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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bryansk

Брянск
Collage of Bryansk
Collage of Bryansk
Flag of Bryansk
Flag
Coat of arms of Bryansk
Coat of arms
Anthem: none[2]
Location of Bryansk
Bryansk is located in Russia
Bryansk
Bryansk
Location of Bryansk
Bryansk is located in Bryansk Oblast
Bryansk
Bryansk
Bryansk (Bryansk Oblast)
Coordinates: 53°14′N 34°22′E / 53.233°N 34.367°E / 53.233; 34.367
CountryRussia
Federal subjectBryansk Oblast[1]
Founded985[3] or 1146[4]
Government
 • BodyCouncil of People's Deputies[5]
 • Head[5]Alexander Khlimankov[6]
Elevation
190 m (620 ft)
Population
 • Total415,721
 • Estimate 
(January 2015)[8]
426,225
 • Rank41st in 2010
 • Subordinated toBryansky Urban Administrative Okrug (city of oblast significance)[9]
 • Capital ofBryansk Oblast[1], Bryansky Urban Administrative Okrug[9]
 • Urban okrugBryansk Urban Okrug[10]
 • Capital ofBryansk Urban Okrug[10]
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK Edit this on Wikidata[11])
Postal code(s)[12]
241000–241002, 241004, 241006, 241007, 241010–241025, 241027–241031, 241033, 241035–241041, 241044, 241044, 241047, 241050, 241890, 241899, 241960–241967, 241970, 241980–241983, 241985, 241988, 241991
Dialing code(s)+7 4832
OKTMO ID15701000001
City DaySeptember 17
Websitewww.bga32.ru

Bryansk (Russian: Брянск, IPA: [brʲansk]) is a city and the administrative center of Bryansk Oblast, Russia, located 379 kilometers (235 mi) southwest of Moscow. Bryansk is also closer to the border with Belarus. Population: 415,721 (2010 Census);[7] 431,526 (2002 Census);[13] 452,160 (1989 Census).[14]

Geography

Urban layout

The ancient city of Bryansk, whose name is associated with wilds, overgrown ravines, rugged forests and swamps, was founded no later than 985.[15] The location of the settlement was originally associated with navigable river routes and was located in the area of the Chashin Kurgan, where the fortress walls were erected. For reasons that have not yet been clarified, the city changed its location and by the middle of the 12th century had already finally established itself on the steep slopes of the right bank of the Desna on Pokrovskaya Hill (Russian: Покровская гора). The foundations of the future urban development of the city were laid even earlier, when around the city-fortress in the 17th century after the Time of Troubles on the coastal strip at the foot of the Bryansk fortress the posadskaya "Zatinnaya Sloboda" was upset, and on the upper plateau, between Verkhniy Sudok and White Kolodez , - "Streletskaya Sloboda". Somewhat earlier behind the posad (the territory between the fortress and the Peter-Pavlovsky monastery), after the annexation of Bryansk to the Moscow state and the organization of the Yamskaya service in 1503, the Yamskaya Sloboda appeared. Zatinnaya Sloboda is located on the site of the ancient "Zhitny Gorod" - a fortified territory of food warehouses and salt storages. Later, the settlement gave way to a cannon yard, on the site of which the Arsenal was located in the 18th century.[16]

In 1780, Empress Catherine II "imperially approved" the general plan of the city of Bryansk. The plan laid the foundations for the development of the city in a regular system designed to streamline the existing buildings for centuries, limit the spontaneous growth of the city, and create a new community center. In the drawing, the territory of the upper plateau was covered with a geometrical grid of quarters formed by streets going down to the Desna and perpendicular to them. Three squares were "strung" on two of them: Sobornaya - on the coastal Moskovskaya street, Krasnaya gorodskaya - in the center of the plateau and Shchepnaya market - on the western border of the city (now here is the entrance to the Dynamo stadium). The plan captures the historical layout. The city is spread out on the right bank of the Desna. It was a picturesque group of different-sized, irregularly shaped quarters. The city center did not stand out in terms of planning, it was defined by a fortress on Pokrovskaya Hill, dominating the city.[17] Streets descending from the upper plateau were united by one, following along the banks of the Desna. The city was almost entirely wooden, with the exception of only a few stone, mainly religious buildings. The street network included all buildings significant at that time. The central quarters were designated for the construction of stone public, commercial and residential buildings. Red Square was to be decorated with the buildings of public offices, magistrates and commercial institutions; market square - built up with handicraft enterprises, smithies and shops.[18]

The plan, revised in 1802, significantly increases the territory of the city and includes in the regular system not only the coastal area and the area between Sudki, but also the Petrovskaya Gora area and Yamskaya Sloboda with Forest Sheds in the north and north-east, the area between the White Kolodez ravine and the Podar River on south; increases the territory of the central part in the northwest behind the market square. The quarters are enlarged, the streets are classified, and squares are located on a larger scale to the territory of the city. Smolenskaya Street - in common parlance Rozhdestvenskaya Gora (now Sovetskaya Street - Gagarin Boulevard) - is the main highway connecting the upland part with the coastal one. It connects three squares: Cathedral, Red and Sennaya (former Shchepnaya). Two other highways run in the longitudinal direction: Bolshaya Moskovskaya (now Kalinin Street) in the coastal part and Petropavlovskaya-Voskresenskaya Street (now Lenin Avenue), which unites the city in the upland part. Petropavlovskaya and Voskresenskaya streets, continuing it, crossing the whole city, at the intersection with Trubchevskaya (now Krasnoarmeyskaya) street ended in a new, fourth square - Khlebnaya (on the site of the modern Partizanskaya Square, there was once a mill on this place). From here there were roads to Trubchevsk and Karachev. All squares were square. At the beginning of the 19th century, out of 867 houses in the city, only 25 were stone, out of 17 stone churches there were 10. A little more than a dozen buildings built in the second half of the 18th century have survived to this day. The unique architectural silhouette of the city, which was formed by the beginning of the 19th century, was skillfully added and enlarged by the end of the century. In the center, on the territory of the Spaso-Polikarpov Monastery, the Novopokrovsky Cathedral was erected (1862–1897), which emphasized the planning center of the district town with its scale. On the right flank there was a building of a trade and craft school, built by the architect N. A. Lebedev, which linked the building of the Arsenal plant and the Tikhvin church into a single chain of historical buildings.[19]

The most ancient isographic evidence dating back to 1857 explains figuratively to represent the flavor of the ancient city. This is a watercolor by the self-taught artist Gabriel Vasilyevich Khludov, a draftsman (according to other sources - a fireworks display) of the Bryansk Arsenal, who captured a panorama of the city from the left bank of the Desna. In the center of the picture is the Pokrovskaya Gora with the stone church of the same name and a bell tower, at the bottom right of the Arsenal building, then the Resurrection, Nikolskaya and Trinity churches, the ensemble of the Peter-Pavlovsky Monastery, and in the foreground - the Ascension Church of the Zaretskaya Sloboda.[20][21] It is not exactly known when the first Bryansk fortress appeared as a long-term fortification. The reports of the governor of 1629, and paintings from 1678, 1682, 1685, 1686 testify that the fortress on Pokrovskaya Hill was cut down, like in the old days, from oak logs and consisted of walls with towers. Inventories noted that the fortress was built on a native mountain. The city - "oak, chopped, covered with planks" - included a system of blind and drive-through towers connected by walls, supplemented by embankments and a wooden "standing prison in one log". The fortress had towers: Spasskaya, Arkhangelskaya, Bezymyannaya, Bushuevskaya, the first and second Voskresensky, Nikolskaya, Pyatnitskaya, Rukavnaya, Sudkovskaya, Prechistenskaya, Rozhdestvenskaya, Georgievskaya, Karachevskaya and Tainichnaya. The fortress of the "old" and "new" cities in different years had a certain number of towers and a different amount of weapons.

The fortress was described at the beginning of the 18th century as “an ancient fortress in the city of Bryansk occupied the top of a small mountain, but with rather steep slopes and, in terms of its position relative to the city located on the right bank of the Desna, constituted a citadel. Its fortified fence was in an irregular quadrangle, at the corners of which there were small ledges. They were joined by a chain retransmission, placed on one of the ledges of a raised area.[22]

History

The first written mention of Bryansk , as Debryansk, dates to 1146 in the Hypatian Codex. The name appears variously as Дъбряньск, Дьбряньск, and in other spellings.[4] Etymologically, it derives from "дъбръ", a Slavic word for "ditch", "lowland", or "dense woodland";[23][24] the area was known for its dense woods, of which very little remains today. Local authorities and archaeologists, however, believe that the town had existed as early as 985[3] as a fortified settlement on the right bank of the Desna River.

Bryansk remained poorly attested until the 1237-1242 Mongol invasion of Rus'. It was the northernmost of the Severian cities in the possession of the Chernigov  Rurikids. After the Mongols murdered Prince Mikhail of Chernigov in 1246 and his capital was destroyed, his son  Roman Mikhailovich moved his seat to Bryansk. In 1310, when the Mongols sacked the town again, it belonged to the Principality of Smolensk.

Grand Duke Algirdas of Lithuania acquired Bryansk through inheritance in 1356 and gave it to his son, Dmitry the Elder. Until the end of the century Grand Duke  Jogaila of Lithuania, Grand Duke Vytautas of Lithuania, the future Grand Duke Švitrigaila of Lithuania, and Grand Duke Yury of Smolensk contested control of the town.

The Grand Duchy of Moscow conquered Bryansk following the Battle of Vedrosha in 1503. The town was turned into a fortress which played a major role during the Time of Troubles (1598-1613). During the Time of Troubles the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth occupied the town in 1610, and it remained in Polish hands as part of Smolensk Voivodeship until the Truce of Deulino in 1634. In 1709 Tsar Peter the Great incorporated Bryansk into the Kiev Governorate, but Empress Catherine the Great deemed it wise to transfer the town to the newly-formed Oryol Governorate in 1779. She also promulgated the town's coat of arms (August 1781).

In the 17th and 18th centuries the economy of Bryansk, which had become a regional trading center, was based on the Svenskaya fair (Russian: Свенская ярмарка), the largest in European Russia. The fair took place annually under the auspices of the nearby Svensky Monastery. After the town started to manufacture cannon and ammunition for the Imperial Russian Navy in 1783, Bryansk evolved from a regional market town into an important industrial center for metallurgy and textiles. The city's population exceeded 30,000 by 1917.[25] In 1812 Napoleon's Grande Armée fought the Russians in Bryansk and in Orel during the French invasion of Russia.

View of May Day at  Gagarin Boulevard in 1920
View of May Day at  Gagarin Boulevard in 1920

In 1918 the Belarusian People's Republic claimed Bryansk, but Bolshevik forces took the town in 1919. During World War II the German Wehrmacht captured Bryansk  and encircled the Soviet 3rd,13th and 50th armies. The town remained under  Axis occupation from October 6, 1941 to September 17, 1943, with the city left heavily damaged by fighting. About 60,000 Soviet partisans were active in and around Bryansk, inflicting heavy losses on the German army. In 1944, soon after its liberation, Bryansk became the administrative center of Bryansk Oblast.

In 2016 the city council approved a new general city plan, which called among others for laying of a new route from Burov Street along the Bolva River to Vokzalnaya Street with the intersection of the railway and Bolva. In the southern direction, it is proposed to extend the road along the Desna to the Fokinsky District to Moskovsky Prospekt, construction of a road from the Black Bridge along the Karachizh ravine with the intersection of Stanke Dimitrova Avenue to Sakharova Street, reconstruction of Sakharova Street to the bypass road and the A141 highway, as well as development of the area of the old airport (area of Gorbatova, Stepnaya streets).[26]

Administrative and municipal status

Bryansk is the administrative center of the oblast.[1] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with three work settlements (Belye Berega, Bolshoye Polpino, and Raditsa-Krylovka), incorporated separately as Bryansky Urban Administrative Okrug—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, Bryansky Urban Administrative Okrug is incorporated as Bryansk Urban Okrug.[10]

Economy

Today's Bryansk is an important center for steel and machinery manufacturing, and is home to many large factories. The main industries are machine building, metalworking, chemical, electrical equipment, electronics, wood, textile and food industries, locomotives, diesel engines, freight cars, motor graders, pavers and other road equipment, agricultural equipment, construction materials, and garments.

Transportation

Bryansk-I, May 2010
Bryansk-I, May 2010

Since 1868, there is a railway connection between Bryansk and Moscow.[27] The city has railway stations: Bryansk Orlovsky and Bryansk-Lgovskiy (Bryansk Bryansk -I and -II, respectively), Ordzhonikidzegrad; Street Bus Station and Peresvet Bezhitsa bus station. fourteen kilometres (9 miles) west of the city lies the Bryansk International Airport.

Passenger traffic carried by bus (more than 1,400 cars on 54 permanent urban routes), trolley on 10 regular routes, uses (36 routes), as well as commuter trains and railcars. The cost of public transport (trolley buses) is 16 rubles, and buses, 20 rubles (as of May 2018).

Notable people

Russian cosmonaut Viktor Afanasyev, shot put athlete Svetlana Krivelyova, sculptor and architect Naum Gabo, classical pianist Valentina Igoshina, chess Grandmaster Ian Nepomniachtchi and MMA fighter Vitaly Minakov were born in Bryansk. Bulgarian communist leader Stanke Dimitrov (Marek) died in an aviation accident near the city. The writer Leonid Dobychin spent most of his adult years there. Swimmer Victoria Kaminskaya was born in Bryansk.

Climate

Bryansk has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb).

Climate data for Bryansk
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 7.6
(45.7)
9.9
(49.8)
20.2
(68.4)
28.3
(82.9)
32.3
(90.1)
34.9
(94.8)
37.7
(99.9)
38.4
(101.1)
30.7
(87.3)
24.8
(76.6)
17.1
(62.8)
9.9
(49.8)
38.4
(101.1)
Average high °C (°F) −3.5
(25.7)
−3.0
(26.6)
2.8
(37.0)
12.0
(53.6)
19.0
(66.2)
22.1
(71.8)
23.9
(75.0)
22.7
(72.9)
16.5
(61.7)
9.7
(49.5)
1.6
(34.9)
−2.7
(27.1)
10.1
(50.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) −6.0
(21.2)
−6.1
(21.0)
−0.8
(30.6)
7.2
(45.0)
13.7
(56.7)
17.1
(62.8)
18.9
(66.0)
17.5
(63.5)
11.9
(53.4)
6.1
(43.0)
−0.7
(30.7)
−4.9
(23.2)
6.2
(43.2)
Average low °C (°F) −8.6
(16.5)
−9.1
(15.6)
−4.2
(24.4)
3.0
(37.4)
8.6
(47.5)
12.3
(54.1)
14.2
(57.6)
12.9
(55.2)
7.9
(46.2)
3.0
(37.4)
−2.8
(27.0)
−7.3
(18.9)
2.5
(36.5)
Record low °C (°F) −41.8
(−43.2)
−34.9
(−30.8)
−29.6
(−21.3)
−21.8
(−7.2)
−4.2
(24.4)
−1.3
(29.7)
2.2
(36.0)
0.1
(32.2)
−5.2
(22.6)
−13.0
(8.6)
−23.6
(−10.5)
−38.6
(−37.5)
−41.8
(−43.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 46
(1.8)
41
(1.6)
38
(1.5)
43
(1.7)
57
(2.2)
80
(3.1)
87
(3.4)
69
(2.7)
63
(2.5)
56
(2.2)
53
(2.1)
50
(2.0)
683
(26.9)
Average rainy days 7 6 8 14 16 18 17 14 16 16 14 10 156
Average snowy days 23 21 14 4 0.4 0 0 0 0.4 4 14 22 103
Average relative humidity (%) 85 82 76 68 65 69 71 72 77 81 87 87 77
Mean monthly sunshine hours 18.6 58.8 133.3 180.0 282.1 264.0 294.5 260.4 171.0 83.7 27.0 21.7 1,795.1
Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net[28]
Source 2: Climatebase (sun, 1949–2011)[29]

Culture and education

Monument of Kurgan of Immortality
Monument of Kurgan of Immortality

Bryansk has two universities, three theaters, and a technical academy.

Twin towns – sister cities

Bryansk is twinned with:[30]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e Law #13-Z
  2. ^ Article 6 of the Charter of Bryansk states that the symbols of the oblast include a flag and a coat of arms, but not an anthem.
  3. ^ a b Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 56. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9.
  4. ^ a b Hypatian Codex
  5. ^ a b Charter of Bryansk, Article 24
  6. ^ Official website of Bryansk Council of People's Deputies. Alexander Anatolyevich Khlimankov, Head of the City of Bryansk
  7. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  8. ^ Bryansk Oblast Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics Service. Предварительная оценка численности населения Брянской области по городским округам и муниципальным районам на 1 января 2015 года (in Russian)
  9. ^ a b Law #69-Z
  10. ^ a b c Law #3-Z
  11. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  12. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  13. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  14. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  15. ^ Шинаков, Евгений Александрович. Возникновение Брянска — исследования в урочище «Чашин Курган»
  16. ^ Кузин А. Другой Брянск. pp.34-35
  17. ^ Брянск 1692 год
  18. ^ Кузин А. Другой Брянск. pp.40-44
  19. ^ Mikhail Tsapenko. Земля Брянская, pp. 63-65
  20. ^ Евсюка. "Путешествие в глубину веков" альбом-путеводитель
  21. ^ 1629 год Брянская крепость
  22. ^ [1]
  23. ^ Черных П. Я.: Историко-этимологический словарь современного русского языка. Москва, Русский язык-Медиа, 2004
  24. ^ Смолицкая Г. П.: Топонимический словарь Центральной России. Москва, Армада-пресс, 2002
  25. ^ История Брянска
  26. ^ "Новые микрорайоны и дороги: чего ждать брянцам от генплана?".
  27. ^ "Train Station in Bryansk" (in Russian). Archived from the original on March 23, 2012. Retrieved December 1, 2012.
  28. ^ "Weather and Climate- The Climate of Bryansk" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved May 15, 2015.
  29. ^ "Brjansk Climate Normals". Climatebase. Retrieved May 14, 2015.
  30. ^ "Города-побратимы". bga32.ru (in Russian). Bryansk. Retrieved February 2, 2020.

Sources

  • Брянский городской Совет народных депутатов. 30 ноября 2005 г. «Устав города Брянска», в ред. Решения №173 от 29 апреля 2015 г. «О внесении изменений и дополнений в Устав города Брянска». Вступил в силу после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Брянск", №23, 7 декабря 2005 г. (Bryansk City Council of People's Deputies. November 30, 2005 Charter of the City of Bryansk, as amended by the Decision #173 of April 29, 2015 On Amending and Supplementing the Charter of the City of Bryansk. Effective as of after the official publication.).
  • Брянская областная Дума. Закон №13-З от 5 июня 1997 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Брянской области», в ред. Закона №4-З от 5 февраля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Брянской области». Опубликован: "Брянский рабочий", №119, 24 июня 1997 г. (Bryansk Oblast Duma. Law #13-Z of June 5, 1997 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Bryansk Oblast, as amended by the Law #4-Z of February 5, 2014 On Amending Various Legislative Acts of Bryansk Oblast. ).
  • Брянская областная Дума. Закон №69-З от 2 ноября 2012 г. «Об образовании городских административных округов, поселковых административных округов, сельских административных округов, установлении границ, наименований и административных центров административных округов в Брянской области». Вступил в силу 1 января 2013 г. Опубликован: Информационный бюллетень "Официальная Брянщина", №16, 6 ноября 2012 г.. (Bryansk Oblast Duma. Law #69-Z of November 2, 2002 On the Establishment of Urban Administrative Okrugs, Settlement Administrative Okrugs, Rural Administrative Okrugs, on Establishing Borders, Names, and Administrative Centers of the Administrative Okrugs of Bryansk Oblast. Effective as of January 1, 2013.).
  • Брянская областная Дума. Закон №3-З от 9 марта 2005 г. «О наделении муниципальных образований статусом статусом городского округа, муниципального района, городского поселения, сельского поселения и установлении границ муниципальных образований в Брянской области», в ред. Закона №75-З от 28 сентября 2015 г. «Об изменении статуса населённого пункта посёлок Красный Ятвиж Клетнянского района Брянской области». Вступил в силу через 10 дней после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Брянская неделя", №13, 8 апреля 2005 г. (Bryansk Oblast Duma. Law #3-Z of March 9, 2005 On Granting the Municipal Formations the Status of Urban Okrug, Municipal District, Urban Settlement, Rural Settlement and on Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations of Bryansk Oblast, as amended by the Law #75-Z of September 28, 2015 On Changing the Status of the Inhabited Locality the Settlement of Krasny Yatvizh in Kletnyansky District of Bryansk Oblast. Effective as of the day which is 10 days after the official publication.).

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