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Brest, Belarus

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Brest

Брэст
Brest Montage (2017).jpg
Flag of Brest

Flag
Coat of arms of Brest

Coat of arms
Brest is located in Belarus
Brest
Brest
Location of Brest in Belarus
Coordinates: 52°08′N 23°40′E / 52.133°N 23.667°E / 52.133; 23.667
Country Belarus
RegionBrest Region
DistrictsBrest District
First mention (Primary Chronicle)1019
First mention (Novgorod First Chronicle)1017
Government
 • Chairman of the Brest City Executive CommitteeAleksandr Rogachuk
 • Chairman of the Brest City Council of DeputiesNikolai Krasovsky
Area
 • Total145 km2 (56 sq mi)
Elevation
280.4 m (919.9 ft)
Population
(2018)
 • Total347,576
 • Density2,400/km2 (6,200/sq mi)
 [1]
Time zoneUTC+3 (FET)
Postal code
224000
Area code(s)+375 (0)162
License plate1
WebsiteExecutive committee

Brest (Belarusian: Брэст, Polish: Brześć, Russian: Брест Brest, Ukrainian: Берестя Berestia, Yiddish: בריסקBrisk), formerly Brest-Litowsk (Belarusian: Берасце, Берасце Літоўскі (Брэст-Лiтоўск); Polish: Brześć Litewski) (Brest-on-the-Bug Polish: Brześć nad Bugiem), is a city (population 347,576 in 2018) in Belarus at the border with Poland opposite the Polish city of Terespol, where the Bug and Mukhavets rivers meet. It is the capital city of the Brest Region.

The city of Brest is a historic site of many cultures. It was the location of important historical events such as the Union of Brest and Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. The Brest Fortress was recognized by the Soviet Union as the Hero Fortress in honor of the defense of Brest Fortress in June 1941.

During medieval times, the city was part of the Kingdom of Poland from 1020 until 1319 when it was taken by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. It became part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1569. As a result of the Partitions of Poland, it was incorporated into the Russian Empire in 1795. After World War I, the city returned to Second Polish Republic. During the Invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939 the city was first captured by the Wehrmacht and soon passed on to the USSR in accordance with German–Soviet Frontier Treaty. In 1941 it was taken again by the Nazis during Operation Barbarossa. After the war, once the new boundaries between the USSR and Poland were ratified, the city became part of the Byelorussian SSR and as such was part of the Soviet Union until the breakup of the USSR in 1991. Brest is now a part of an independent Belarus.

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Transcription

[Russian] - Where are we? - We are in Brest! [English] - To give you a little bit of backstory, I went to Belarus last year, went to hang out with my friend, Rémy, for New Year's Eve and I went to Grodno which has a special five-day visa-free regime. Afterwards things didn't quite go as to plan because I was I was invited back to Belarus and I went to the embassy, the Belarusian embassy in Kiev to get my visa to stay there and learn Belarusian but unfortunately it turned out that I was put on a list of people who were banned from entry to the country. The ban turn out to be for one year. Now I can actually go back to least in principle go back to Belarus so I'm gonna take advantage of a new regime that's come out which is go to Brest which is another city right on the border of Poland. I've read a little bit about it in history so I'm interested to see, it has a nice fortress apparently so I'm intrigued. I'm also intrigued to see if I have problems at the border. Hopefully everything goes smoothly and I'm allowed back in to Belarus so come with me and let's go to Belarus! Okay everybody! I've obviously made it to Belarus. This is a little bit of proof. This is was in my apartment, an overview. It says 'Беларусь - наша радзіма' ('Belarus - our homeland'). I'm not sure how to pronounce that in Belarusian so that's ... it's got some fun facts seems to be like a children's book about this country so how did it go yesterday? Yeah, it's definitely one of the tensest border crossings I've been through in a long time. I got to the border. Yeah, I described my issues that I'd had in the past with entering Belarus and what happens is that you get off the bus and he also have to bring all your stuff, right? That includes your suitcase because they're gonna examine it and obviously all handbags and everything else that you gotta happen to be carrying and they kind of lock a door behind. It's a ... yeah ... a bit different to going through the border in any other country I've been in Europe. So when I went to the border guard it actually been the first time that she had had to process someone under this five day visa-free regime because it's quite new. It only started like I guess on January first I think for this particular city, Brest. So that's like two months ago and it was her first time doing it she had to make a few calls, speak to some colleagues so I took a while I was actually the last person basically to be going through so it took about 15 minutes for her to process everything but she was really friendly and yeah which is cool because yeah there were no issues she actually thought it was my first time in Belarus which of course I agreed with it is my first time in Brest, Belarus at least so when I was going through I didn't actually understand one of her questions and there was a girl been on the bus with me and she quite kindly offered to help a little bit in case i didn't understand something so she actually waited with me which helped a lot not just with me getting through the border control, the passport control itself, getting my passport stamped, making sure that my visa free you know status is all fine. Also then I had to go on to customs and have my goods or my belongings also vetted and she also stood around there in case I had an issue. The border guard, the customs officer I kid you not actually remind me a little bit Lukashenko without the moustache. I don't know ... maybe it's just the fact that I was in Belarus and he asked me a few questions like am I carrying drugs? What's in my suitcase? I said I have clothes and a camera. Of course, my camera happens to be a drone which I wasn't sure if they would be very cool with ... drones are not illegal from what I read in Belarus. It is illegal to film official buildings or something like that. It's not very clear to me and I saw another video on YouTube where someone went around Minsk actually spoke to the police officers and they didn't even seem to have a consensus themselves about you know what the rule exactly is and whether they would enforce it or not but this particular customs officer just asked me if I had drugs and all these things then looked at the suitcase and he didn't examine any further. Luckily everything went well hopped back on the bus, got to Brest. I had to walk around this morning, this afternoon. I went out last night of course in Brest. It's not super crazy nightlife judging by Friday night, just a few bars but I did have a good time and met a good few local people already and actually met some, a Spanish guy and an Argentinian guy who actually live here and work coaching the local football team so that was also nice and people as you would expect in Belarus are really friendly to foreigners. There is very little tourism here. I am enjoying my stay. I am looking forward to seeing the fortress maybe when the weather gets a little bit better because it has been cloudy and it is extremely cold it's like lower than minus 10 Celsius but that's all coming up so let's go and I will ... come with me and I'll show you a little bit of Brest, Belarus. [Russian] - Sasha ... firstly, who are you? Where are we? What is there to see here in Brest? - We have a really pretty town. You can go and see our amazing fortress. You can go to see the Belovezhskaya Pushcha National Park which has a lot of interesting wildlife. You can see in our nice town many cool places. A wonderful alley lanterns on which we are now. You can look at each enterprise has its own symbol, which you can see in the form of a flashlight. And in principle, all people are very beautiful and friendly. Come here! We love tourists. We would be really glad. - And lots of pretty girls here as well, right? - Thanks. - Like for example, our Sasha, from Brest. Cool. - That's really nice, thank you, for the sweet compliment. [English] Hey, hey! Welcome to Brest in Belarus. I'm here on the main pedestrian thoroughfare called Sovietiskaia and I'm gonna give you a little look around the town. This is a town of about yeah 350,000 people on the border with Poland and it's just recently opened up for tourists from Western Europe and from North America. It has now a 10-day visa-free regime regime. You just have to go through a little bit of a process that was pretty quick online although they limited it to five days for me when I tried to do it. It just started in January and I'm here in early March in 2017 so it's quite a cute town and I'm just gonna give you a little bit of a walk through the city center. One thing that I always notice is that it is a good bit more tidier and cleaner and more organized than say the other countries that surround it from the former Soviet Union like Russia or Ukraine for example. Belarus has two official languages: Russian and Belarusian but here in Brest all I've heard is Russian. You see some signs like when you cross the street you can see a lot of stuff that's actually written in Belarusian but I haven't heard it at all. So many of you may be wondering judging by some ... a lot of the comments on my videos here in YouTube about what do I have ... what do I think about Belarusian girls? So overall I've been here for like now about three or four days and I have to say that they are definitely very sweet, very attractive and very friendly as I'm probably one of the first Western Europeans to actually come here to Brest and actually spend ... take advantage of this visa-free regime so I'm definitely a bit of a novelty and girls are pretty similar to Russia and Ukraine in terms of beauty and values and personalities to a certain extent but I did notice a little bit of a difference because Belarusians of course find it harder to travel than say Ukrainians and as a result they kind of don't have the same worldly experience as maybe many Ukrainians and Russians have because of the economic differences and with not as much money to travel and also not yeah needing visas all the time. So that's something that's a little bit different but I can definitely advise it in any case as a place to go to if you want to meet, yeah, attractive women. This is definitely a good spot. [Russian] - Yes, draniki with chanterelles, here you go! These draniki are with chanterelles and a cream sauce with pork. - Ok. - This is a traditional dish? - It's a traditional Belarusian dish. - The most important dish here in Belarus, right? - Yeah, yeah. The most popularity dish of Belarus. - Ok, super! Thanks. - You're welcome. [English] - So we have what looks like the biggest bison of this group. For sure he's in charge because he's seeing what the hell I'm up to. Hello! So hey welcome to the Belovezhskaya Pushcha which is a forest here in Belarus. It's actually on the border with Poland so half the forest is here in Belarus and the other half is in Poland and it's actually Europe's last primeval forest. Originally the European Plains were full of these forests but I was a long time ago this is before we humans came and actually just cleared everything out basically and there's actually been some controversy in the Polish side because they've allowed logging there recently and that's caused a lot of uproar with some environmentalists but I don't really know if that's good or bad. I'm not an expert in logging but I am here to see the park's most famous resident and that's the big guy behind me. That is the European bison and they actually were wiped out here in the park at one stage in the early part of the 20th century and they were reintroduced in the late 20s and they've actually had a very successful conservation effort, a reintroduction of the species endeavour because there are lots of them here lots of European bison in this park and it's really they're quite cool actually quite friendly guys ... big and friendly so this is one of the reasons I wanted to come to the park. It's actually the main reason I wanted to come is to come and see a bison in the flesh. Also because it's actually a symbol of Belarus and I thought it'd be a pity to come to Belarus and not actually see one since this is the national animal in effect so it's one of the symbols of the country so I'm quite excited to meet one in person and they've been friendly to me so far so I'm gonna take you around a little bit in the park. There are other animals here but this is primarily the one I want to see. There are things like deer. I see some horses and some smaller animals but this is the one that I wanted to come and show you so come with me and let's go and talk to the bison. [Russian] - Hi! What's up? Everything good? - Hi! What's up? [English] So here you can see some bison grazing ... just gonna keep it steady as possible ... quite noble-looking animals, I have to say. There's a whole family of them here. Looks like one, two, three, four, five, six of them the The end of my trip here to Brest is about to come. I gotta get on a bus and go to Warsaw in Poland. That's kind of the first big city over the border is actually the capital so now I've gotta get there before midnight as you see it's just getting dark so I have a couple hours to make it on my fifth day because they count the day of arrival and the day of departure towards my time here towards my five days visa-free so if you've enjoyed this video give it a big thumbs up! Whack that notification bell beside the subscription button. If you're interested in these videos especially here in Eastern Europe and if you've been to a country like Belarus then write me your experience below in the comment section. I'm trying to create a community here of people who are interested in traveling to destinations maybe that are a little less traveled especially a country like Belarus that is just opening up so if you have experience help everybody out. Write your comments below and then you'll be able to help like-minded people. That's kind of what I'm trying to do a lot with the channel is reach out to you guys there who have similar interests who like to travel to more unusual places who like to travel differently meet local people so go for it down there let everybody know and I will see you guys in the next video. From Brest, Belarus it's 'до свидания!' ('Goodbye' in Russian).

Contents

Etymology

Several theories attempt to account for the origin of the city's name. It might have come from the Slavic root beresta meaning "birch", or "bark". The name of the city could also originate from the Slavic root berest meaning "elm". And finally, the name of the city could have come from the Lithuanian word brasta meaning "ford".[2]

Once a center of Jewish scholarship, the city has the Yiddish name בריסק (Brisk), hence the term "Brisker" used to describe followers of the influential Soloveitchik family of rabbis. The traditional Belarusian name for the city is Берасце (Bieraście).

Brest became part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1319.[3] In the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth formed in 1569 the town was known in Polish as Brześć, historically Brześć Litewski (literally: "Lithuanian Brest", in contradistinction to Brześć Kujawski). In the late 18th century, during the Partitions of Poland, Brześć was incorporated into the Russian Empire under the name Brest-Litovsk or Brest-Litovskii (Russian: Брест-Литовск, Брест-Литовский, literally "Lithuanian Brest") in the course of the Third Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1795. After World War I, and the rebirth of Poland, the government of the Second Polish Republic renamed the city as Brześć nad Bugiem ("Brest on the Bug") on March 20, 1923.[4] After World War II the city became part of Soviet Belarus with the name simplified as Brest.

Brest's coat of arms features an arrow pointed upwards and a bow (both silver) on a sky-blue shield. It was adopted on January 26, 1991. An alternative coat of arms has a red shield. Sigismund II Augustus, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, first granted Brest a coat of arms in 1554.

History

In 1019 Brest was first mentioned in chronicles as Berestye
In 1019 Brest was first mentioned in chronicles as Berestye

The city was founded by the Slavs. As a town, Brest – Berestye in Kievan Rus – was first mentioned in the Primary Chronicle in 1019 when the Kievan Rus took the stronghold from the Poles. It is one of the oldest cities in Belarus.[5] It was hotly contested between the Polish rulers (kings, principal dukes and dukes of Masovia) and Kievan Rus princes, laid waste by the Mongols in 1241 (see: Mongol invasion of Europe), and was not rebuilt until 1275. Later it was part of the territory of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.[citation needed]

In 1390 Brest became the first city in the lands that now comprise Belarus to receive Magdeburg rights. Its suburbs were burned by the Teutonic Knights in 1379.

In 1409 it was a meeting place of King Władysław II Jagiełło, duke Vytautas and Tatar khan under the archbishop Mikołaj Trąba initiative, to prepare for war with the Teutonic Knights. In 1410 the town mustered a cavalry company (banner) that participated in the Polish-Lithuanian victory at the battle of Grunwald. In 1419 it become a seat of the starost in the newly created Trakai Voivodeship. In 1500 it was burned again by Crimean Tatars. In 1566, following king Sigismund II Augustus decree, a new voivodeship was created - Brest Litovsk Voivodeship. After it became part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1569, it was renamed Brest-Litovsk.[citation needed]

Siege of Brest by E. Dahlbergh, 1657
Siege of Brest by E. Dahlbergh, 1657

During the period of the union of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Sweden under king Sigismund III Vasa (Polish–Swedish union), diets were held there. In 1594 and 1596 it was the meeting-place of two remarkable councils of regional bishops of the Roman-Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church. The 1596 council established the Uniate Church (known also as the Belarusian Greek Catholic Church in Belarus and Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church in Ukraine).

In 1657, and again in 1706, the town and castle were captured by the Swedes during their invasions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. In an attack from the other direction, on January 13, 1660 the invading Muscovite Russian army under Ivan Andreyevich Khovansky took the Brest Castle in a surprise early morning attack, the town having been captured earlier, and massacred the 1,700 defenders and their families (according to captain Rosestein, Austrian observer). On July 23, 1792 a battle was fought between the regiments of the Duchy of Lithuania (part of the Polish Army) defending the town and the invading Russian Imperial Army.

On September 19, 1794 the area between Brest and Terespol was the scene of a victorious battle won by the invading Russian Imperial army under Suvorov over the Kościuszko Uprising army division under general Karol Sierakowski (known in Russian sources as the Battle of Brest). Brest was annexed by Russia when the Poland-Lithuania Commonwealth was partitioned for the third time in 1795 (see: Partitions of Poland). During Russian rule in the 19th century, a large fortress was built in and around the city. The Russians demolished the Polish Royal Castle and most of the Old Town "to make room" for the fortress.[citation needed]

Brest railway station during World War I, circa 1915
Brest railway station during World War I, circa 1915

The town was captured by the German army in 1915, during World War I. In March 1918, in the Brest-Litovsk fortress on the western outskirts of Brest at the confluence of the Bug River and Mukhavets Rivers, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was signed, ending the war between Soviet Russia and the Central Powers and transferring the city and its surrounding region to the sphere of influence of the German Empire. This treaty was subsequently annulled by the treaties which ended the war and even more so by events and developments in Germany and Eastern Europe. During 1918, the city was first declared part of the short-lived Belarusian Democratic Republic, then part of the Podolia Governorate of the Ukrainian People's Republic.

The Second Polish Republic

Following the Polish–Soviet War Brześć became part of the newly reborn Poland, with borders formally recognized by the Treaty of Riga of 1921. It was renamed Brześć nad Bugiem on March 20, 1923 (Brest on the Bug) in the Second Polish Republic, and named the capital of the Polesie Voivodeship in accordance of the pre-1795 tradition. In the twenty years of Poland's sovereignty, of the total of 36 brand new schools established in the city, there were ten public, and five private Jewish schools inaugurated, with Yiddish and Hebrew as the language of instruction. The first ever Jewish school in Brześć history opened in 1920, almost immediately after Poland's return to independence. In 1936 Jews constituted 41.3% of the Brześć population, or 21,518 citizens. Some 80.3% of private enterprises were run by Jews.[6][7][8] The Polish Army troops of the 9th Military District along with its headquarters were stationed in the fortress.

German–Soviet military parade in Brest-Litovsk at the conclusion of the Invasion of Poland. In the center Major General Heinz Guderian from Wehrmacht and Brigadier Semyon Krivoshein from the Red Army
German–Soviet military parade in Brest-Litovsk at the conclusion of the Invasion of Poland. In the center Major General Heinz Guderian from Wehrmacht and Brigadier Semyon Krivoshein from the Red Army

During the German Invasion of Poland in 1939 the city was defended by a small garrison of four infantry battalions under General Konstanty Plisowski against the XIX Panzer Corps of General Heinz Guderian. After four days of heavy fighting the Polish forces withdrew southwards on September 17 (see: Battle of Brześć Litewski). The Soviet invasion of Poland began on the same day and as a result the Soviet Red Army entered the city at the end of September 1939 in accordance with the Ribbentrop-Molotov pact's Secret Protocol, and a joint Nazi-Soviet military parade took place on September 22, 1939. While Belarusians consider it a reunification of the Belarusian nation under one constituency (BSSR at that time), Poles consider it the date when the city was lost. During the Soviet control (1939–41) the Polish population was subject to arrests, executions and mass deportations to Siberia and the Soviet Republic of Kazakhstan.

The city had an overwhelmingly Jewish population in the Russian Partition: 30,000 out of 45,000 total population according to Russian 1897 census, which fell to 21,000 out of 50,000 according to the Polish census of 1931.[9][10]

Operation Barbarossa and after

According to the German-Soviet Pact of 1939 the territory around Brest along with 52% of occupied Poland was assigned to the Soviet Union.[11] On June 22, 1941, the city was attacked by the Wehrmacht on the first day of the anti-Soviet Operation Barbarossa. Thus, in the summer of 1941, the Germans had to capture the city again, this time from the Soviets. The Brest Fortress held out for six days manned by the Russians. Abandoned by the Soviet army,[12] nearly all its defenders perished. The Germans placed Brest under the administration of the Reichskommissariat Ukraine. The remaining municipal Jewish population (about 20,000) was sequestered in the Brest ghetto established by the German authorities in December 1941, the inhabitants of which were murdered in October 1942. Only seven Jews survived the Nazi executions.[10]

The city was liberated by the Red Army on July 28, 1944. Pursuant to the agreements of the Yalta Conference of February 1945, Brest's status as part of the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic was recognized in spite of Polish protests. The Poles of Brest, after 1,000 years of history, were encouraged to emigrate and during the 1940s and 1950s most left for Communist Poland. Today, Poles constitute about 1% of the population.

Geography

Brest lies astride the Mukhavets River, that is known to Bresters as "the river". The river flows west through the city, dividing it into north and south, and meets the Bug River in the Brest Fortress. The river flows slowly and gently. You can hop into a tire innertube and take a relaxing float down this river. Today the river looks quite broad in Brest. The terrain is fairly flat around Brest. The river has an extremely broad floodplain, that is about 2 to 3 kilometres (1 to 2 miles) across. Brest was subject to flooding in the past. One of the worst floods in recorded history occurred in 1974.[citation needed]

A part of the floodplain was reclaimed by method of hydraulic mining. In the 1980s big cutter-suction dredgers were mining sand and clay from the riverbed, to build up the banks. After the dredging the river became deeper and the riverbanks higher. Today the river does not overflow its banks.[citation needed]

In the 2000s, two new residential areas were developed in the southwest of Brest.

To the east of Brest the Dnieper-Bug Canal was built in the mid-nineteenth century to join the river to the Pina, a tributary of the Pripyat River which in turn drains into the Dnieper River. Thus Brest has a shipping route all the way to the Black Sea. If not for a dam and neglected weirs west of Brest, north-western European shipping would be connected with the Black Sea also.

Climate

Brest has a humid continental climate, but slightly leans towards oceanic due to the irregular winter temperatures that mostly hover around the freezing point. Summers are warm and influenced by its inland position compared to areas nearer the Baltic sea.

Climate data for Brest
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 11.6
(52.9)
17.2
(63)
22.6
(72.7)
30.7
(87.3)
32.1
(89.8)
33.0
(91.4)
36.6
(97.9)
35.6
(96.1)
31.5
(88.7)
26.4
(79.5)
19.0
(66.2)
14.5
(58.1)
36.6
(97.9)
Average high °C (°F) −0.1
(31.8)
1.2
(34.2)
6.3
(43.3)
14.0
(57.2)
20.1
(68.2)
22.6
(72.7)
24.9
(76.8)
24.2
(75.6)
18.4
(65.1)
12.5
(54.5)
5.4
(41.7)
0.9
(33.6)
12.5
(54.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) −2.6
(27.3)
−1.9
(28.6)
2.2
(36)
8.7
(47.7)
14.5
(58.1)
17.1
(62.8)
19.3
(66.7)
18.5
(65.3)
13.3
(55.9)
8.3
(46.9)
2.7
(36.9)
−1.3
(29.7)
8.2
(46.8)
Average low °C (°F) −4.9
(23.2)
−4.5
(23.9)
−1.2
(29.8)
3.8
(38.8)
9.0
(48.2)
12.0
(53.6)
14.2
(57.6)
13.3
(55.9)
9.1
(48.4)
4.8
(40.6)
0.4
(32.7)
−3.5
(25.7)
4.4
(39.9)
Record low °C (°F) −35.5
(−31.9)
−28.1
(−18.6)
−22.6
(−8.7)
−6.2
(20.8)
−4.2
(24.4)
2.1
(35.8)
5.8
(42.4)
1.3
(34.3)
−2.8
(27)
−9.9
(14.2)
−19.2
(−2.6)
−25.1
(−13.2)
−35.5
(−31.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 34
(1.3)
33
(1.3)
33
(1.3)
37
(1.5)
63
(2.5)
68
(2.7)
76
(3)
72
(2.8)
55
(2.2)
37
(1.5)
42
(1.7)
41
(1.6)
591
(23.3)
Average rainy days 11 9 12 12 16 16 16 12 15 14 14 13 160
Average snowy days 16 16 10 3 0.1 0 0 0 0 1 7 14 67
Average relative humidity (%) 85 82 75 66 66 69 70 71 78 81 86 87 76
Mean monthly sunshine hours 49 70 134 176 249 259 263 247 174 120 47 34 1,822
Percent possible sunshine 19 25 36 42 51 52 52 54 45 36 18 14 41
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net[13]
Source #2: Belarus Department of Hydrometeorology (sun data from 1949–1951 and 1953–2000)[14]

Points of interest

Rowing course in Brest
Rowing course in Brest
the largest stadium in Brest
the largest stadium in Brest

A majestic Soviet-era war memorial was constructed on the site of the 1941 battle, to commemorate the known and unknown defenders of the Brest Fortress. This war memorial is the largest tourist attraction of the city. The Berestye Archeological Museum of the old city is located on the southern island of the Hero-Fortress. It has objects and huts dating from the 11th – 13th century, that were unearthed during excavations in the 1970s. Brest is proud of its shopping mall, Sovietskaya Street. It was dramatically reconstructed in 2007–2009 to revive the initial view of the old town. In July 2009 the Millennium Monument of Brest was unveiled.

The Museum of Rescued Art Treasures has a nice collection of paintings and icons. Brest also has the first Belarusian outdoor railway museum. Earlier in Brest there was a synagogue, which was regarded as the first one in Grand Duchy of Lithuania. It is also the seat of an Armenian and of a Greek Catholic bishop; the former has jurisdiction over the Armenians throughout the whole country.

Brest City Park is over 100 years old, and underwent renovations from 2004 to 2006 as part of a ceremony marking the park's centennial.

Education

Brest is home to two Universities: A.S. Pushkin Brest State University and Brest State Technical University.

Transport

Being situated on the main railway line connecting Berlin and Moscow, and a transcontinental highway (the European route E30), Brest became a principal border crossing after World War II in Soviet times. Today it links the European Union and the Commonwealth of Independent States.

The city of Brest is served by Brest-Tsentralny railway station. Because of the break-of-gauge at Brest, where the Russian broad gauge meets the European standard gauge, all passenger trains, coming from Poland, must have their bogies replaced here, to travel on across Belarus, and the freight must be transloaded from cars of one gauge to cars of another. Some of the land in the Brest rail yards remains contaminated as a result of the transshipment of radioactive materials here since Soviet days although cleanup operations have been taking place.[citation needed]

The local airport, Brest Airport (code BQT), operates flights on a seasonal schedule to Kaliningrad[15] in the Russian Federation and seasonal charter flights to Burgas and Antalya.[16]

Sport

The sport venues appeared on the northern riverside on the hydraulic fill, comprising an indoor track-and-field center, the Brest Ice Rink,[17] and Belarus' first outdoor baseball stadium. On the opposite riverside is a large rowing course opened in 2007, home of the National Center for Olympic Training in Rowing. It meets international requirements and can host international competitions. It has accommodation and training facilities, favorable location, 3 kilometres (2 miles) away from the border crossing along Warsaw Highway (the European route E30).

Sights around Brest

A southern stretch of the ring barracks of the Citadel with a projecting semi-tower on the left
A southern stretch of the ring barracks of the Citadel with a projecting semi-tower on the left

Belavezhskaya Pushcha National Park, 70 km (43 mi) north of Brest, is a biosphere reserve of world distinction and can be reached by car or bus. This medieval forest is home to rare European bison (wisent). There is a museum and a zoo, available for tourists in the forest, animals can be seen in enclosures all the year round. 2 hotels and some restaurants and bars are there. Excursions can also be taken by horse and cart into the interior of the forest. As a new tourist attraction, the forest features the residence of Grandfather Frost, known as Ded Moroz, the Eastern Slavic Santa Claus, that works all the year round.

Brest also hosts the first Belarusian outdoor railway museum. Brest City Park is old, but looks new after the recent[when?] reconstruction.

Kamyanets, Belarus, that lies on the way to the National park from Brest, features a landmark, the 13th-century tower of Kamyanets. The town of Kosava, near which Tadeusz Kościuszko was born, is also in the Brest region and features a 19th-century palace and a Roman Catholic church.

Visa-free entrance to Brest

From 1st of January 2018 residents of 77 countries can travel to Brest without a visa and stay there for up to 10 days.[18].

Twin towns and sister cities

Brest is twinned with:[19]

Honours

A minor planet 3232 Brest, discovered by the Soviet astronomer Lyudmila Ivanovna Chernykh in 1974, is named after the city.[25]

People

Further reading

  • Kristian Gantser [Christian Ganzer], Irina Yelenskaya, Yelena Pashkovich [et al.] (ed.): Brest. Leto 1941 g. Dokumenty, materiyaly, fotografii. Smolensk: Inbelkul’t, 2016. ISBN 978-5-00076-030-7 [1]

See also

References

  1. ^ "The population of all cities and urban settlements in the Brest Region according to census results and latest official estimates". City Population. Retrieved 2018-01-01.
  2. ^ Encyclopedia Lituanica. Boston, Massachusetts, Vol. I, p.409. LCC74-114275
  3. ^ Auzias, Dominique; Labourdette, Jean-Paul (2010). "Brest et sa région". Biélorussie. Country Guides. Petit Futé. p. 121. ISBN 9782746937796. D'abord russe, ensuite polonaise, en 1319, Brest est conquis par le prince Gedimin et rattaché au grand-duché de Lituanie. [At first Russian, then Polish, Brest in 1319 was conquered by Prince Gediminas and absorbed into the grand Duchy of Lithuania.]
  4. ^ Kancelaria Sejmu RP (2013), Dz.U. 1923 nr 39 poz. 269  ISAP Archive. Link to PDF document.
  5. ^ "Brest as a tourist destination - private Minsk tours". 20 June 2011. Archived from the original on 18 March 2015. Retrieved 13 March 2015.
  6. ^ Norman Davies, God's Playground (Polish edition), Second volume, p.512-513
  7. ^ Alice Teichova; Herbert Matis; Jaroslav Pátek (2000). Economic Change and the National Question in Twentieth-century Europe. Cambridge University Press. pp. 342–344. ISBN 978-0-521-63037-5.
  8. ^ Stosunki polsko-białoruskie pod okupacją sowiecką, (Polish-Byelorussian relations under the Soviet occupation). Bialorus.pl (in Polish)
  9. ^ Joshua D. Zimmerman, Poles, Jews, and the politics of nationality, University of Wisconsin Press, 2004, ISBN 0-299-19464-7, Google Print, p.16
  10. ^ a b Christopher R. Browning, Nazi policy, Jewish workers, German killers', Google Print, p.124
  11. ^ Robert Kirchubel, Operation Barbarossa 1941 (3): Army Group Center, Osprey Publishing, 2007, ISBN 1-84603-107-9, Google Print, p. 44.
  12. ^ Constantine Pleshakov (2005). Stalin's Folly: The Tragic First Ten Days of World War II on the Eastern Front. Houghton Mifflin Books. p. 108. ISBN 0618367012 – via Google Print.
  13. ^ "Weather and Climate- The Climate of Brest" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved 15 May 2015.
  14. ^ "Солнечное сияние. Обобщения III часть: Таблица 2.1. Характеристики продолжительности и суточный ход (доли часа) солнечного сияния. Продолжение" (in Russian). Department of Hydrometeorology. Archived from the original on 26 April 2017. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
  15. ^ "Авиасообщение между Брестом и Калининградом откроется 8 июня". Interfax.by. Interfax. 4 June 2015. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  16. ^ "Что нас манит ввысь?". Vecherniy Brest. 4 June 2013. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
  17. ^ Geering. "Hockeyarenas.net". www.hockeyarenas.net.
  18. ^ "Brest visa-free in Belarus". bezviz.by.
  19. ^ Побратимские связи г. Бреста. city.brest.by (in Russian). Archived from the original on 18 April 2009. Retrieved 8 March 2010.
  20. ^ Офіційний сайт міста Івано-Франківська. mvk.if.ua (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 7 March 2010.
  21. ^ "Miasta Partnerskie Lublina" [Lublin - Partnership Cities]. Urząd Miasta Lublin (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2013-01-16. Retrieved 2013-08-07.
  22. ^ "Embassy of the Republic of Belarus in the Kingdom of the Netherlands - News of the Embassy". Netherlands.mfa.gov.by. 2011-05-16. Archived from the original on 2012-11-28. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
  23. ^ Ашдод метит в побратимы Бреста 12.01.2011
  24. ^ "Georgia's Batumi and Belarus' Brest become twin cities". Agenda.ge. 24 April 2015. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
  25. ^ "3232 Brest 1974 SU - Google Search". books.google.com.

External links

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