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Book of Zechariah

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Book of Zechariah, attributed to the Hebrew prophet Zechariah, is included in the Twelve Minor Prophets in the Hebrew Bible.

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The book of the prophet Zechariah The book is set after the return of the exiles from Babylon to Jerusalem and we´re told in the book of Ezra that Zechariah and Haggai together challenged and motivated the people to rebuild the temple and look for the fulfillment of God's promises. Now long ago Jeremiah, the prophet, had said that Israel's exile would last for seventy years and that afterwards God would restore his presence to a new temple and bring his kingdom and the rule of the Messiah over all nations. The dates at the beginning of this book tell us that those seventy years are almost up. But life back in the land was hard, and it seems like none of these promises were going to come true. why? And the book of Zechariah offers an explanation. It has a fairly clear design, there is an introduction, which sets the tone for a large collection of Zechariah´s dream visions and that's concluded by chapter 7 and 8. And then this is followed by two more large collections of poetry and prophecy let's just dive in and see how the book works. It begins with Zechariah´s challenge to his generation to turn back to God and not be like their ancestors who rebelled and refused to listen to the earlier prophets Which landed them in exile And so now the returned exiles respond positively to Zechariah they repent and humble themselves before God or so it seems. The next large section is a collection of eight nighttime visions that Zechariah experiences and just to prepare you, these are full of very bizarre strange images, a lot like your dreams. The idea that God communicates to people through symbolic dreams is very old and goes back to the book of genesis The dreams of Jacob or Joseph of Pharaoh, these gave meaning to current events at the time, but they also gave a window into the future and so Zechariah has his own dreams now and they've been arranged in this cool symmetrical design. The first and the last visions are about four horsemen each they are like rangers patrolling the world on God´s behalf and it's a representation of God's attentive watch over the nations the report is that the world is at peace and in Zechariah's day this refers to how God raised up Persia to conquer Babylon and bring peace. And so the question now arises, the seventy years of Israel's exile are almost up is now the time for the messianic kingdom in Jerusalem and God responds by saying that he is determined to fulfill those promises but he leaves the question of timing unaswererd the second and seventh visions are paired because they're both reflections on Israel's past sin, that led up to the exile. So, the second vision is about these horns, that symbolize the nations that attacked and then scattered Israel. Assyria and Babylon But then these horns or empires are themselves scattered by a group of blacksmiths an image for Persia. The seventh dream is about a woman in a basket and we are told she is a symbol of the centuries of israel´s covenant rebellion and then this woman is carried off to babylon by other women who carry the basket flying with stork wings this is so strange. The third and sixth visions are paired as they're both about the rebuilding of a new Jerusalem so a man is measuring the city, it's an image of God's promise that Jerusalem will be rebuilt and become a beacon to the nations who will join God´s people in worship and then the sixth dream is about a scroll that flies around the new Jerusalem punishing thieves and liars the idea being that the new Jerusalem is a place that´s purified from sin by the scriptures the fourth and fifth visions are at the center of these collection, and they're about the two key leaders among the returned exiles so Joshua, the high priest, and then Zerubbabel the royal descendant of David. So Joshua, had been symbolically wearing Israel´s sin in the form of theses dirty clothes but then those are taken off and he's given new clothes and a new turban, a symbol of God's grace and forgiveness. and then an angel tells Joshua that if he remains faithful to God, he will lead his people and Joshua will become a symbol of the future messianic king The other vision is about two olive trees that supply oil to this elaborate gold lamp which itself is a symbol of God´s watchful eye over his people and these two trees symbolize the two anointed leaders: Joshua and then Zerubbabel who's leading the temple rebuilding efforts and God says that success will not come to this new temple if it's only the result only of political maneuvering rather these two leaders must be dependant upon the work of God´s spirit The visions come to a close with a bonus vision from the prophet and it picks up the themes of the central fourth and fifth visions it's Joshua the high priest again and he's given a crown and presented as a symbol of the future messiah who will also be a priest over God's kingdom and then Zechariah closes it all out saying that all of these visions will be fulfilled only if the current generation is faithful to God and obeys the terms of the covenant. And so altogether these three visions emphasize how the coming of the messianic kingdom is conditional upon these generation being faithful to God which leads to the conclusion of the dreams it's another challenge from Zechariah and a group of Israelites come and they've been mourning over the former temple´s destruction for nearly seventy years and they ask him:" is it time to stop grieving? I mean it's God's kingdom going to come very soon?" and Zechariah again reminds them of how their ancestors rejected God's call through the prophets which led to the exile, and so he challenges them too. He says:"this generation will see the messianic kingdom only if they pursue justice and peace and remain faithful to the covenant So, in other words Zechariah reverses their question. He asks are you going to become the kind of people who are ready to receive and participate in God´s coming kingdom and that question is left just hanging there, the people don´t answer and the book just moves on And so we come to the final sections that are very different from chapters one to eight Each section is a kaleidoscopic collage of poems and images about the future messianic kingdom so the first one chapters nine to eleven, describe the coming of the humble messianic king who's riding a donkey into the new Jerusalem to establish God's kingdom over the nations but then, all of a sudden, this king, he is symbolized as a shepherd over the flock of Israel, and then he´s rejected first by his own people, but then also by their leaders who are also symbolized as shepherds and so God hands Israel over to these corrupt shepherds and it raises the question will Israel's rejection of their king last forever? and the final section, chapters twelve to fourteen say no. It´s another mosaic of poems and images about the future messianic kingdom and they depict the new Jerusalem as place where God's justice will finally confront and defeat evil among the nations. it´s very similar to the same themes in prophet Joel or Ezekiel But then God also will confront the rebellion within the hearts of his own people He´s going to pour out his spirit on them. He says, so that they can repent and grieve over the fact that they have rebelled and rejected their messianic shepherd The final chapter concludes with the new Jerusalem. That´s the gathering point for all of the nations And then this city becomes a new garden of eden, and there´s a river of living water flowing out of the temple bringing healing to all of creation and that's how the book ends. And so Zechariah just leaves you to ponder the connection between chapters one thru eight and nine to fourteen and the point seems to be that this future messianic kingdom of the book's second half will only come when God's people are faithful to the covenant the point of the first half. Reading the book of Zechariah is a wild ride. These visions and poems are full of starling imagery and they do not follow a linear flow of thought and that's part of the point. It´s like history and our lives, it doesn't always fit into neat orderly paterns but the prophets offer us glimpses of God's hand at work guiding history towards its own purposes and so ultimately Zechariah invites us to look above the chaos and hope for the coming of God's kingdom which should motivate faithfulness in the present and that's what the book of Zechariah is all about.


Historical context

Zechariah's prophecies took place during the reign of Darius the Great,[1] and were contemporary with Haggai in a post-exilic world after the fall of Jerusalem in 587/6 BC.[2] Ezekiel and Jeremiah wrote before the fall of Jerusalem, while continuing to prophesy in the early exile period. Scholars believe Ezekiel, with his blending of ceremony and vision, heavily influenced the visionary works of Zechariah 1–8.[3] Zechariah is specific about dating his writing (520–518 BC).

During the Exile many Judahites and Benjamites were taken to Babylon, where the prophets told them to make their homes,[4] suggesting they would spend a long period of time there. Eventually freedom did come to many Israelites, when Cyrus the Great overtook the Babylonians in 539 BC. In 538 BC, the famous Edict of Cyrus was released, and the first return took place under Sheshbazzar. After the death of Cyrus in 530 BC, Darius consolidated power and took office in 522 BC. His system divided the different colonies of the empire into easily manageable districts overseen by governors. Zerubbabel comes into the story, appointed by Darius as governor over the district of Yehud Medinata.

Under the reign of Darius, Zechariah also emerged, centering on the rebuilding of the Temple. Unlike the Babylonians, the Persian Empire went to great lengths to keep “cordial relations” between vassal and lord. The rebuilding of the Temple was encouraged by the leaders of the empire in hopes that it would strengthen the authorities in local contexts. This policy was good politics on the part of the Persians, and the Jews viewed it as a blessing from God.[5]


The name "Zechariah" means "God remembered." Not much is known about Zechariah's life other than what may be inferred from the book. It has been speculated that his grandfather Iddo was the head of a priestly family who returned with Zerubbabel,[6] and that Zechariah may himself have been a priest as well as a prophet. This is supported by Zechariah's interest in the Temple and the priesthood, and from Iddo's preaching in the Books of Chronicles.


Some scholars accept the book as the writings of one individual. For example, George Livingstone Robinson's dissertation on chapters 9–14[7] concluded that those chapters had their origin in the period between 518 and 516 BC and stand in close relation to chapters 1–8, having most probably been composed by Zechariah himself. However, most modern scholars believe the Book of Zechariah was written by at least two different people.[8]

Zechariah 1–8, sometimes referred to as First Zechariah, was written in the 6th century BC.[9] Zechariah 9–14, often called Second Zechariah, contains within the text no datable references to specific events or individuals but most scholars give the text a date in the fifth century BCE.[10] Second Zechariah, in the opinion of some scholars, appears to make use of the books of Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel, the Deuteronomistic History, and the themes from First Zechariah. This has led some to believe that the writer(s) or editor(s) of Second Zechariah may have been a disciple of the prophet Zechariah.[11] There are some scholars who go even further and divide Second Zechariah into Second Zechariah (9–11) and Third Zechariah (12–14) since each begins with a heading oracle.[12]


The return from exile is the theological premise of the prophet's visions in chapters 1–6. Chapters 7–8 address the quality of life God wants his renewed people to enjoy, containing many encouraging promises to them. Chapters 9–14 comprise two "oracles" of the future.

Chapters 1 to 6

The book begins with a preface,[14] which recalls the nation's history, for the purpose of presenting a solemn warning to the present generation. Then follows a series of eight visions,[15] succeeding one another in one night, which may be regarded as a symbolical history of Israel, intended to furnish consolation to the returned exiles and stir up hope in their minds. The symbolic action, the crowning of Joshua,[16] describes how the kingdoms of the world become the kingdom of God's Messiah.

Chapters 7 and 8

Chapters Zechariah 7 and Zechariah 8, delivered two years later, are an answer to the question whether the days of mourning for the destruction of the city should be kept any longer, and an encouraging address to the people, assuring them of God's presence and blessing.

Chapters 9 to 14

This section consists of two "oracles" or "burdens":

  • The first oracle (Zechariah 9-11) gives an outline of the course of God's providential dealings with his people down to the time of the coming of the Messiah.
  • The second oracle (Zechariah 12–14) points out the glories that await Israel in "the latter day", the final conflict and triumph of God's kingdom.


The purpose of this book is not strictly historical but theological and pastoral. The main emphasis is that God is at work and plans to live again with His people in Jerusalem. He will save them from their enemies and cleanse them from sin.

Zechariah's concern for purity is apparent in the temple, priesthood and all areas of life as the prophecy gradually eliminates the influence of the governor in favour of the high priest, and the sanctuary becomes ever more clearly the centre of messianic fulfillment. The prominence of prophecy is quite apparent in Zechariah, but it is also true that Zechariah (along with Haggai) allows prophecy to yield to the priesthood; this is particularly apparent in comparing Zechariah to "Third Isaiah" (chapters 55–66 of the Book of Isaiah), whose author was active sometime after the first return from exile.

Most Christian commentators read the series of predictions in chapters 7 to 14 as Messianic prophecies, either directly or indirectly.[17] These chapters helped the writers of the Gospels understand Jesus’ suffering, death and resurrection, which they quoted as they wrote of Jesus’ final days.[18] Much of the Book of Revelation, which narrates the denouement of history, is also colored by images in Zechariah.

Apocalyptic literature

Chapters 9–14 of the Book of Zechariah are an early example of apocalyptic literature. Although not as fully developed as the apocalyptic visions described in the Book of Daniel, the "oracles", as they are titled in Zechariah 9–14, contain apocalyptic elements. One theme these oracles contain is descriptions of the Day of the Lord, when "the Lord will go forth and fight against those nations as when he fights on a day of battle" (Zechariah 14:3). These chapters also contain "pessimism about the present, but optimism for the future based on the expectation of an ultimate divine victory and the subsequent transformation of the cosmos".[19]

The final word in Zechariah proclaims that on the Day of the Lord "There will be no Canaanite in the house of the Lord of hosts on that day" (14:21), proclaiming the need for purity in the Temple, which would come when God judges at the end of time. The Revised Standard Version has this: "There will be no trader in the house of the Lord of hosts on that day." In the Masoretic Text it is: "and in that day there shall be no more a trafficker in the house of the Lord of hosts."


  1. ^ Zechariah 1:1
  2. ^ Carol L. Meyers and Eric M. Meyers, Haggai, Zechariah 1–8: The Anchor Bible. Garden City, Doubleday and Company Inc., 1987. ISBN 978-0-385-14482-7. Page 183.
  3. ^ Meyers, p. 30.
  4. ^ Jeremiah 29
  5. ^ Meyers, pp. 31–2.
  6. ^ Nehemiah 12:4
  7. ^ Published in The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures, Vol. 12, No. 1/2 (Oct 1895 – Jan 1896), pp. 1–92.
  8. ^ Coogan, M. A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: The Hebrew Bible in its Context. (Oxford University Press: Oxford 2009), p. 346.
  9. ^ Coogan, M. A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: The Hebrew Bible in its Context. (Oxford University Press: Oxford 2009), p. 346.
  10. ^ Coogan, M. A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: The Hebrew Bible in its Context. (Oxford University Press: Oxford 2009), p. 355.
  11. ^ Meyers, Eric. "Zechariah Introduction." The New Interpreter's Study Bible. (Abingdon Press: Nashville, 2003), p. 1338.
  12. ^ Coogan, M. A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: The Hebrew Bible in its Context. (Oxford University Press: Oxford 2009), p. 355.
  13. ^ Zechariah 6:1–8
  14. ^ 1:1–6
  15. ^ 1:7–6:8
  16. ^ 6:9–15
  17. ^ Petterson, A. R., Behold Your King: The Hope for the House of David in the Book of Zechariah (LHBOTS 513; London: T&T Clark, 2009).
  18. ^ For example, see allusion to Zechariah 9:9 in Matthew 21:5; also Zechariah 12:10 in John 19:37. These and other references between Zechariah and the New Testament are described in Gill, John, Exposition of the Entire Bible: Introduction to Zechariah, archived from the original on 2009-06-04, retrieved 2008-12-27
  19. ^ Coogan, Michael D. A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. Pg. 353


External links

Book of Zechariah
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Hebrew Bible Succeeded by
Old Testament
This page was last edited on 19 November 2018, at 01:22
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