To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

C. T. Vivian
C.T. Vivian.jpg
C. T. Vivian in September 2015
Cordy Tindell Vivian

(1924-07-30)July 30, 1924
DiedJuly 17, 2020(2020-07-17) (aged 95)
Resting placeWestview Cemetery, Atlanta, Georgia
  • Minister
  • author

Cordy Tindell Vivian (July 30, 1924 – July 17, 2020) was an American minister, author, and close friend and lieutenant of Martin Luther King Jr. during the civil rights movement.[1] Vivian resided in Atlanta, Georgia, and founded the C. T. Vivian Leadership Institute, Inc. He was a member of the Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity.[2]

Senator Barack Obama, speaking at Selma's Brown Chapel on the March 2007, anniversary of the 1965 Selma to Montgomery marches, recognized Vivian in his opening remarks in the words of Martin L. King Jr. as "the greatest preacher to ever live."[3]

Early life

Vivian was born in Boonville, Missouri.[1] As a small boy he migrated with his mother to Macomb, Illinois, where he attended Lincoln Grade School and Edison Junior High School. Vivian graduated from Macomb High School in 1942[4] and attended Western Illinois University in Macomb, where he worked as the sports editor for the school newspaper.[5] His first professional job was recreation director for the Carver Community Center in Peoria, Illinois. There, Vivian participated in his first sit-in demonstrations, which successfully integrated Barton's Cafeteria in 1947.[6]


Studying for the ministry at American Baptist Theological Seminary (now called American Baptist College) in Nashville, Tennessee, in 1959, Vivian met James Lawson, who was teaching Mohandas Gandhi's nonviolent direct action strategy to the Nashville Student Movement. Soon Lawson's students, including Diane Nash, Bernard Lafayette, James Bevel, John Lewis and others from American Baptist, Fisk University and Tennessee State University, organized a systematic nonviolent sit-in campaign at local lunch counters.[4] On April 19, 1960, 4,000 demonstrators peacefully walked to Nashville's City Hall, where Vivian and Diane Nash discussed the situation with Nashville Mayor Ben West. As a result, Mayor West publicly agreed that racial discrimination was morally wrong. Many of the students who participated in the Nashville Student Movement soon took on major leadership roles in both the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC).[7]

Vivian helped found the Nashville Christian Leadership Conference, and helped organize the first sit-ins in Nashville in 1960 and the first civil rights march in 1961. In 1961, Vivian participated in Freedom Rides. He worked alongside Martin Luther King Jr. as the national director of affiliates for the SCLC.[8] During the summer following the Selma Voting Rights Movement, Vivian conceived and directed an educational program, Vision, and put 702 Alabama students in college with scholarships (this program later became Upward Bound).[9] His 1970 Black Power and the American Myth was the first book on the Civil Rights Movement by a member of Martin Luther King's staff.[4]

In the 1970s Vivian moved to Atlanta, and in 1977 founded the Black Action Strategies and Information Center (BASIC), a consultancy on multiculturalism and race relations in the workplace and other contexts. In 1979 he co-founded, with Anne Braden, the Center for Democratic Renewal (initially as the National Anti-Klan Network), an organization where blacks and whites worked together in response to white supremacist activity.[10] In 1984 he served in Jesse Jackson's presidential campaign, as the national deputy director for clergy. In 1994 he helped to establish, and served on the board of Capitol City Bank and Trust Co., a black-owned Atlanta bank.[11] He also served on the board of Every Church a Peace Church.[12]

Vivian continued to speak publicly and offer workshops, and did so at many conferences around the country and the world, including with the United Nations.[13] He was featured as an activist and an analyst in the civil rights documentary Eyes on the Prize, and was featured in a PBS special, The Healing Ministry of Dr. C. T. Vivian. He made numerous appearances on Oprah as well as the Montel Williams Show and Donahue.[14] He was the focus of the biography Challenge and Change: The Story of Civil Rights Activist C.T. Vivian by Lydia Walker.[15]

In 2008, Vivian founded and incorporated the C. T. Vivian Leadership Institute, Inc. (CTVLI) to "Create a Model Leadership Culture in Atlanta" Georgia. The C. T. Vivian Leadership Institute conceived, developed and implemented the "Yes, We Care" campaign on December 18, 2008 (four days after the City of Atlanta turned the water off at Morris Brown College (MBC)) and, over a period of two and a half months, mobilized the Atlanta community to donate in excess of $500,000 directly to Morris Brown as "bridge funding." That effort saved the Historically Black College or University (HBCU) and allowed the college to negotiate with the city which ultimately restored the water services to the college.[16]

In 2018, Vivian donated his collection of 6,000 volumes of books largely about the black experience and written by black authors to the National Monuments Foundation for inclusion in the Peace Column, the centerpiece of the upcoming Rodney Cook Sr. Park in Vine City. The C.T. Vivian Library will be housed within the base of the 110-foot column.[17]

Later life

Vivian receiving the Presidential Medal of Freedom
Vivian receiving the Presidential Medal of Freedom

On August 8, 2013, President Barack Obama named Vivian as a recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom. The citation in the press release reads as follows:

C. T. Vivian is a distinguished minister, author, and organizer. A leader in the Civil Rights Movement and friend to Martin Luther King, Jr., he participated in Freedom Rides and sit-ins across our country. Vivian also helped found numerous civil rights organizations, including Vision, the National Anti-Klan Network, and the Center for Democratic Renewal. In 2012, he returned to serve as interim President of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.[18]

Vivian died from natural causes in Atlanta on July 17, 2020, two weeks before his 96th birthday,[4] and on the same day that his friend and fellow activist, John Lewis, died.[19][20] He was the first Black, non-elected man to lie in state at the Georgia State Capitol.[21] He was buried at Westview Cemetery in Atlanta.[22]


See also


  1. ^ a b Cole, Eric. "Vivian, Cordy Tindell "C.T." (1924– )". Retrieved March 27, 2018.
  2. ^ "Civil rights veterans join Martin Luther King Jr.'s fraternity; Alpha Phi Alpha holds initiation ceremony in Atlanta". Alpha Phi Alpha. December 10, 2010. Archived from the original on February 3, 2015. Retrieved November 21, 2013.
  3. ^ DuBois, Joshua. (January 5, 2014) "Keeping Tabs on Obama’s Church Attendance Is No Way to Gauge His Faith". Politics section. The Daily Beast. retrieved August 10, 2014.
  4. ^ a b c d Robert D. McFadden (July 30, 1924). "C.T. Vivian, Martin Luther King's Field General, Dies at 95 – The New York Times". Retrieved July 17, 2020.
  5. ^ "Macomb, WIU Honor C.T. Vivian – Western Illinois University News – Office of University Relations". October 1, 2015. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
  6. ^ Suggs, Ernie; Journal-Constitution, The Atlanta. "C.T. Vivian, civil rights hero and intellectual, dead at 95". ajc.
  7. ^ Marian Wright Edelman (October 8, 2019). "Rev. C.T. Vivian's Wisdom: We are at a crossroads in history | Commentary". Retrieved July 17, 2020.
  8. ^ "C.T. Vivian, Civil Rights Leader And Champion Of Nonviolent Action, Dies At 95". NPR. April 18, 2018. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
  9. ^ "Rev. C.T. Vivian, key civil rights leader, has died at 95". ABC News.
  10. ^ Leonard Zeskind, "The Center for Democratic Renewal Closes its Doors", March 28, 2008.
  11. ^ "Timeline". Archived from the original on February 8, 2004. Retrieved April 20, 2017.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link), Peoria Journal Star, October 24, 1999.
  12. ^ "Board of Directors, Every Church a Peace Church". Retrieved July 17, 2020.
  13. ^ Reverend C. T. Vivian Archived June 28, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, Providence Missionary Baptist Church, Atlanta, Georgia.
  14. ^ "19 Sep 2010, Page 1 – Palladium-Item at". September 19, 2010. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
  15. ^ "21 Oct 1993, Page 24 – The Tennessean at". October 21, 1993. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
  16. ^ rtmadminadw (July 30, 1924). "C. T. Vivian dies at age 95, place in history is secure". Chicago Defender. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
  17. ^ Suggs, Ernie; Journal-Constitution, The Atlanta. "C.T. Vivian's vast collection of books to anchor library in his honor". ajc. Retrieved December 28, 2020.
  18. ^ "President Obama Names Presidential Medal of Freedom Recipients". (Press release). August 8, 2013. Retrieved August 8, 2013 – via National Archives.
  19. ^ Malveaux, Suzanne; Fox, Lauren; Karimi, Faith; Griggs, Brandon (July 18, 2020). "Civil rights legend Rep. John Lewis dead at 80". CNN. Retrieved July 18, 2020.
  20. ^ "Rev. C.T. Vivian, key civil rights leader, has died at 95". Washington Post. July 17, 2020. Retrieved July 28, 2020.
  21. ^ Suggs, Ernie; Journal-Constitution, The Atlanta. "C.T. Vivian at the Georgia Capitol". ajc. Retrieved December 28, 2020.
  22. ^ Suggs, Ernie; Stafford, Leon (July 23, 2020). "We loved Dr. C.T. Vivian". Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Archived from the original on July 25, 2020. Retrieved July 31, 2020.

Further reading

External links

This page was last edited on 12 June 2021, at 04:06
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.