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Book of Wisdom

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Wisdom of Solomon or Book of Wisdom is a Jewish work composed in Alexandria (Egypt) around the 1st century AD with the aim of bolstering the faith of the Jewish community in a hostile Greek world.[1] It is one of the seven Sapiential or wisdom books included within the Septuagint, along with Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs (Song of Solomon), Job, and Sirach, and is included in the canon of Deuterocanonical books by the Roman Catholic Church and the anagignoskomenona (Gr. ἀναγιγνωσκόμενον, meaning "that which is to be read") of the Eastern Orthodox Church.

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Transcription

All rise Case number 23 Hopsin versus Mr. Funk Volume the honorable Dusky dozens presiding All right, everybody sit down This is really getting on my nerves you guys are taking up too much of my time Marcus Hopsin please come to the stand Nigga what the fuck? (what the fuck?) Homie I made you rich, paid your rent (damn right) Biting the hand that was feeding you This shit don't make any sense Nigga what the fuck? (what the fuck?) You know this is that real shit How you gon' forget who built this, huh? I'm the one who made the company all the millions Now you got problems to deal with Man, this is tough luck, see a couple weeks ago we was buds And the crew that was killing shit was us Till you turned on me homie, that's fucked up I ain't keeping this shit on the hush, hush On my chest I just carry too much stuff I done had it, enough is enough bruh Plus I needed something to get my buzz up You done fucked with the wrong dude Ain't no telling what Hopsin is gon' do, creepin' up on you Quit your sleeping, I told you "This is a mutha'fuckin' journey we finna go through" If I ain't have so much to lose I swear to God I probably beat up and choke you Nigga this that raw shit That organic flow you probably see up in Whole Foods Shiver me timbers something's fishy 'bout you Mr. D Ritter When I told you that I wanted new management Why the fuck you throw a fit and seem bitter? Why you catch an attitude whenever I question you about all my fuckin' percentages? I know why (why?), you've been bending it in your benefit Your honor, I'm innocent! This nigga crazy, I'm telling all of my people (you tell 'em) He taking all of my C-Notes (it's true) See he has a gambling issue He takes the cash and blows it all at casinos Damn Uh-oh, when I bring up my royalties You start avoiding me, that's some disloyalty You woke up the evil boy in me, your ass is poisoning Tell me why you would destroy FV? This was a fucking vision that I had created with your brother But you too infatuated with the money You killed it and ran it straight into the gutter Now I think why'd I make D-A-M-E the boss? You keep pissing a whole lot of people off Our whole label came out with a weak result You on that same bullshit Tomica brought Nigga I don't know what you thought You think I can't see on the blood on the walls? Blood on the walls, that ain't going down nigga I don't know what you thought I can clearly see the blood on the wall Blood on the walls, that ain't going down nigga Ain't got time for your bullshit, everybody knows you be on it Ain't got time for your bullshit Hold up, hold up I got some more shit to say, yo It's supposed to be Funk Volume isn't it? Thought it was music, above all the business But you just said fuck all you niggas You tarnished the brand And you started a Funk Volume Fitness? Come on now really think Got us portraying something we really ain't How we supposed to be ill When you on our website with a Shakeweight Tryna be Billy Blanks, nigga thanks Fool ain't nobody tryna lift weights We just wanna hit up the studio and just rap and do shows But you don't understand the culture of hip-hop You a lame ass nigga Dame, half the crew knows New age Jerry Heller, a scary fella I hate your fucking name, every letter I'm very fed up, you acting like an ordinary heffa I'ma take you to the mortuary dress-up We gave you our trust then you had us cornered You got us a shitty label deal with Warner And if I confront you about it You tell me I need counselling and I got a disorder You sent me on tour and it's horror Shitty hotels, no sleep with no food to order Meet and greets every single day, it's torture How you expecting an A1 performer? Every time something's wrong it's the same thing Blah-blah-blah-blah, you just blame me (damn) Then you tell Brooklyn and Jammie (damn) Now they both thinking I'm crazy (damn) I deal with this on the daily (damn) My career mentally rapes me (damn) I won't let this nigga break me He praying Dizzy Wright is gon' replace me, shady What are your fucking motives Dame? Let's talk about it You're our manager, our label-owner, our accountant That's kinda tricky, something is fishy, that's risky We just don't even know We go with the flow while you rowin' the boat You keeping us simple minded Cause you knowin' our only concern is just hopin' we blow So when all the money come in from our album and tours You sit there and soak in the dough When did we ever ask about the gross? When did we ever ask about the net? You would just hand us money from our shows Cause you knew we wasn't questioning the checks Nigga I trusted you with my life You upped your percentage so I'm making less? Fuck you bitch, you get no respect This is why Hop is coming for your neck (Bless) All you care about is making money You don't care about a fucking soul though You just fluctuate our dollars up and down at your convenience like a fucking pogo You been screwin' everybody on the label on the low and they don't even know though So good luck Jarren, Dizzy, Hoppa, SwizZz, I'm going solo Nigga I don't know what you thought You think I can't see on the blood on the walls? Blood on the walls, that ain't going down nigga I don't know what you thought I can clearly see the blood on the walls Blood on the wall, that ain't going down nigga Ain't got time for your bullshit, everybody knows you be on it Change is one of the most difficult things that we face, but change is inevitable. One reason we don't like change is we get comfortable where we are. We get used to our friends, our job, the place we live, and even if it's not perfect we accept it because it's familiar. What happens is because we're not willing to change, we get stuck in what God used to do instead of moving forward into what God is about to do. Just because God's blessed you where you are doesn't mean you can just sit back and settle there. You have to stay open to what God is doing now. What worked five years ago may not work today. If you're going to be successful you have to be willing to change. Every blessing is not supposed to be permanent. Every provision is not supposed to last forever. We should constantly evaluate our friendships. Who's speaking into your life? Who are you depending on? Make sure they're not dragging you down, limiting you from blossoming. Everybody is not supposed to be in our life forever. If you don't get rid of the wrong friends you will never meet the right friends

Contents

Structure, genre and content

The structure can be divided into three sections:[2]

  1. Book of Eschatology
    • exhortation to justice
    • speech of the impious, contrasts of the wicked and the just
    • exhortation to wisdom
  2. Book of Wisdom
    • Solomon's speech concerning wisdom, wealth, power and prayer
  3. Book of History
    • introduction, followed by diptychs of plagues
    • digression on God's power and mercy
    • digression on false worship and further plagues
    • recapitulation and concluding doxology.

The book is addressed to the rulers of the earth, urging them to love righteousness and seek wisdom; the wicked think that all is chance and that they should enjoy each day, but they are deluded.[3] In the second section Solomon (not explicitly named, but strongly implied) tells of his search for wisdom.

The Wisdom of Solomon can be linked to several forms of ancient literature, both Jewish and non-Jewish, but it clearly belongs with biblical Wisdom books such as the Book of Job, one of only five such books among ancient Jewish literature.[4] In terms of classical genre it has been identified as an encomium and with the Greek genre of the "exhortatory discourse", by which a teacher attempts to persuade others to a certain course of action.[5]

Canonicity

Melito of Sardis[6] in the 2nd century AD, Augustine[7] (c. 397 AD) and Pope Innocent I (405 AD)[8] considered Wisdom of Solomon as part of the Old Testament. Athanasius writes that the Book of Wisdom along with three other deuterocanonical books, while not being part of the Canon, "were appointed by the Fathers to be read".[9] Epiphanius of Salamis (c. 385 AD) mentions that the Wisdom of Solomon was of disputed canonicity.[10] According to the monk Rufinus of Aquileia (c. 400 AD) the Book of Wisdom was not called a canonical but ecclesiastical book.[11]

The Council of Rome (382 AD) mentions the Book of Wisdom as a part of the Old Testament Canon.[12] The Synod of Hippo (in 393),[13] followed by the Council of Carthage (397) and the Council of Carthage (419),[14][15] the Council of Florence (in 1442)[16] and finally the Council of Trent (in 1546) listed the Book of Wisdom as canonical.

Composition

The Wisdom of Solomon was written in Greek, in Alexandria (Egypt), in the late 1st century BC to early 1st century AD; the author's prime literary source was the Septuagint, in particular the Wisdom literature and the Book of Isaiah, and he was familiar with late Jewish works as the Book of Enoch and with Greek philosophical literature.[17] It is uncertain whether the book has a single author or comes from a school of writers, but recent scholarship has favoured regarding it as a unified work.[18] In either case its blend of Greek and Jewish features suggests a learned Hellenistic background, and despite the address to the "rulers of the world" the actual audience was probably members of the author's own community who were tempted to give up their Jewishness in the face of the temptations of Greek culture and the hostile conditions facing Jews in the Greek world.[1]

Themes

The book opens with the opposed pairs righteousness/unrighteousness and death/immortality: those who do not follow righteousness will fall into "senseless reasoning" and will not be open to wisdom; wisdom is not an inherent human quality nor one that can be taught, but comes from outside, and only to those who are prepared through righteousness.[19] The suffering of the righteous will be rewarded with immortality, while the wicked will end miserably.[20] The unrighteous are doomed because they do not know God's purpose, but the righteous will judge the unrighteous in God's presence.[21] Lady Wisdom dominates the next section, in which Solomon speaks.[21] She existed from the Creation, and God is her source and guide.[21] She is to be loved and desired, and kings seek her: Solomon himself preferred Wisdom to wealth, health, and all other things.[22] She in turn has always come to the aid of the righteous, from Adam to the Exodus.[1] The final section takes up the theme of the rescue of the righteous, taking the Exodus as its focus: "You (God) have not neglected to help (your people the Jews) at all times and in all places." (Wisdom of Solomon, 19:22).[1]

References

Citations

  1. ^ a b c d Tanzer 1998, p. 294.
  2. ^ Grabbe 2004, p. 22-23.
  3. ^ Grabbe 2004, p. 13.
  4. ^ Grabbe 2004, p. 25.
  5. ^ Grabbe 2004, p. 25-26.
  6. ^ Eusebius. Church History (Book IV). Newadvent.org. Retrieved 2010-07-10. 
  7. ^ of Hippo, Augustine. On Christian Doctrine Book II Chapter 8:2. newadvent. Retrieved 12 October 2016. 
  8. ^ Westcott, Brooke Foss (2005). A general survey of the history of the canon of the New Testament Page 570 (6th ed.). Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock. ISBN 1597522392. 
  9. ^ Athanasius of Alexandria, Excerpt from Letter 39
  10. ^ Williams, translated by Frank (1987). The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis 8:6:1-3 (2. impression. ed.). Leiden: E.J. Brill. ISBN 9004079262. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 11 October 2016. 
  11. ^ of Aquileia, Rufinus. Commentary on the Apostles' Creed #38. newadvent. Retrieved 12 October 2016. 
  12. ^ http://www.tertullian.org/decretum_eng.htm
  13. ^ "Canon XXIV. (Greek xxvii.)", The Canons of the 217 Blessed Fathers who assembled at Carthage, Christian Classics Ethereal Library 
  14. ^ B. F. Westcott, A General Survey of the History of the Canon of the New Testament (5th ed. Edinburgh, 1881), pp. 440, 541-2.
  15. ^ Council of Carthage (in 419) Canon 24
  16. ^ Session 11—4 February 1442
  17. ^ Hayman 2003, p. 763.
  18. ^ Grabbe 2004, p. 24.
  19. ^ Hayman 2003, p. 764.
  20. ^ Horbury, p. 655-656.
  21. ^ a b c Tanzer 1998, p. 293.
  22. ^ Horbury, p. 658.

Bibliography

Preceded by
Song of Solomon
Roman Catholic Old Testament Succeeded by
Sirach
Eastern Orthodox Old Testament
see Deuterocanon
This page was last edited on 12 January 2018, at 04:51.
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