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Brown's taxonomic arrangement of Banksia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Robert Brown's taxonomic arrangement of Banksia was published in his book of 1810, Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae et Insulae Van Diemen, and expanded in the supplement to that publication, Supplementum Primum Prodromi Florae Novae Hollandiae, in 1830. It was the first survey of Banksia species to be published, and included descriptions of a number of previously undescribed species.[1][2]

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Transcription

Another very common and easy way to preserve flowers for future use as far as drying goes is just simple pressing. Pressing amounts to putting flowers or foliage between sheets of some type of absorbent material, be it newspaper, some type of artboard or, as many of us did in our gradeschool days, use a simple phone book to press especially foliage. The flowers and other material is, again, harvested at it's peak quality and in the case of the phone book press, it's nothing more simple than putting material between the pages of the phone book. Here we have a fern and the pages are just folded over you can keep on layering more foliage between the pages and when you get all said and done basically closing the book and putting some type of the heavy weight right on top of it and leaving it there for several weeks. In the process, the moisture is absorbed by the pages of the phone book and you can open it up and pull out your dried leaves. Flowers can also be dried by simple pressing and it's just a matter of preparing the flower, and, again, utilizing some type of material that you place the flower on that's absorbent and leaving it there for a length of time to allow the plant material to dry. In the case of pressing, especially when you're talking about flowers, you're going to end up with something that's kind of one-dimensional or flat and oftentimes these materials are used in picture collages, notecards, bookmarks, that kind of thing so these are going to be very one-dimensional, flat, but they will still retain their overall shape and form and oftentimes the colors. The colors in regards to pressing flowers, the darker the colors usually end up with a darker colored flower. They tend to get a little bit mauve colored or dark shades, that kind of thing. Lighter colored flowers lik the whites and yellows and that kind of thing will retain their colors. There's nothing easier than putting this material on an absorbent piece of paper, this happens to be a heavy piece of artboard, and then folding a piece of, in this case, newspaper right over the top and then putting something over the top of that that's stiff and firm such as this piece of cardboard and here again we're going to apply weights to this material and leave it there for several weeks at which time when you uncover this thing the flowers will be dried, flat, pressed and ready for use in a picture or notecard or bookmark, however you choose. So this is a way in which you can do it at home. The classic way of pressing flowers was always done with a plant press. You see one right over here. Basically several sheets of material are put between this plant press, which then is equipped with these screws that apply pressure to this whole system. That's left there for certain length of time to dry the material and then you can just pick out what you need out of this plant press reclamp it down and you can store material here as well as use from it. As you can see right here we've got some material that has been dried for quite awhile in this case foliage off an astilbe and this was using the classic plant press. We can see how they turn out. Very flat, very smooth, very dry. These can then be either used in their entirety or broken apart and used parts of to reconstruct a flower, if you will, if you're doing a picture or whatever might have you. Pressing flowers: very simple, very easy to do and you can do a wide variety of plant material

Contents

Background

Banksia is a genus of around 175 species in the plant family Proteaceae. An iconic Australian wildflower and popular garden plant, they are recognised by their flower spikes or domes, and their fruiting "cones". They grow in forms varying from prostrate woody shrubs to trees up to 35 metres tall, and occur in all but the most arid areas of Australia. As heavy producers of nectar, they are important sources of food for nectariferous animals such as honeyeaters and honey possum, and they are of economic importance to the nursery and cut flower industries. However they are seriously threatened by a number of processes including land clearing, frequent burning, and disease, and a number of species are rare and endangered.

Brown's 1810 arrangement

Specimens of Banksia were first collected by Sir Joseph Banks and Dr Daniel Solander, naturalists on HM Bark Endeavour during Lieutenant (later Captain) James Cook's voyage to the Pacific Ocean in 1770. By the time of Brown's arrangement of 1810, less than 20 Banksia species had been published. However, Brown had himself collected specimens of 26 unpublished species in 1801 and 1802. Thirteen of these were thought by Brown to belong to a new genus, which he named Dryandra (now B. ser. Dryandra). The remaining species were assigned to Banksia; thus Brown was able to publish an arrangement of 31 species.

Brown divided Banksia into two unranked groups. He placed B. ilicifolia alone in Isostylis because of its unusual dome-shaped inflorescences. All other species were placed in Banksia verae, the "true banksias", because they have the elongate flower spike then considered characteristic of Banksia. The arrangement was as follows:[1]

Banksia
Banksia verae
B. pulchella
B. sphærocarpa
B. nutans
B. ericifolia
B. spinulosa
B. collina (now B. spinulosa var. collina)
B. occidentalis
B. littoralis
B. marginata
B. depressa (now B. marginata)
B. patula (now B. marginata)
B. australis (now B. marginata)
B. insularis (now B. marginata)
B. integrifolia
B. compar (now B. integrifolia subsp. compar)
B. verticillata
B. coccinea
B. paludosa
B. oblongifolia
B. latifolia (now B. robur)
B. marcescens (now B. praemorsa)
B. attenuata
B. elatior (now B. aemula)
B. serrata
B. æmula
B. dentata
B. quercifolia
B. speciosa
B. grandis
B. repens
Isostylis
B. ilicifolia

Brown's 1830 arrangement

Brown released a second edition of his Prodromus in 1821, but no new species of Banksia had been collected since that time, so the arrangement was the same as in the first edition. Between 1823 and 1829, a number of new species were collected, most of which were not published. In 1830, Brown issued his Supplementum, describing eleven additional Banksia species, nine of which were previously unpublished. A revised arrangement was not proffered; instead, Brown gave a position into which each new taxon was to be inserted in the 1810 arrangement. Brown's 1830 arrangement may be summarised as follows:[2]

Banksia
Banksia verae
B. pulchella
B. sphærocarpa
B. nutans
B. ericifolia
B. spinulosa
B. Cunninghamii (now B. spinulosa var. cunninghamii)
B. collina (now B. spinulosa var. collina)
B. occidentalis
B. littoralis
B. marginata
B. depressa (now B. marginata)
B. patula (now B. marginata)
B. australis (now B. marginata)
B. insularis (now B. marginata)
B. integrifolia
B. compar (now B. integrifolia subsp. compar)
B. verticillata
B. coccinea
B. paludosa
B. oblongifolia
B. latifolia (now B. robur)
B. marcescens (now B. praemorsa)
B. media
B. attenuata
B. Caleyi
B. Baueri
B. Menziesii
B. elatior (now B. aemula)
B. serrata
B. æmula
B. dentata
B. quercifolia
B. speciosa
B. Solandri
B. grandis
B. Baxteri
B. Goodii
B. prostrata (now B. gardneri)
B. repens
B. Dryandroides
B. Brownii
B. subg. Isostylis
B. ilicifolia

Legacy

Brown's Banksia verae was renamed Eubanksia by Stephan Endlicher in 1847. The arrangement was eventually superseded by Carl Meissner's 1856 revision. Meissner retained Eubanksia and Isostylis, giving them sectional rank. They have since been promoted to subgenus rank by Alex George, although Eubanksia is now known as B. subg. Banksia.[3][4]

Recent cladistic analyses have revealed a phylogeny that Brown's arrangement fails to reflect. Dryandra is shown to have arisen from within the ranks of Banksia, so should not have been treated as a separate genus; and B. ilicifolia is a fairly derived species, contrary to the basal position suggested by Brown. The phyletic order of species is accurate in some cases but grossly inaccurate in others; for example B. brownii and B. nutans are closely related but are placed very far apart by Brown.[5][6][7][8]

References

  1. ^ a b Brown, Robert (1810). Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae et Insulae Van Diemen. London: Taylor. 
  2. ^ a b Brown, Robert (1830). Supplementum Primum Prodromi Florae Novae Hollandiae. London: Taylor. 
  3. ^ George, Alex S. (1981). "The Genus Banksia L.f. (Proteaceae)". Nuytsia. 3 (3): 239–473. 
  4. ^ George, Alex S. (1999). "Banksia". In Wilson, Annette. Flora of Australia. Volume 17B: Proteaceae 3: Hakea to Dryandra. CSIRO Publishing / Australian Biological Resources Study. pp. 175–251. ISBN 0-643-06454-0. 
  5. ^ Mast, Austin R. (1998). "Molecular systematics of subtribe Banksiinae (Banksia and Dryandra; Proteaceae) based on cpDNA and nrDNA sequence data: implications for taxonomy and biogeography". Australian Systematic Botany. 11 (4): 321–342. doi:10.1071/SB97026. 
  6. ^ Mast, Austin R.; Givnish, Thomas J. (2002). "Historical biogeography and the origin of stomatal distributions in Banksia and Dryandra (Proteaceae) based on Their cpDNA phylogeny". American Journal of Botany. 89 (8): 1311–1323. doi:10.3732/ajb.89.8.1311. ISSN 0002-9122. PMID 21665734. Retrieved 2006-07-02. 
  7. ^ Mast, Austin R.; Eric H. Jones & Shawn P. Havery (2005). "An assessment of old and new DNA sequence evidence for the paraphyly of Banksia with respect to Dryandra (Proteaceae)". Australian Systematic Botany. CSIRO Publishing / Australian Systematic Botany Society. 18 (1): 75–88. doi:10.1071/SB04015. 
  8. ^ Mast, Austin R.; Thiele, Kevin (2007). "The transfer of Dryandra R.Br. to Banksia L.f. (Proteaceae)". Australian Systematic Botany. 20: 63–71. doi:10.1071/SB06016. 
This page was last edited on 7 March 2017, at 11:40.
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