or cases of residents or citizens of a territory, the Holy See reports on cases "in Vatican City State and among the employees of the Holy See" regardless of location of testing, treatment, or residence.[348] There were 12 confirmed cases of COVID-19 among the Vatican's residents and employees; there were no associated deaths.[349] The 12 cases included 10 employees, 1 new hire, and 1 resident of Vatican City.[b] All those infected tested negative by 6 June 2020.[350]

In late February, Pope Francis became ill with symptoms of a cold, but he tested negative for COVID-19.[351]

Pandemic development graphs

Confirmed cases and deaths by date

Confirmed cases by date


Deaths by date

Total confirmed cases since first day of the outbreak

Growth rates comparison since outbreak

Syncing the start date to the 10th case, comparing the daily growth in cases

Syncing the start date to the 10th case, comparing the daily deaths

Daily new cases; syncing the start date to the 100th case:

Daily new cases; syncing the start date to the 500th case:

Response and criticism

Timeline of interventions

Immigrants and refugees

European Union closed borders to non-nationals on 17 March. The next day, Greece imposed restrictions on refugees’ movement within camps.[352] Thousands of asylum seekers are living in crowded camps, and there are fears that pandemic could not be controlled under such conditions. The Greek prime minister K. Mitsotakis said that Europe should do more to help because Greece "cannot resolve this crisis instantly and alone".[353] Unnamed Greek officials have stated concerns that Turkey may send infected refugees and migrants towards the islands.[354][355][356] Early in April Malta and Italy closed their ports to vessels carrying asylum seekers from North Africa.[357]

Criticism

Travel bans and border closures

Although by 7 March some European politicians such as France's Marine Le Pen had called for Europe's internal borders to be temporarily closed,[358] the European Union by 13 March continued to reject the idea of suspending the Schengen free travel area and introducing border controls with Italy.[359][360][361][362] The deputy leader of the Swiss Ticino League, Lorenzo Quadri, by 29 February had criticised the decision: "It is alarming that the dogma of wide-open borders is considered a priority."[363] United States President Donald Trump said by 12 March the European Union had "failed to take the same precautions and restrict travel from China and other hot spots" as the US had implemented.[364] Trump also said that "As a result a large number of new clusters in the United States were seeded by travellers from Europe."[365] Research on coronavirus genomes indicates the majority of COVID-19 cases in New York came from European travelers, rather than directly from China or any other Asian country.[366]

By 9 March Czech Prime Minister Andrej Babiš stated that "European countries cannot ban the entry of Italian citizens within the Schengen area. The only possible way is to have the Italian prime minister call on his fellow citizens to refrain from traveling to other countries of the European Union."[367]

After Slovakia, Denmark, the Czech Republic and Poland announced complete closure of their national borders, the European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen said by 12 March that "Certain controls may be justified, but general travel bans are not seen as being the most effective by the World Health Organization. Moreover, they have a strong social and economic impact, they disrupt people’s lives and business across the borders."[368] European Union leaders condemned the US decision to restrict travel from Europe to the United States. European Council President Charles Michel and Ursula von der Leyen said in a joint statement: "The European Union disapproves of the fact that the US decision to impose a travel ban was taken unilaterally and without consultation."[369] Ursula von der Leyen admitted by 17 March that "all of us who are not experts initially underestimated the coronavirus."[370]

EU solidarity

The Italian government has criticised EU's lack of solidarity with Italy.[371][372][373] Politico reported on 7 March that "EU countries have so far refused Italy's plea for help fighting coronavirus, as national capitals worry that they may need to stockpile face masks and other medical gear to help their own citizens, officials and diplomats said."[374] Maurizio Massari, Italy's ambassador to the EU, said that "Only China responded bilaterally. Certainly, this is not a good sign of European solidarity."[375] Serbian President Aleksandar Vučić said that "European solidarity does not exist. That was a fairy tale."[375]

International Women's Day march in Mérida, Spain, 8 March[376]
International Women's Day march in Mérida, Spain, 8 March[376]

Reaction time of Spain

According to The Guardian, Spain's initially slow response to the coronavirus caused the epidemic to become severe even though it did not share a land border with Italy or other severely affected countries.[377] An analysis in Vox hypothesised that the minority government did not want to risk its hold on power by banning large gatherings early; Prime Minister Pedro Sánchez initially defended his decision to allow large gatherings to continue.[378]

Military exercises during pandemic

The planned NATO "Defender 2020" military exercise in Germany, Poland, and the Baltic states,[379] the largest NATO war manoeuvres since the end of the Cold War, was to be held on a reduced scale because of the coronavirus pandemic.[380] The Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament's general secretary Kate Hudson criticised the Defender 2020 exercise: "In the current public-health crisis, it jeopardises the lives not only of the troops from the US and the many European countries participating but the inhabitants of the countries in which they are operating."[381]

Restrictions on civil liberties

Regarding some European countries with right-wing governments, there was concern that measures taken on occasion of the COVID-19 pandemic would have the aim of restricting of democracy and civil liberties and rights. In Hungary, prime minister Viktor Orban acquired absolute powers through such legislation on 3 April.[382]

Use of scientific advice

The European Union's Chief Scientific Advisors issued a statement on 24 June 2020, providing guidance for how scientific advice should be given and interpreted during the pandemic. One key point made by the Advisors was that scientists must be clearer about the degree of uncertainty that characterises the evolving evidence on which their advice is based, for instance around the use of face-masks. They also emphasised that scientific advice must be separated from decision-making, and this separation must be made clear by politicians.[383]

Notes

  1. ^ a b Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the 2013 Brussels Agreement. Kosovo is currently recognized as an independent state by 98 out of the 193 United Nations member states. In total, 113 UN member states recognized Kosovo at some point, of which 15 later withdrew their recognition.
  2. ^ Unlike other governments, the Holy See Press Office reports on diagnoses and status of its employees, not only cases within its jurisdiction. Its announcements are generally imprecise as to the nationality and residence of the cases it reports. One was identified as a resident of Vatican City. Another was diagnosed and is being treated in an Italian location that is neither Vatican City nor Rome.

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