To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

CASA C-212 Aviocar

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

C-212 Aviocar
CASA Aviocar 212.jpg
A CASA C-212 of the Spanish Air Force
Role Medium STOL military transport aircraft
Manufacturer Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA
Indonesian Aerospace
First flight 26 March 1971
Introduction May 1974
Status In production in Indonesia
Primary users Indonesia (70)
United States (37)
Spain (26)[1]
Produced 1971–2012
Number built 483[2] + >100 (IPTN)
Developed into Indonesian Aerospace N-219

The CASA C-212 Aviocar is a turboprop-powered STOL medium cargo aircraft designed and built by CASA in Spain for civil and military use.


During the late 1960s, the Spanish Air Force was still operating a number of outdated piston-engined transports, including the three-engined Junkers Ju 52 and two-engined Douglas C-47. In order to meet the Spanish Air Force's needs to modernise its transport force, CASA proposed the C-212, a twin engined 18 seat transport aircraft that would be capable of fulfilling a variety of military roles, including passenger transport, ambulance aircraft and paratroop carrier, while also being suitable for civil use.[3] The first prototype flew on 26 March 1971. In 1974, the Spanish Air Force decided to acquire the Aviocar to update its fleet.

Airlines took note of the type's success with the military, so CASA developed a commercial version, the first examples of which were delivered in July 1975. In August 2006 a total of 30 CASA C-212 aircraft (all variants) remain in airline service around the world.[4] The -400 was introduced in 1997 with a glass cockpit and more powerful engines.[5]

In 2010, Airbus Military said it could no longer afford to produce the C-212 in Europe and after production in Seville slowed to four in two years, the last C-212 produced in Spain was delivered in late December 2012 to the Vietnam Marine Police. Over 42 years, 477 aircraft have been produced for 92 operators.[5]

Indonesian production

IPTN and Nurtanio assembled the type under license at Bandung, Indonesia, during the 1970s and 1980s.[5]

In mid-2011 Airbus agreed to collaborate with their successor PTDI, which holds a license to sell the C-212 in Asia.[6] PTDI built the NC-212-200 and the -400 upgrade, with new digital avionics and autopilot, and a cabin for up to 28 passengers.[5] In 2014, PTDI stopped producing the -400 series and moved production to the improved NC-212i model.[7]


The C-212 has a high-mounted wing, a boxy fuselage, and a conventional tail. The tricycle undercarriage is non-retractable. It has space for 21–28 passengers depending on configuration. Since the C-212 does not have a pressurized fuselage, it is limited to relatively low-flight-level airline usage (below 10,000 ft (3,000 m) MSL). It is thus ideal for short legs and regional airline service.

Operational history

The C-212 is used as a transport, for rain-making, surveillance or search and rescue, and in 2013, 290 C-212s were flying in 40 countries with the most in Indonesia with 70.[8] It has seen especially wide employment as a commuter airliner and a military aircraft, with its operators including numerous charter and short-haul aviation companies and several national air forces. The C-212 is also in the service of the United States Army Special Operations Command with the designation C-41A, which utilizes the aircraft for troop infiltration and exfiltration, supply drops, and airborne operations.[9] Due to the presence of a rear ramp, the C-212 has also gained popularity among skydivers and smokejumpers.[10][11]


Series 100

Electronic counter measures equipped C-212-200 of the Portuguese Air Force (late 1980s)
Electronic counter measures equipped C-212-200 of the Portuguese Air Force (late 1980s)
Lloyd Aviation C-212 at Perth Airport (early 1990s).
Lloyd Aviation C-212 at Perth Airport (early 1990s).
Original military production version. Also known as C-212-5, C-212-5 series 100M, and by the Spanish Air Force as the T-12B and D-3A (for medevac aircraft), 129 built.
VIP transport version, T-12C.
Six pre-production C-212As converted for photo-reconnaissance missions, TR-12A.
Original civil version
Two pre-production C-212As converted for use as navigational trainers, TE-12B.
Manufactured under licence in Indonesia since 1976, IPTN producing 28 NC-212-100s before switching to NC-212-200.

Series 200

CASA C-212-200 of Northwest Airlink operating a scheduled flight at Flint, Michigan, in April 1986
CASA C-212-200 of Northwest Airlink operating a scheduled flight at Flint, Michigan, in April 1986
Skytraders ski-equipped CASA 212–400, used by the Australian Antarctic Division
Skytraders ski-equipped CASA 212–400, used by the Australian Antarctic Division

Stretched version with updated engines (Honeywell TPE331-10R-511C or −512C, rated at 900 shp (671 kW) each), introduced in 1979. The CASA C-212-200 is also a popular skydiving aircraft, known for its large capacity, fast climb, and large tailgate exit ramp.

C-212 series 200M
Military version known as T-12D in Spanish service and Tp 89 for the Swedish Air Force. Specialised ASW and maritime patrol aircraft have been built from this version.
C-212-200 built under licence by IPTN.
NC-212-200 MPA
C-212-200 built under licence by IPTN, Designed as Maritime Patrol Aircraft

Series 300

Standard production version from 1987 on. Engines were Honeywell TPE331-10R-513C, also rated at 900 shp (670 kW) continuous (925 shp maximum). The propellers were changed from four-bladed Hartzell composite blade propellers to four-bladed Dowty-Rotol all-metal propellers. Winglets and a larger vertical stabilizer area provide improved performance, and the addition of a nose baggage compartment gives the nose a more streamlined look than the Series 200. Various systems have been incrementally upgraded, including the addition of an integrated autopilot system.

C-212-M series 300 (Series 300M)
Military version.
C-212 series 300 airliner
26 seat regional airliner.
C-212 series 300 utility
23 seat civil utility version.
C-212 series 300P
Civil utility version with Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-65 engines

Series 400

Upgraded version with 925 shp (690 kW) TPE331-12JR-701C engines, increased payload and upgraded avionics moved from under the floor to the nose. First flew 4 April 1997, replacing Series 300 in production from 1998.[12] The C-212-400 received Spanish certification in 1998. Between 2004 and 2008, production jigs and fixtures for the NC-212-400 were relocated to Bandung from San Pablo, Spain, and PTDI became the sole manufacturer of the NC-212 family. In 2014, NC-212-200 and NC-212-400 production ended and production moved to the improved NC-212i version.[7]


Improved version of -400 series, using two Honeywell TPE331-12JR-701C turboprop engines, with maximum output of 970 hp (723 kW). The rotor is four-bladed Dowty Rotol R334/4-82-F/13 constant speed propeller with a 2.75 m (110-inch) in diameter.[13]


USASOAC C-212 conducting static-line parachute operations
USASOAC C-212 conducting static-line parachute operations
CASA CN 212-200 used for parachuting by the SkyHawks Parachute Team
CASA CN 212-200 used for parachuting by the SkyHawks Parachute Team

Civil operators

Skydivers waiting to exit a CASA C-212 in June 2011
Skydivers waiting to exit a CASA C-212 in June 2011
 Bosnia and Herzegovina
 United States

Military operators

CASA C-212 military operators
CASA C-212 military operators

Incidents and accidents

As of September 2011, CASA C-212s have been involved in 71 hull-loss incidents with a total of 558 fatalities.[61][62]

2 January 1984
a Royal Jordanian Air Force CASA 212-A3 Aviocar 100 crashed near Al Qatrana/Jordan due to mechanical problems. All 13 people on board the plane were killed.[63]
4 March 1987
Northwest Airlink Flight 2268 crashed while landing at Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport in Romulus, Michigan. Nine of the 19 passengers and crew on board were killed.
8 May 1987
American Eagle Flight 5452 crashed while landing in Puerto Rico, killing two.
1 February 1988
A Panamanian Air Force C-212 crashed into a mountain near the Panamese-Colombian border, killing all 16 people on board.
2 August 1988
Operated by Geoterrex of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, the aircraft crashed on approach to Reykjavik, Iceland with the loss of all 3 people on board. The cause was, "the crew lost control of the aircraft most probably because of large fluctuations in the power output of the right engine caused by the shift of an incorrectly installed speeder spring in the right propeller governor."[64]
1 December 1989
A United States Army C-212-200 crashed into the Patuxent River while trying to land at the Naval Air Test Center, Patuxent River, Maryland, killing all five people on board.[65]
16 January 1990
SANSA Flight 32 crashed into the Cerro Cedral, a mountain in Costa Rica shortly after takeoff from Juan Santamaria International Airport in San Jose. All 20 passengers and 3 crew on board died in the crash.[citation needed]
24 January 1990
A Venezuelan Navy C-212 crashed into a mountain due to poor weather, killing all 24 people on board.[citation needed]
27 March 1990
An Angolan government C-212 was shot down by UNITA rebels near Kuito, killing all 25 people on board.[citation needed]
7 June 1992
American Eagle Flight 5456, a CASA C-212 flying from Fernando Luis Ribas Dominicci Airport in San Juan, Puerto Rico crashed short of the runway in Mayagüez, killing both crew members and all three passengers.[66] The investigation led to the discontinuation of use of the C-212 by American Eagle.
8 March 1994
A Spanish Air Force C-212, part of the Ala 37 deployed in Vicenza, Italy, was hit in the tail by a Serbian SA-7 missile east of Rijeka when ferrying UNPROFOR personnel from Sarajevo. The tail control surfaces were damaged, the left engine failed and four passengers were injured by splinters. The crew managed to land the aircraft at Rijeka Airport. Spanish technicians were able to repair the damage and have the aircraft back in service in 48 hours.[67]

[68][69][70] The incident may have been a Bosnian Serb response to the shootdown, eight days before, of several Bosnian Serb aircraft by NATO fighters.[71]

27 August 1994
A DEA-operated aircraft (reg. N119CA) crashed into a mountain (or at the end of a box canyon) north of Puerto Pizana, in the Amazonian jungle department of San Martín, Peru. The crash happened while on flight from Santa Lucia to Pucallpa in the Huallaga River Valley region, and killed the CASA's five occupants, which were all DEA Special Agents. The accident reportedly took place under bad weather and low visibility conditions during a counter-narcotics reconnaissance operation.[72][73][74] This accident precipitated the end of Operation Snowcap, under which the ill-fated flight took place.[75]
17 June 1995
An Angolan Air Force C-212 carrying members of a local football club crashed while on approach to Catumbela Airport, killing 48 of the 53 people aboard.[76]
27 November 2004
"Blackwater 61" Presidential Airways CASA C-212-200 (registration: N960BW / serial nr: 231) was contracted by the U.S. Department of Defense to supply American forces deployed in remote areas of Afghanistan. The aircraft entered a box canyon and struck the 14,650-foot (4,470 m) level of Baba Mountain, which has a peak elevation of 16,739 feet (5,102 m). The flight was about 25 nmi (46 km) north of the typical route between Bagram and Farah.[77][78][79][80]
22 February 2005
An Indonesian National Police C-212 received engine trouble during landing, causing it to crash into the sea. Of the 18 police officers on board, 15 were killed.
26 October 2006
Swedish Coast Guard CASA C-212-200 (registration: SE-IVF/serial nr: KBV 585) crashed in the Falsterbo Canal during a surveillance mission, killing all four on board.[81][82] Eyewitness accounts suggest that the accident was caused by one of the wings of the aircraft somehow detaching.[83] The preliminary report from the Swedish Accident Investigation Board suggests that the right wing detached due to a fatigue crack which had developed in the load-bearing structure in the wing.[84]
15 November 2006
Mexican Navy CASA 212-200 Maritime Patrol (serial AMP-114) crashed in the sea in Campeche coast over the Mexican Gulf during a surveillance mission, all crew managed to survive, due to a smooth maneuver, reasons of the accident still unknown.[85]
26 June 2008
Indonesian Military CASA C-212 was flying from the capital to Bogor, carrying 12 military personnel and six civilians, and was due to test a digital mapping camera, but it disappeared in the Salak Mountain region, about 90 km (56 mi) south of Jakarta. An air force spokesman said it was assumed it had crashed.[86]
9 October 2009
Uruguayan Air Force CASA C-212 FAU-531,[87] being operated as part of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti crashed west of Fonds-Verettes killing all 11 on board.[88]
19 June 2010
a Cameroon Aero Service CASA C-212 chartered by Sundance Resources crashed in dense jungle after departing Cameroon for Congo, killing all 11 people on board, including Australian mining magnate Ken Talbot and Sundance personnel, Chairman Geoff Wedlock, Chief Executive Officer Don Lewis, company secretary John Carr-Gregg and non-executive directors John Jones and Craig Oliver. At the time of the accident Talbot was a director of Sundance and its largest shareholder.[89][90][91]
12 February 2011
Sabang Merauke Raya Air Charter CASA C-212, PK-ZAI, carrying five crew, crashed after takeoff from Batam, Indonesia, during a test flight following engine maintenance. All five crew members were killed.[92]
1 April 2011
FUGRO Aviation Canada Limited CASA C-212, C-FDKM, carrying three crew, crashed while attempting to land at Saskatoon Airport, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, after declaring an emergency with an engine failure. The aircraft crashed on Wanuskewin Drive in Saskatoon and hit a concrete barrier, resulting in one person being killed and two injured.[93]
2 September 2011
A Chilean Air Force CASA C-212, carrying 21 people, crashed 500 miles (800 km) from Chile's Pacific coastline in the Juan Fernández Islands, with no survivors. Felipe Camiroaga, a highly popular Chilean TV presenter, was one of those on board the aircraft. Also on board was businessman Felipe Cubillos, who had been working on post-earthquake reconstruction efforts.[94]
29 September 2011
An Indonesian Aerospace CASA C-212, registration PK-TLF, built in 1989, carrying 18 people (14 passengers, three crew and the pilot) on a flight between Medan, North Sumatra and Kutacane, Aceh operated by Nusantara Buana Air crashed into Gunung Kapur, a 1,600-metre-high (5,200 ft) mountain in the Bukit Barisan mountain range, a 10 km walk from the village of Bukit Lawang in Bohorok district Gunung Leuser National Park. There were no survivors. The accident occurred between 07.28 and 08.05 local time about 58 km (36 miles) northwest of Medan, North Sumatra.[95][96][97]
16 June 2016
A CASA C-212-400 operated by Vietnam People's Air Force from Gia Lam Airport en route to the Gulf of Tonkin went missing and was presumed crashed during a search for a downed Su-30MK2 and its pilots a few days before. It was reported that the crash site was located 44 nautical miles (81 km) south-southwest of Bach Long Vi Island. As of 18 June 2016, some of the debris was found, but there was no sign of the crew. The Vietnam Coast Guard and the Navy claimed that the airframe and the aircraft's black box has been found 15 nautical miles (28 km) southwest of Bach Long Vi and only 5 nm from the Vietnamese-Chinese border on the gulf. All 9 crew members were lost[98]
9 February 2017
A Botswana Defence Force CASA C-212 crashed in the general area of Thebephatshwa village in the evening, minutes after leaving the Thebephatshwa Air Base. All 3 people on board died in the crash. The aircraft was on its way to the capital, Gaborone, which is 90 km away.[99]

Specifications (Series 400)

Blackwater Worldwide C-212 over Afghanistan
Blackwater Worldwide C-212 over Afghanistan
CASA C-212-400 of the Vietnam Coast Guard
CASA C-212-400 of the Vietnam Coast Guard

Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1989–90[100][101]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 2
  • Capacity: 26 passengers / 25 paratroops / 2,820 kg (6,217 lb) military payload / 2,700 kg (5,952 lb) cargo payload
  • Length: 16.15 m (53 ft 0 in)
  • Wingspan: 20.28 m (66 ft 6 in)
  • Height: 6.6 m (21 ft 8 in)
  • Wing area: 41 m2 (440 sq ft)
  • Aspect ratio: 10
  • Airfoil: NACA 653-218[102]
  • Empty weight: 3,780 kg (8,333 lb)
  • Max takeoff weight: 8,000 kg (17,637 lb) military 7,700 kg (16,976 lb) standard
  • Fuel capacity: 2,040 l (540 US gal; 450 imp gal) / 1,600 kg (3,527 lb) internal and 1,000 l (260 US gal; 220 imp gal) auxiliary fuel tanks in the cabin or 2x 750 l (200 US gal; 160 imp gal) auxiliary fuel tanks in the cabin and/or 2x 500 l (130 US gal; 110 imp gal) underwing auxiliary fuel tanks
  • Powerplant: 2 × Garrett AiResearch TPE331-10R-513C turboprop engines, 671 kW (900 hp) each
  • Propellers: 4-bladed Dowty Rotol R-334/4-82-F/13, 2.74 m (9 ft 0 in) diameter constant-speed fully-feathering reversible-pitch propellers


  • Maximum speed: 370 km/h (230 mph, 200 kn) VMO (maximum operating speed) at MTOW
  • Cruise speed: 354 km/h (220 mph, 191 kn) (max cruise) at 3,050 m (10,007 ft)
  • Stall speed: 145 km/h (90 mph, 78 kn) in take-off configuration
  • Range: 835 km (519 mi, 451 nmi) with full military payload
  • Ferry range: 2,680 km (1,670 mi, 1,450 nmi) with maximum fuel and 1,192 kg (2,628 lb) payload
  • Service ceiling: 7,925 m (26,001 ft) 3,380 m (11,089 ft) on one engine
  • Rate of climb: 8.283 m/s (1,630.5 ft/min)
  • Take-off distance to 15 m (49 ft): 610 m (2,001 ft) (MIL-7700C)
  • Landing distance from 15 m (49 ft): 462 m (1,516 ft) (MIL-7700C)
  • Landing run: 285 m (935 ft) (MIL-7700C)


  • Up to 500 kg (1,102 lb) of weapons on two hardpoints. Typically, machine gun pods or rocket launchers.
FAA Data Sheet[103]
Variant -CB -CC/CD/CE/CF/DF -DE
Approved 22 Feb 1977 16 May 1980-30 Mar 1989 1 Oct 1991
2× Turboprop Garrett TPE331-5 TPE331-10 P&WC PT6A-65B
Takeoff power 559 kW (750 hp) 671 kW (900 hp) 746 kW (1,000 hp)
Propellers 4-bladed variable pitch
Manufacturer Hartzell McCauley
Propeller Diameter 273 cm (107.5 in) 279 cm (110 in) 269 cm (106 in)
Max. operating 200 kn (370 km/h) IAS
Min. control 78 kn (144 km/h) IAS 85 kn (157 km/h) IAS (-CC/CD)
88 kn (163 km/h) IAS (-CE/CF)
76 kn (141 km/h) IAS (-DF)
76 kn (141 km/h) IAS
Chord 86.22 in (219.0 cm)
MTOW 6,500 kg (14,332 lb) 7,700 kg (16,976 lb)
Flight crew Two pilots
Max. passengers 19 28
Usable fuel 2,000 L (528 US gal)
Ceiling 7,600 m (25,000 ft)

See also

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era


  1. ^ Greg Waldron (25 January 2013). "Vietnam takes delivery of last Spanish-built C212". Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 4 December 2017. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
  2. ^ Orders, Deliveries, In Operation Military aircraft by Country - Worldwide Archived 11 August 2018 at the Wayback Machine, Airbus Defence & Space (30 November 2016)
  3. ^ Simpson Air International January 2005, p. 32.
  4. ^ Flight International, 3–9 October 2006.
  5. ^ a b c d Chris Pocock (1 February 2013). "Airbus Military Transfers C212 Production to Indonesia". AIN. Archived from the original on 4 December 2017. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
  6. ^ Chris Pocock (8 July 2011). "Indonesian Aircraft Maker Gets Help From Airbus Military". AIN. Archived from the original on 4 December 2017. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
  7. ^ a b "NC-212 on PTDI Official Website". Indonesian Aerospace Official Website. 7 December 2018. Archived from the original on 7 December 2018.
  8. ^ Helfrich, Kim (8 February 2018). "SAAF CASA 212 a write-off". defenceWeb. Archived from the original on 8 February 2018. Retrieved 8 February 2018.
  9. ^ Pike, John (7 February 2018). "C-41A". Archived from the original on 8 February 2018. Retrieved 8 February 2018.
  10. ^ "Casa 212 - Skydiving Aircraft". Skydive Paraclete XP. Archived from the original on 31 May 2017. Retrieved 8 February 2018.
  11. ^ Chaney, Rob (30 October 2015). "Neptune wins contract to set up surplus military planes for smokejumpers". Archived from the original on 8 February 2018. Retrieved 8 February 2018.
  12. ^ Jackson 2003, p. 445.
  13. ^ NC212i
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Eastwood 1990, pp. 85–94.
  15. ^ BH Airlines Archived 17 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine at, retrieved 13-12-2014
  16. ^ "NC-212 200 Aviocar: Tulang Punggung Pesawat Angkut Ringan Tiga Matra". (in Indonesian). 29 August 2017. Retrieved 7 March 2021.
  17. ^ "Merpati Gunakan N 212 untuk Penerbangan Perintis". (in Indonesian). 30 August 2012. Retrieved 12 March 2021.
  18. ^ "CASA 212-200 Aircraft Found." Archived 2 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine Vivanews, 30 September 2011. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
  19. ^ "Our Fleet". Retrieved 12 March 2021.
  20. ^ "Medan Polonia Airport". Retrieved 29 March 2021.
  21. ^ Aviação, Kiosque da (23 June 2019). "Sevenair vai reforçar frota com 6 aeronaves CASA C-212 (ex-FAP)". Kiosque da Aviação (in European Portuguese). Retrieved 12 February 2022.
  22. ^ "" Archived 24 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine "FAA," Retrieved 24 May 2013.
  23. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Archived from the original on 25 December 2011. Retrieved 16 September 2013.
  24. ^ Prince, Erik. Civilian Warriors. pp. Chapter 7.
  25. ^ Fontanellaz, Cooper & Matos 2021, pp. 10–11
  26. ^ a b Hoyle Flight International 2021, p. 12
  27. ^ "Defence". Skytraders. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  28. ^ "Army Constructiones Aeronauticas S A CASA 212 Aviocar". ADF Serials. 26 January 2014. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  29. ^ Hoyle 2012, p. 46.
  30. ^ Hoyle Flight International 2021, p. 14
  31. ^ Hoyle 2015, p. 35.
  32. ^ Hoyle 2012, p. 48.
  33. ^ Ejército da de baja tres Casa 212 por altos costos de mantención Archived 14 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine – La Tercera, 11 November 2012
  34. ^ Hoyle 2015, p. 34.
  35. ^ a b Hoyle Flight International 2021, p. 16
  36. ^ Hoyle 2015, p. 36.
  37. ^ a b Barrie and Pite 1994, p. 39.
  38. ^ a b Hoyle Flight International 2021, p. 17
  39. ^ a b c Hoyle Flight International 2021, p. 20
  40. ^ Jackson 1987, p. 220.
  41. ^ Hoyle 2015, p. 41.
  42. ^ Hoyle Flight International 2021, p. 23
  43. ^ Hoyle 2010, p. 42.
  44. ^ Hoyle Flight International 2021, p. 24
  45. ^ a b Hoyle Flight International 2021, p. 26
  46. ^ Hoyle 2012, p. 57.
  47. ^ "PAF to accept 2 brand-new NC212i light-lift aircraft". Philippine News Agency. 26 June 2018.
  48. ^ Hoyle Flight International 2021, p. 27
  49. ^ Mata, Paulo (1 January 2013). "C295M: 10.000 horas sobre as asas ínclitas da fama" (PDF). Take/Off (in Portuguese). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 June 2015. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
  50. ^ Hoyle Flight International 2021, p. 28
  51. ^ Hoyle Flight International 2021, p. 29
  52. ^ Hoyle Flight International 2021, p. 30
  53. ^ "Venezolaanse deskundigen inspecteren vliegtuigen Luchtmacht". Starnieuws. 20 January 2012. Archived from the original on 23 January 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  54. ^ "botswana-acquires-another-c212". Defenceweb. 18 April 2019. Retrieved 22 April 2019.
  55. ^ Hoyle Flight International 2021, p. 31
  56. ^ Hoyle 2015, p. 51.
  57. ^ "DOD 4120.15-L – Addendum." Archived 26 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine, 26 February 2011. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
  58. ^ Hoyle 2015, p. 52.
  59. ^ a b c d Hoyle Flight International 2021, p. 34
  60. ^ Flight International 24–30 November 1993, p. 76.
  61. ^ "Accident statistics for CASA C-212." Archived 18 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved: 21 April 2012.
  62. ^ "List of incidents." Archived 30 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine Aviation Safety Network Database. Retrieved: 21 April 2012.
  63. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident CASA C-212-A3 Aviocar 100 325 Al Qatrana". Archived from the original on 7 July 2018. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
  64. ^ "ASN Aircraft accident CASA C-212 Aviocar 200 C-GILU Reykjavík Domestic Airport (RKV)". Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 13 February 2014.
  65. ^ "ASN Aircraft accident CASA C-212 Aviocar 200 N296CA Patuxent River Naval Air Station, MD." Archived 25 December 2011 at the Wayback Machine Aviation safety Network. Retrieved: 21 April 2012.
  66. ^ "Accident description, Date: 7 June 1992, Type: CASA C-212 Aviocar 200." Archived 25 December 2011 at the Wayback Machine Aviation safety Network. Retrieved: 21 April 2012.
  67. ^ Vinuesa, Arturo. El conflicto de los Balcanes y la seguridad común europea (in Spanish). Editorial Fundamentos, 2002, p. 190. ISBN 84-245-0927-7
  68. ^ Destacamento C-212 en Vicenza / 1993–2002 Archived 20 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine (in Spanish)
  69. ^ "Ala 37" Archived 5 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine (in Spanish) Retrieved: 21 April 2012.
  70. ^ "La OTAN considera una "provocación" el ataque a un avión militar español". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). 9 March 1994. Archived from the original on 5 December 2016. Retrieved 5 May 2017.
  71. ^ p. 19
  72. ^ "Crash of a Casa 212 Aviocar 200 near Puerto Pizana: 5 killed | Bureau of Aircraft Accidents Archives".
  73. ^ Ranter, Harro. "Descripción del Accidente ASN 27 AUG 1994 CASA C-212 Aviocar 200 N119CA - Puerto Pisana".
  74. ^ Dea: Operation Snowcap, p. 83
  75. ^ Inside Dea: Operation Snowcap, p. 83
  76. ^ Ranter, Harro (17 June 1995). "ASN Aircraft accident CASA C-212 Aviocar 200 T-401 Catumbela Airport (CBT)". Aviation Safety Network >. Archived from the original on 8 February 2018. Retrieved 8 February 2018.
  77. ^ "The Flight and Crash of "Blackwater 61." Archived 23 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine CBS News 60 Minutes. Retrieved: 21 April 2012.
  78. ^ "Blackwater 61 – Cockpit Voice Recording Archived 8 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine aviation.military. Retrieved: 21 April 2012.
  79. ^ "United States District Court  Middle District of Florida Division Case No. 6:05-cv-1002-ORL-28-JGG." Archived 6 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine Sourcewatch.
  80. ^ Anderson, Rick. "Welcome Aboard Blackwater Airlines." Archived 13 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine Seattle Weekly News, 14 November 2007. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
  81. ^ "Press release." Archived 28 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine Swedish Coast Guard. Retrieved: 21 April 2012.
  82. ^ "Accident description, October 26, 2006." Archived 4 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine Aviation Safety Network Database. Retrieved: 21 April 2012.
  83. ^ "Four dead after coastguard plane crash." Archived 4 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine The Local, 26 October 2006.
  84. ^ "Statens Haverikommission." Archived 15 December 2006 at the Wayback Machine Swedish Accident Investigation Board. Retrieved: 21 April 2012.
  85. ^ "SEMAR aircraft crashed in Mexican Gulf" (in Spanish). Archived 7 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine SEMAR. Retrieved: 21 April 2012.
  86. ^ "Plane goes missing over Indonesia." Archived 31 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine BBC, 27 June 2008. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
  87. ^ "Recent accidents." Archived 5 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine Planecrashinfo. Retrieved: 10 October 2009.
  88. ^ "UN plane crash kills 11 in Haiti." Archived 12 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine BBC News Online, 9 October 2009. Retrieved 10 October 2009.
  89. ^ "Avion disparu en Afrique : l'Australie "retournera chaque pierre"". 20 June 2010. Archived from the original on 23 June 2010. Retrieved 20 June 2010.
  90. ^ McCullough, James. "Mining magnate Ken Talbot feared dead in plane crash over Congo." Archived 2 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine, 20 June 2010. Retrieved 20 June 2010.
  91. ^ "Sundance Plane Wreckage Found in Congo; No Survivors (Update2)." Retrieved: 21 April 2012.
  92. ^ "Crash: Sabang Merauke Raya C212 near Batam on 12 February 2011, lost height enroute." Archived 11 August 2018 at the Wayback Machine 21 April 2012.
  93. ^ Grummett, Danny and David Giles. "Ontario man dead as investigators sift through the wreckage of fatal Saskatoon plane crash.", archived from the original Archived 5 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine on 5 April 2011, Global TV, Saskatoon (Shaw Media), 4 April 2011. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
  94. ^ "Chile air force plane carrying 21 aboard crashes." Archived 3 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine, 2 September 2011. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
  95. ^ Hradecky, Simon. "Crash: Buana C212 near Kutacane on Sep 29th 2011, wreckage found, no survivors." Archived 3 October 2018 at the Wayback Machine, 1 October 2011. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
  96. ^ "Pesawat dengan 14 penumpang jurusan Medan-Kutacane hilang," Archived 1 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine BBC, 29 December 2011. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
  97. ^ "SAR Dekati Titik Jatuhnya Cassa NBA, Nasib Penumpang Belum Jelas." Archived 1 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine, 1 October 2011. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
  98. ^ Newspaper, Tuoi Tre. "Vietnam jet goes missing while searching for lost pilot and fighter jet". Archived from the original on 20 June 2016. Retrieved 17 June 2016.
  99. ^ "BDF plane crashes, kills 3." Archived 17 December 2018 at the Wayback Machine, 10 February 2017. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
  100. ^ Taylor, John W.R., ed. (1989). Jane's all the World's Aircraft 1989–90 (80th ed.). London: Jane's Information Group. pp. 216–218. ISBN 978-0710608963.
  101. ^ Taylor 1988, pp. 205–206.
  102. ^ Lednicer, David. "The Incomplete Guide to Airfoil Usage". Retrieved 16 April 2019.
  103. ^ "Type Certificate Data Sheet No. A43EU" (PDF). FAA. 8 January 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 November 2016. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
  • Barrie, Douglas and Jenny Pite. "World's Air Forces". Flight International, Vol. 146, No. 4435, 24– 30 August 1994, pp. 29–64.
  • Eastwood, Tony and John Roach. Turbo Prop Airliner Production List. London: The Aviation Hobby Shop, 1990. ISBN 0-907178-32-4.
  • Fontanellaz, Adrien; Cooper, Tom; Matos, Jose Augusto (2021). War of Intervention in Angola, Volume 4: Angolan and Cuban Air Forces, 1985-1987. Warwick, UK: Helion & Company Publishing. ISBN 978-1-914059-25-4.
  • Hoyle, Craig. "Directory: World Air Forces". Flight International, Vol. 178, No. 5257, 14– 20 December 2010, pp. 26–53.
  • Hoyle, Craig. "World Air Forces Directory". Flight International, Vol. 180, No. 5321, 13– 19 December 2011, pp. 26–52.
  • Hoyle, Craig. "World Air Forces Directory". Flight International, Vol. 182, No. 5370, 11– 17 December 2012. pp. 40–64. ISSN 0015-3710.
  • Hoyle, Craig. "World Air Forces Directory". Flight International, Vol. 188, No. 5517, 8–14 December 2015. pp. 26–53.
  • Hoyle, Craig (2021). "World Air Forces 2022". Flight International. Retrieved 12 December 2021.
  • Jackson, Paul. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 2003–2004. Coulsdon, UK: Jane's Information Group, 2003. ISBN 0-7106-2537-5.
  • Jackson, Paul. "Royal Jordanian Air Force: Air Power at Three-continent Crossroads". Air International, Vol. 33, No. 5, November 1987, pp. 215–223. ISSN 0306-5634.
  • Simpson, Rod. "CASA C-212 Aviocar: A Plane For All Seasons". Air International, Vol. 68, No. 1, January 2005, pp. 32–38. ISSN 0306-5634.
  • Taylor, John W. R. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1988–89. Coulsdon, UK: Jane's Defence Data, 1988. ISBN 0-7106-0867-5.
  • "World's Air Forces". Flight International, Vol. 144, No. 4397, November 1993, pp. 41–76. 24–30.

External links

This page was last edited on 19 May 2022, at 14:31
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.