The boundary element method (BEM) is a numerical computational method of solving linear partial differential equations which have been formulated as integral equations (i.e. in boundary integral form). including fluid mechanics, acoustics, electromagnetics (Method of Moments),^{[1]} fracture mechanics,^{[2]} and contact mechanics.^{[3]}^{[4]}
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Transcription
Contents
Mathematical basis
The integral equation may be regarded as an exact solution of the governing partial differential equation. The boundary element method attempts to use the given boundary conditions to fit boundary values into the integral equation, rather than values throughout the space defined by a partial differential equation. Once this is done, in the postprocessing stage, the integral equation can then be used again to calculate numerically the solution directly at any desired point in the interior of the solution domain.
BEM is applicable to problems for which Green's functions can be calculated. These usually involve fields in linear homogeneous media. This places considerable restrictions on the range and generality of problems to which boundary elements can usefully be applied. Nonlinearities can be included in the formulation, although they will generally introduce volume integrals which then require the volume to be discretised before solution can be attempted, removing one of the most often cited advantages of BEM^{[citation needed]}. A useful technique for treating the volume integral without discretising the volume is the dualreciprocity method. The technique approximates part of the integrand using radial basis functions (local interpolating functions) and converts the volume integral into boundary integral after collocating at selected points distributed throughout the volume domain (including the boundary). In the dualreciprocity BEM, although there is no need to discretize the volume into meshes, unknowns at chosen points inside the solution domain are involved in the linear algebraic equations approximating the problem being considered.
The Green's function elements connecting pairs of source and field patches defined by the mesh form a matrix, which is solved numerically. Unless the Green's function is well behaved, at least for pairs of patches near each other, the Green's function must be integrated over either or both the source patch and the field patch. The form of the method in which the integrals over the source and field patches are the same is called "Galerkin's method". Galerkin's method is the obvious approach for problems which are symmetrical with respect to exchanging the source and field points. In frequency domain electromagnetics, this is assured by electromagnetic reciprocity. The cost of computation involved in naive Galerkin implementations is typically quite severe. One must loop over elements twice (so we get n^{2} passes through) and for each pair of elements we loop through Gauss points in the elements producing a multiplicative factor proportional to the number of Gausspoints squared. Also, the function evaluations required are typically quite expensive, involving trigonometric/hyperbolic function calls. Nonetheless, the principal source of the computational cost is this doubleloop over elements producing a fully populated matrix.
The Green's functions, or fundamental solutions, are often problematic to integrate as they are based on a solution of the system equations subject to a singularity load (e.g. the electrical field arising from a point charge). Integrating such singular fields is not easy. For simple element geometries (e.g. planar triangles) analytical integration can be used. For more general elements, it is possible to design purely numerical schemes that adapt to the singularity, but at great computational cost. Of course, when source point and target element (where the integration is done) are farapart, the local gradient surrounding the point need not be quantified exactly and it becomes possible to integrate easily due to the smooth decay of the fundamental solution. It is this feature that is typically employed in schemes designed to accelerate boundary element problem calculations.
Comparison to other methods
The boundary element method is often more efficient than other methods, including finite elements, in terms of computational resources for problems where there is a small surface/volume ratio.^{[5]} Conceptually, it works by constructing a "mesh" over the modelled surface. However, for many problems boundary element methods are significantly less efficient than volumediscretisation methods (finite element method, finite difference method, finite volume method). A good example of application of the boundary element method is efficient calculation of natural frequencies of liquid sloshing in tanks.^{[6]}^{[7]}^{[8]} Boundary element method is one of the most effective methods for numerical simulation of contact problems,^{[9]} in particular for simulation of adhesive contacts.^{[10]}
Boundary element formulations typically give rise to fully populated matrices. This means that the storage requirements and computational time will tend to grow according to the square of the problem size. By contrast, finite element matrices are typically banded (elements are only locally connected) and the storage requirements for the system matrices typically grow quite linearly with the problem size. Compression techniques (e.g. multipole expansions or adaptive cross approximation/hierarchical matrices) can be used to ameliorate these problems, though at the cost of added complexity and with a successrate that depends heavily on the nature of the problem being solved and the geometry involved.
See also
 Analytic element method
 Combined Node Method of Moments
 Computational electromagnetics
 Electromagnetic modeling
 Meshfree methods
 Immersed boundary method
 Stretched grid method
References
 ^ In electromagnetics, the more traditional term "method of moments" is often used, though not always, as a synonymous of "boundary element method": see (Walton 2008) for further information on the subject.
 ^ The boundary element method is well suited for analyzing cracks in solids. There are several boundary element approaches for crack problems. One such approach is to formulate the conditions on the cracks in terms of hypersingular boundary integral equations, see (Ang 2013).
 ^ Pohrt, R.; Li, Q. (20141001). "Complete boundary element formulation for normal and tangential contact problems". Physical Mesomechanics. 17 (4): 334–340. doi:10.1134/S1029959914040109. ISSN 10299599.
 ^ "BEM Based Contact Pressure Calculation Tutorial". www.tribonet.org.
 ^ See (Katsikadelis 2002).
 ^ Kolaei, Amir; Rakheja, Subhash; Richard, Marc J. (20150901). "Threedimensional dynamic liquid slosh in partiallyfilled horizontal tanks subject to simultaneous longitudinal and lateral excitations". European Journal of Mechanics B. 53: 251–263. Bibcode:2015EJMF...53..251K. doi:10.1016/j.euromechflu.2015.06.001.
 ^ Kolaei, Amir; Rakheja, Subhash; Richard, Marc J. (20150131). "A coupled multimodal and boundaryelement method for analysis of antislosh effectiveness of partial baffles in a partlyfilled container". Computers & Fluids. 107: 43–58. doi:10.1016/j.compfluid.2014.10.013.
 ^ Kolaei, Amir; Rakheja, Subhash; Richard, Marc J. (20141114). Volume 4A: Dynamics, Vibration, and Control. pp. V04AT04A067. doi:10.1115/IMECE201437271. ISBN 9780791846476.
 ^ Popov, Valentin (2017). Contact Mechanics and Friction  Physical Principles and (Chapter 19). Springer. pp. 337–341. ISBN 9783662530801.
 ^ Pohrt, Roman; Popov, Valentin L. (20150409). "Adhesive contact simulation of elastic solids using local meshdependent detachment criterion in boundary elements method". Facta Universitatis, Series: Mechanical Engineering. 13 (1): 3–10.
Bibliography
 Ang, WhyeTeong (2007), A Beginner's Course in Boundary Element Methods, Boca Raton, Fl: Universal Publishers, ISBN 9781581129748.
 Ang, WhyeTeong (2013), Hypersingular Integral Equations in Fracture Analysis, Oxford: Woodhead Publishing, ISBN 9780857094797.
 Banerjee, Prasanta Kumar (1994), The Boundary Element Methods in Engineering (2nd ed.), London, etc.: McGrawHill, ISBN 9780077077693.
 Beer, Gernot; Smith, Ian; Duenser, Christian, The Boundary Element Method with Programming: For Engineers and Scientists, Berlin – Heidelberg – New York: SpringerVerlag, pp. XIV+494, ISBN 9783211715741
 Cheng, Alexander H.D.; Cheng, Daisy T. (2005), "Heritage and early history of the boundary element method", Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements, 29 (3): 268–302, doi:10.1016/j.enganabound.2004.12.001, Zbl 1182.65005, available also here.
 Gibson, Walton C (2008), The Method of Moments in Electromagnetics, Boca Raton, Florida: Chapman & Hall/CRC Press, pp. xv+272, ISBN 9781420061451, MR 2503144, Zbl 1175.78002.
 Katsikadelis, John T. (2002), Boundary Elements Theory and Applications, Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. XIV+336, ISBN 9780080441078.
 Wrobel, L. C.; Aliabadi, M. H. (2002), The Boundary Element Method, New York: John Wiley & Sons, p. 1066, ISBN 9780470841396 (in two volumes).
Further reading
 Constanda, Christian; Doty, Dale; Hamill, William (2016). Boundary Integral Equation Methods and Numerical Solutions: Thin Plates on an Elastic Foundation. New York: Springer. ISBN 9783319263076.
External links
 An Online Resource for Boundary Elements
 What lies beneath the surface? A guide to the Boundary Element Method and Green's functions for the students and professionals
 An introductory BEM course (with a chapter on Green's functions)
 Boundary elements for plane crack problems
 Electromagnetic Modeling web site at Clemson University (includes list of currently available software)
 Concept Analyst Boundary Element Analysis software
 Klimpke, Bruce A Hybrid Magnetic Field Solver Using a Combined Finite Element/Boundary Element Field Solver, U.K. Magnetics Society Conference, 2003 which compares FEM and BEM methods as well as hybrid approaches
Free software
 Bembel A 3D, isogeometric, higherorder, opensource BEM for Laplace, Helmholtz and Maxwell problems utilizing a fast multipole method for compression and reduction of computational complexity
 boundaryelementmethod.com An opensource BEM software for solving acoustics / Helmholtz and Laplace problems
 PumaEM An opensource and highperformance Method of Moments / Multilevel Fast Multipole Method parallel program
 AcouSTO Acoustics Simulation TOol, a free and opensource parallel BEM solver for the KirchhoffHelmholtz Integral Equation (KHIE)
 FastBEM Free fast multipole boundary element programs for solving 2D/3D potential, elasticity, Stokes flow and acoustic problems
 ParaFEM Includes the free and opensource parallel BEM solver for elasticity problems described in Gernot Beer, Ian Smith, Christian Duenser, The Boundary Element Method with Programming: For Engineers and Scientists, Springer, ISBN 9783211715741 (2008)
 Boundary Element Template Library (BETL) A general purpose C++ software library for the discretisation of boundary integral operators
 Nemoh An open source hydrodynamics BEM software dedicated to the computation of firstorder wave loads on offshore structures (added mass, radiation damping, diffraction forces)
 BEM++, An opensource BEM software for 3D Laplace, Helmholtz and Maxwell problems
 MNPBEM, An opensource Matlab toolbox to solve Maxwell's equations for arbitrarily shaped nanostructures
 Contact Mechanics and Tribology Simulator, Free, BEM based software