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Book of Proverbs

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Book of Proverbs (Hebrew: מִשְלֵי, Míshlê (Shlomoh), "Proverbs (of Solomon)") is the second book of the third section (called Writings) of the Hebrew Bible and a book of the Christian Old Testament.[1] When translated into Greek and Latin, the title took on different forms: in the Greek Septuagint (LXX) it became Παροιμίαι Paroimiai ("Proverbs"); in the Latin Vulgate the title was Proverbia, from which the English name is derived.

Proverbs is not merely an anthology but a "collection of collections" relating to a pattern of life which lasted for more than a millennium.[2] It is an example of the Biblical wisdom tradition, and raises questions of values, moral behaviour, the meaning of human life, and right conduct.[3] The repeated theme is that "the fear of God (meaning submission to the will of God) is the beginning of wisdom."[4] Wisdom is praised for her role in creation; God acquired her before all else, and through her he gave order to chaos; and since humans have life and prosperity by conforming to the order of creation, seeking wisdom is the essence and goal of the religious life.[5]

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Transcription

proverbs chapter 1 the Proverbs of Solomon the son of David king of Israel to know wisdom and instruction to perceive the words of understanding to receive the instruction of wisdom justice judgment and equity to give prudence to the simple to the young man knowledge and discretion a wise man will hear an increased learning and a man of understanding will attain wise counsel to understand a proverb and an enigma the words of the wise in their riddles the fear of the Lord is the beginning of knowledge but fools despise wisdom and instruction my son hear the instruction of your father and do not forsake the law of your mother for they will be graceful ornaments on your head and chains about your neck my son if sinners entice you do not consent if they say come with us let us lie in wait to shed blood let us lurk secretly for the innocent without cause let us swallow them alive like she'll and whole like those who go down to the pit we shall find all kinds of precious possessions we shall fill our houses with spoil cast in your lot among us let us all have one purse my son do not walk in the way with them keep your foot from their path for their feet run to evil and they make haste to shed blood surely in vain the net is spread in the sight of any bird but they lie and wait for their own blood they lurk secretly for their own lives so are the ways of everyone who is greedy for game it takes away the life of its owner's wisdom calls aloud outside she raises her voice in the open squares she cries out in the chief kong courses at the openings of the gates in the city she speaks her words how long you simple ones will you love simplicity force corners delight in their scorning and fools hate knowledge turn at my reproof surely I will pour out my spirit on you I will make my words known to you because I have called and you refused I have stretched out my hand and no one regarded because you disdained all my counsel and would have none of my reproof I also will laugh at your calamity I will mock when your Terror comes when your terror comes like a storm when your destruction comes like a whirlwind when distress and anguish come upon you then they will call on me but I will not answer they will seek me diligently but they will not find me because they hated knowledge and did not choose the fear of the Lord they would have none of my counsel and despised all my reproof therefore they shall eat the fruit of their own way and be filled to the full with their own fancies for the turning away of the simple will slay them and the complacency of fools will destroy them but whoever listens to me will dwell safely and will be secure without fear of evil proverbs chapter 2 my son if you receive my words and treasure my commands within you so that you incline your ear to wisdom and apply your heart to understanding yes if you cry out for discernment and lift up your voice for understanding if you seek her as silver and search for her as for hidden treasures then you will understand the fear of the Lord and find the knowledge of God for the Lord gives wisdom from his mouth come knowledge and understanding he stores up sound wisdom for the upright he is a shield to those who walk uprightly he guards the paths of justice and preserves the way of his Saints then you will understand righteousness and justice equity and every good path when wisdom enters your heart and knowledge is pleasant to your soul discretion will preserve you understanding will keep you to deliver you from the way of evil from the man who speaks perverse things from those who leave the paths of uprightness to walk in the ways of darkness who rejoice in doing evil and delight in the perversity of the wicked whose ways are crooked and who are devious in their paths to deliver you from the immoral woman from the seductress who flatters with her words who forsakes the companion of her youth and forgets the Covenant of her God for her house leads down to death and her paths to the dead nun who go to her return nor do they regain the passes of life so you may walk in the way of goodness and keep to the paths of righteousness for the upright will dwell in the land and the blameless will remain in it but the wicked will be cut off from the earth and the unfaithful will be uprooted from it proverbs chapter 3 my son do not forget my law but let your heart keep my commands for length of days and long life and peace they will add to you let not mercy and truth forsake you find them around your neck write them on the tablet of your heart and so find a favor and high esteem in the sight of God and man trust in the Lord with all your heart and lean not on your own understanding in all your ways acknowledge him and he shall direct your paths do not be wise in your own eyes fear the Lord and depart from evil it will be health to your flesh and strength to your bones honor the Lord with your possessions and with the firstfruits of all your increase so your barns will be filled with plenty and your vats will overflow with new wine my son do not despise the chastening of the Lord nor detest his correction for whom the Lord loves he corrects just as a father the son in whom he delights happy is the man who finds wisdom and the man who gains understanding for her proceeds are better than the profits of silver and her gain than fine gold she is more precious than rubies and all the things you may desire cannot compare with her length of days is in her right hand in her left hand riches and honor her ways are ways of pleasantness and all her paths are peace she is a tree of life to those who take hold of her and happy are all who retain her the Lord by wisdom founded the earth by understanding he established the heavens by his knowledge the depths were broken up and clouds dropped down the dew my son let them not depart from your eyes keep sound wisdom and discretion so they will be life to your soul and grace to your neck then you will walk safely in your way and your foot will not stumble when you lie down you will not be afraid yes you will lie down and your sleep will be sweet do not be afraid of sudden terror nor of trouble from the wicked when it comes for the Lord will be your confidence and will keep your foot from being caught do not withhold good from those to whom it is due when it is in the power of your hand to do so do not say to your neighbor go and come back and tomorrow I will give it when you have it with you do not devise evil against your neighbor for he dwells by you for safety's sake do not strive with a man without cause if he has done you no harm do not envy the oppressor and choose none of his ways for the perverse person is an abomination to the Lord but his secret counsel is with the upright the curse of the Lord is on the house of the wicked but he blesses the habitation of the just surely he scorns the scornful but gives grace to the the wise shall inherit glory but shame shall be the legacy of fools proverbs chapter 4 here my children the instruction of a father and give attention to no understanding for I give you good doctrine do not forsake my law when I was my father's son tender and the only one in the sight of my mother he also taught me and said to me let your heart retain my words keep my commands and live get wisdom get understanding do not forget nor turn away from the words of my mouth do not forsake her and she will preserve you love her and she will keep you wisdom is the principal thing therefore get wisdom and in all you're getting a get understanding exalt her and she will promote you she will bring you honor when you embrace her she will place on your head an ornament of grace a crown of glory she will deliver to you here my son and received my sayings and the years of your life will be many I have taught you in the way of wisdom I have led you in right paths when you walk your steps will not be hindered when you run you will not stumble take firm hold of instruction do not let go keep her for she is your life do not enter the path of the wicked and do not walk in the way of evil avoid it do not travel on it turn away from it and pass on for they do not sleep unless they have done evil and their sleep is taken away unless they make someone fall for they eat the bread of wickedness and drink the wine of violence but the path of the just is like The Shining Sun that shines ever brighter unto the perfect day the way of the wicked is like darkness they do not know what makes them stumble my son give attention to my words incline your ear to my sayings do not let them depart from your eyes keep them in the midst of your heart for they are life to those who find them and health to all their flesh keep your heart with all diligence for out of it spring the issues of life put away from you a deceitful mouth and put perverse lips far from you let your eyes look straight ahead and your eyelids look right before you ponder the path of your feet and let all your ways be established do not turn to the right or the left remove your foot from evil proverbs chapter 5 my son pay attention to my wisdom lend your ear to my understanding that you may preserve discretion and that your lips may keep knowledge for the lips of an immoral woman drip honey and her mouth is smoother than oil but in the end she as bitter as wormwood sharp as a two-edged sword her feet go down to death and her steps lay hold of hell lest you ponder her path of life her ways are unstable you do not know them therefore hear me now my children and do not depart from the words of my mouth remove your way far from her and do not go near the door of her house lest you give your honor to others and your years to the cruel one less aliens be filled with your wealth and your Labor's go to the house of a foreigner and you mourn at last when your flesh and your body are consumed and say how I've hated instruction and my heart despised reproof I have not obeyed the voice of my teachers nor inclined my ear to those who instructed me I was on the verge of total ruin in the midst of the congregation and assembly drink water from your own cistern and running water from your own well should your fountains be dispersed abroad streams of water in the streets let them be only your own and not for strangers with you let your fountain be blessed and rejoice with the wife of your youth as a loving dear and a graceful doe let her breasts satisfy you at all times and always be enraptured with her love for why should you my son be enraptured by an immoral woman and be embraced in the arms of a seductress for the ways of a man are before the eyes of the Lord and he ponders all his paths his own iniquities entrapped the wicked man and he is caught in the cords of his he shall die for lack of instruction and in the greatness of his folly he shall go astray proverbs chapter 6 my son if you become surety for your friend if you have shaken hands and pledged for a stranger you are snared by the words of your own mouth you are taken by the words of your mouth so do this my son and deliver yourself for you have come into the hand of your friend go and humble yourself plead with your friend give no sleep to your eyes nor slumber to your eyelids deliver yourself like a gazelle from the hand of the hunter and like a bird from the hand of the Fowler go to the ant you sluggard consider her ways and be wise which having no captain or overseer or ruler provides her supplies in the summer and gathers her food in the harvest how long will you slumber o sluggard when will you rise from your sleep a little sleep a little slumber a little folding of the hands to sleep so shall your poverty come on you like a robber and your need like an armed man a worthless person a wicked man walks with a perverse mouth he winks with his eyes he shuffles his feet he points with his fingers perversity is in his heart he devises evil continually he sews discord therefore his calamity shall come suddenly suddenly he shall be broken without remedy these six things the Lord hates yes seven are an abomination to him a proud look a lying tongue hands that shed innocent blood a heart that devises wicked plans feet that are Swift in running to evil a false witness who speaks lies and one who sews discord among brethren my son keep your father's command and do not forsake the law of your mother bind them continually upon your heart tie them around your neck when you roam they will lead you when you sleep they will keep you and when you awake they will speak with you for the commandment is a lamp and the law is light reproofs of instruction of the way of life to keep you from the evil woman from the flattering tongue of a seductress do not lust after her beauty in your heart nor let her lure you with her eyelids for by means of a harlot a man is reduced to a crust of bread and an adulteress will prey upon his precious life can a man take fire to his bosom and his clothes not be burned can one walk on hot coals and his feet not be seared so is he who goes into his neighbor's wife whoever touches her shall not be innocent people do not despise a thief if he steals to satisfy himself when he is starving yet when he is found he must restore Sevenfold he may have to give up all the substance of his house whoever commits adultery with a woman lacks understanding he who does so destroys his own soul wounds and dishonor he will get and his reproach will not be wiped away for jealousy is a husband's fury therefore he will not spare in the day of vengeance he will accept no recompense nor will he be appeased though you give many gifts proverbs chapter 7 my son keep my words and treasure my commands within you keep my commands and live and my law as the apple of your eye bind them on your fingers write them on the tablet of your heart say to wisdom you are my sister and call understanding your nearest kin that they may keep you from the immoral woman from the seductress who flatters with her words for at the window of my house I looked through my lattice and saw among the simple I perceived among the youths a young man devoid of understanding passing along the street near her corner and he took the path to her house in the Twilight in the evening in the black and dark night and there a woman met him with the attire of a harlot and a crafty heart she was loud and rebellious her feet would not stay at home at times she was outside at times in the open square lurking at every corner so she caught him and kissed him with an impotent face she said to him I have peace offerings with me today I have paid my vows so I came out to meet you diligently to see your face and I have found you I have spread my bed with tapestry colored coverings of Egyptian linen I have perfumed my bed with myrrh aloes and cinnamon come let us take our fill of love until morning let us delight ourselves with love for my husband is not at home he has gone on a long journey he has taken a bag of money with him and will come home on the appointed day with her enticing speech she caused him to yield with her flattering lips she seduced him immediately he went after her as an ox goes to the slaughter or as a fool to the correction of the stocks till an arrow struck his liver as a bird hastens to the snare he did not know it would take his life now therefore listen to me my children pay attention to the words of my mouth do not let your heart turn aside to her ways do not stray into her paths for she has cast down many wounded and all who were slain by her were strong men her house is the way to hell descending to the chambers of death proverbs chapter 8 does not wisdom cry out an understanding lift up her voice she takes her stand on the top of the high hill beside the way where the paddles meet she cries out by the gates at the entry of the city at the entrance of the doors to you o men I call and my voice is to the sons of men o you simple ones understand prudence and you fools be of an understanding heart listen for I will speak of excellent things and from the opening of my lips will come right things for my mouth will speak truth wickedness is an abomination to my lips all the words of my mouth are with righteousness nothing crooked or perverse is in them they are all plain to him who understands and write to those who find knowledge receive my instruction and not silver and knowledge rather than choice gold for wisdom is better than rubies and all the things one may desire cannot be compared with her eye wisdom dwell with prudence and find out knowledge and discretion the fear of the Lord is to hate evil pride and arrogance and the evil way and the perverse mouth I hate counsel is mine and sound wisdom I am understanding I have strength by me Kings reign and rulers decree justice by me princes rule and Nobles all the judges of the earth I love those who love me and those who seek me diligently will find me riches and honor are with me enduring riches and righteousness my fruit is better than gold yes than fine gold and my revenue than choice silver I Traverse the way of righteousness in the midst of the paths of justice that I may cause those who love me to inherit wealth that I may fill their Treasuries the Lord possessed me at the beginning of his way before his works of old I have been established from everlasting from the beginning before there was ever an earth when there were no depths I was brought forth when there were no fountains abounding with water before the mountains were settled before the hills I was brought forth while as yet he had not made the earth or the fields or the primeval dust of the world when he prepared the heavens I was there when he drew a circle on the face of the deep when he established the clouds above when he strengthened the fountains of the deep when he assigned to the sea its limit so that the waters would not transgress his command when he marked out the foundations of the earth then I was beside him as a master craftsman and I was daily his delight rejoicing always before him rejoicing in his inhabited world and my delight was with the sons of men now therefore listen to me my children for blessed are those who keep my ways hear instruction and be wise and do not disdain it blessed is the man who listens to me watching daily at my gates waiting at the posts of my doors for whoever finds me finds life and obtains favor from the Lord but he who sins against me wrongs his own soul all those who hate me love death proverbs chapter 9 wisdom has built her house she is hewn out her seven pillars she has slaughtered her meat she has mixed her wine she has also furnished her table she has sent out her maidens she cries out from the highest places of the city whoever is simple let him turn in here as for him he relaxed understanding she says to him come eat of my bread and drink of the wine which I have mixed forsake foolishness and live and go in the way of understanding here improves a scoffer gets shamed for himself and he who rebukes a wicked man gets himself a blemish do not reprove a scoffer lest he hate you rebuke a wise man and he will love you and give instruction to a wise man and he will be still wiser teach a just man and he will increase learning the fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom and the knowledge of the Holy One is understanding for by me your days will be multiplied many years of life will be added to you if you are wise you are wise for yourself and if you scoff you alone will bear it a foolish woman is clamorous she is simple and knows nothing for she sits at the door of her house on the seat by the highest places of the city to call to those who pass by who go straight on their way whoever is simple let him turn him here and as for him who lacks understanding she says to him stolen water is sweet and bread eaten in secret is pleasant but he does not know that the dead are there that her guests are in the depths of hell proverbs chapter 10 the Proverbs of Solomon a wise son makes a glad father but a foolish son is the grief of his mother treasures of wickedness profit nothing but righteousness delivers from death the Lord will not allow the righteous soul to famish but he casts away the desire of the wicked he who deals with a slack hand becomes poor but the hand of the diligent makes one rich he who gathers in summer is a wise son but he who sleeps and harvest is a son who causes shame blessings are in the head of the righteous but violence covers the mouth of the wicked the memory of the righteous is blessed but the name of the wicked will rot the wise and heart will receive commands but a printing fool will fall he who walks with integrity walks securely but he who perverts his ways will become known he who winks with the eye causes trouble but a printing fool will fall the mouth of the righteous is a well of life but violence covers the mouth of the wicked hatred stirs up strife but love covers all sins wisdom is found on the lips of him who has understanding but a rod is for the back of him who is devoid of understanding wise people store up knowledge but the mouth of the foolish is near destruction the rich man's wealth is his strong City the destruction of the poor is their poverty the labor of the righteous leads to life the wages of the wicked to sin he who keeps instruction is in the way of life but he who refuses reproof goes astray whoever hides hatred has lying lips and whoever spread slander is a fool in the multitude of words sin is not lacking but he who restrains his lips is wise the tongue of the righteous is choice silver the heart of the wicked is worth little the lips of the righteous feed many but rules die for lack of wisdom the blessing of the Lord makes one rich and he adds no sorrow with it to do evil is like sport to a fool but a man of understanding has wisdom the fear of the wicked will come upon him and the desire of the righteous will be granted when the whirlwind passes by the wicked is no more but the righteous has an everlasting foundation as vinegar to the teeth and smoke to the eyes so is a sluggard to those who send him the fear of the Lord prolongs days but the years of the wicked will be shortened the hope of the righteous will be gladness but the expectation of the wicked will perish the way of the Lord is strength for the upright but destruction will come to the workers of iniquity the righteous will never be removed but the wicked will not inhabit the earth the mouth of the righteous brings forth wisdom but the perverse tongue will be cut out the lips of the righteous know what is acceptable with the mouth of the wicked what is perverse proverbs chapter 11 a false balance is an abomination to the Lord but a just weight is his delight when pride comes then comes shame but with the humble is wisdom the integrity of the upright will guide them but the perversity of the unfaithful will destroy them riches do not profit in the day of wrath but righteousness delivers from death the righteousness of the blameless will direct his way right but the wicked will fall by his own wickedness the righteousness of the upright will deliver them but the unfaithful will be taken by their own lust when a wicked man dies his expectation will perish and the hope of the unjust perishes the righteous is delivered from trouble and it comes to the wicked instead the hypocrite with his mouth destroys his neighbor but through knowledge the righteous will be delivered when it goes well with the righteous the city rejoices and when the wicked perish there shouting by the blessing of the upright the city is exalted but it is overthrown by the mouth of the wicked he who's devoid of wisdom despises his neighbor but a man of understanding holds his peace a tail there reveals secrets but he who is of a faithful spirit conceals a matter where there is no counsel the people fall but in the multitude of counselors there is safety he who is surety for a stranger will suffer for it but one who hates being surety is secure a gracious woman retains honor but ruthless men retain riches the merciful man does good for his own soul but he who is cruel troubles his own flesh the wicked man does deceptive work but to him who sews righteousness will be a sure reward as righteousness leads to life so he pursues evil pursues it to his own death those who have a perverse heart an abomination to the Lord but such as are blameless in their ways are his delight though they joined forces the wicked will not go unpunished but the posterity of the righteous will be delivered as a ring of gold and swine's snout so is a lovely woman who lacks discretion the desire of the righteous is only good but the expectation of the wicked is wrath there is one who scatters yet increases more and there is one who withholds more than his right but it leads to poverty the generous soul will be made rich and he who waters will also be watered himself the people will curse him who withholds grain but blessing will be on the head of him who sells it he who diligently seek skit finds favor but trouble will come to him who seeks evil he who trusts in his riches will fall but the righteous will flourish like foliage he who troubles his own house will inherit the wind and the fool will be servant to the wise of heart the fruit of the righteous is a tree of life and he who wins Souls is wise if the righteous will be recompense on the earth how much more the wicked and the sinner proverbs chapter 12 whoever loves instruction loves knowledge but he who hates reproof is stupid a good man obtains favor from the Lord but a man of wicked devices he will condemn a man is not established by wickedness but the root of the righteous cannot be moved an excellent wife is the crown of her husband but she who causes shame is like rottenness to his bones the thoughts of the righteous are right but the counsels of the wicked are deceitful the words of the wicked are lying wait for blood but the mouth of the upright will deliver them the wicked are overthrown and are no more but the house of the righteous will stand a man will be commended according to his wisdom but he who is of a perverse heart will be despised better is the one who is slighted but has a servant then he who honors himself but lacks bread a righteous man regards the life of his animal but the tender mercies of the wicked are cruel he who tells his land will be satisfied with bread but he who follows frivolity is devoid of understanding the wicked covet the catch of evil men but the root of the righteous yields fruit the wicked is ensnared by the transgression of his lips but the righteous will come through trouble a man will be satisfied with good by the fruit of his mouth and the recompense of a man's hands will be rendered to him the way of a fool is right in his own eyes but he who heeds counsel was wise of fools wrath is known at once but a prudent man covers shame hue speaks truth declares righteousness but a false witness deceit there is one who speaks like the piercings of a sword but the tongue of the wise promotes health the truthful lip shall be established forever but a lying tongue is but for a moment deceit is in the heart of those who devise evil but counsellors of peace have joy no grave trouble will overtake the righteous but the wicked shall be filled with evil lying lips are an abomination to the Lord but those who deal truthfully are his delight a prudent man conceals knowledge but the heart of fools proclaims foolishness the hand of the diligent will rule but the slothful will be put to force the labor anxiety in the heart of man causes depression but a good word makes it glad the righteous should choose his friends carefully for the way of the wicked leads them astray the slothful man does not roast what he took in hunting but diligence is man's precious possession in the way of righteousness is life and in its pathway there is no death proverbs chapter 13 a wise son needs his father's instruction but a scoffer does not listen to rebuke a man shall eat well by the fruit of his mouth but the soul of the unfaithful feeds on violence he who guards his mouth preserves his life but he who opens wide his lips shall have destruction the soul of a sluggard desires and has nothing but the soul of the diligent shall be made rich a righteous man hates lying but a wicked man is loathesome and comes to shame righteousness keeps him whose way is blameless but wickedness overthrows the sinner there is one who makes himself rich yet has nothing and one who makes himself poor yet has great riches the ransom of a man's life is his riches but the poor does not hear rebuke the light of the righteous rejoices but the lamp of the wicked will be put out by pride comes only contention but with the well-advised is wisdom wealth gained by dishonesty will be diminished but he who gathers by labour will increase Hope deferred makes the heart sick but when the desire comes it is a tree of life he who despises the word will be destroyed but he who fears the commandment will be rewarded the law of the wise is a fountain of life to turn one away from the snares of death good understanding gains favor but the way of the unfaithful is hard every prudent man acts with knowledge but a fool lays open his folly a wicked messenger falls into trouble but a faithful ambassador brings health poverty and shame will come to him who disdains correction but he regards reproof will be honored a desire accomplished is sweet to the soul but it is an abomination to fools to depart from evil he who walks with wise men will be wise but the companion of fools will be destroyed evil pursues sinners but to the righteous good shall be repaid a good man leaves an inheritance to his children's children but the wealth of the sinner is stored up for the righteous much food is in the fallow ground of the poor and for lack of justice there is waste he who spares his rod hates his son but he who loves him disciplines him promptly the righteous eats to the satisfying of his soul but the stomach of the wicked shall be in one proverbs chapter 14 every Wise Woman builds her house but the foolish pulls it down with her hands he walks in his uprightness fears the Lord but he who is perverse in his ways despises him in the mouth of a pool is a rod of pride but the lips of the wise will preserve them where no oxen are the trough is clean but much increase comes by the strength of an ox a faithful witness does not lie but a false witness will utter lies a scoffer seeks wisdom and does not find it but knowledge is easy to him who understands go from the presence of a foolish man when you do not perceive in him the lips of knowledge the wisdom of the prudent is to understand his way but the folly of fools is deceit fools mock its sin but among the upright there is favor the heart knows its own bitterness and a stranger does not share its joy the house of the wicked will be overthrown but the tenth of the upright will flourish there is a way which seems right to a man but it's end is the way of death even in laughter the heart may sorrow and the end of the mirth may be grief the backslider and heart will be filled with his own ways but a good man will be satisfied from above the simple believes every word but the prudent man considers well his steps a wise man fears and departs from evil but a fool rages and is self-confident he who is quick tempered acts foolishly and a man of wicked intentions is hated the simple inherit folly but the prudent are crowned with knowledge the evil will bow before the good and the wicked at the gates of the righteous the poor man is hated even by his own neighbor but the rich has many friends he who despises his neighbors sins but he who has mercy on the poor happy as he do they not go stray who devise evil but mercy and truth belong to those who devise good in all labour there is profit but idle chatter leads only to poverty the crown of the wise is their riches but the foolishness of fools is folly a true witness delivers souls but a deceitful and it speaks lies in the fear of the Lord there is strong confidence and his children will have a place of refuge the fear of the Lord is a fountain of life to avoid the snares of death in a multitude of people as a king's honor but in the lack of people as the downfall of a prince he who is slow to wrath has great understanding but he who is impulsive exalts folly a sound heart is life to the body but Envy is rottenness to the bones he who oppresses the poor reproaches his maker but he who honors him has mercy on the needy the wicked is banished in his wickedness but the righteous has a refuge in his death wisdom rest quietly in the heart of him who has understanding but what is in the heart of fools is made known righteousness exalts a nation but sin is a reproach to any people the King's favor is toward a wise servant but his wrath is against him who causes shame proverbs chapter 15 a soft answer turns away wrath but a harsh word stirs up anger the tongue of the wise uses knowledge rightly but the mouth of fools pours forth foolishness the eyes of the Lord are in every place keeping watch on the evil and good a wholesome tongue is a tree of life but perverseness in it breaks the spirit a fool despises his father's instruction but he who receives reproof is prudent in the house of the righteous there is much treasure but in the revenue of the wicked is trouble the lips of the wise dispersed knowledge but the heart of the fool does not do so the sacrifice of the wicked is an abomination to the Lord but the prayer of the upright is his delight the way of the wicked is an abomination to the Lord but he loves him who follows righteousness harsh correction is for him who forsakes the way and he who hates reproof will die hell and destruction are before the Lord so how much more the hearts of the sons of men a scoffer does not love one who reproved him nor will he go to the wise a merry heart makes a cheerful countenance but by sorrow of the heart this spirit is broken the heart of him who has understanding seeks knowledge but the mouth of fools feeds on foolishness all the days of the afflicted are evil but he who is of a merry heart has a continual feast better is a little with the fear of the Lord than great treasure with trouble better is a dinner of herbs where love is then a fatted calf with hatred a wrathful man stirs up strife but he who is slow to anger a lays contention the way of the slothful man is like a hedge of thorns but the way of the upright is a highway a wise son makes a father glad but a foolish man despises his mother folly is joy to him who is destitute of discernment but a man of understanding walks uprightly without counsel plans go awry but in the multitude of counselors they are established a man has joy by the answer of his mouth and a word spoken in due season how good is it the way of life winds upward for the wise that he may turn away from the hell below the Lord will destroy the house of the proud but he will establish the boundary of the widow the thoughts of the wicked are an abomination to the Lord but the words of the pure are pleasant he who is greedy for gain troubles his own house but he who hates bribes will live the heart of the righteous studies how to answer but the mouth of the wicked pours forth evil the Lord is far from the wicked but he hears the prayer of the righteous the light of the eyes rejoices the heart and a good report makes the bones healthy the year that here's the reproof of life will abide among the wise he who disdains instruction despises his own soul but he who heeds reproof gets understanding the fear of the Lord is the instruction of wisdom and before honor is humility proverbs chapter 16 the preparations of the heart belong to man but the answer of the tongue is from the Lord all the ways of a man are pure in his own eyes but the Lord weighs the spirit commit your works to the Lord and your thoughts will be established the Lord has made all things for himself yes even the wicked for the day of doom everyone who is proud and heart is an abomination to the Lord though they joined forces none will go unpunished in mercy and truth atonement is provided for iniquity and by the fear of the Lord one departs from evil when a man's ways please the Lord he makes even his enemies to be at peace with him better is a little with righteousness than vast revenues without justice a man's heart plans his way but the Lord directs his steps even though divination is on the lips of the king his mouth must not transgress in judgment adjust weight and balance our awards all the weights in the bag are his work it is an abomination for Kings to commit wickedness for a throne is established by righteousness righteous lips are the delight of kings and they love him who speaks what is right as messengers of death is the King's wrath but a wise man will appease it in the light of the Kings face his life and his favour is like a cloud of the latter rain how much better it is to get wisdom than gold and to get understanding is to be chosen rather than silver the highway of the upright is to depart from evil he who keeps his way preserves his soul pride goes before destruction and a haughty spirit before a fall better to be of a humble spirit with the lowly then to divide the spoil with the proud he who heeds the word wisely will find good and whoever trusts in the Lord happy is he the wise and heart will be called prudent and the sweetness of the lips increases learning understanding is a wellspring of life to him who has it but the correction of fools is folly the heart of the wise teaches his mouth and adds learning to his lips pleasant words are like a honeycomb sweetness to the soul and health to the bones there is a way that seems right to a man but it's end is the way of death the person who Labor's Labor's for himself for his hungry mouth drives him on an ungodly man digs up evil and it is on his lips like a burning fire a perverse man so strife and a Whisperer separates the best of friends a violent man entices his neighbor and leads him in a way that is not good he winks his eye to devise perverse things he purses his lips and brings about evil the silver-haired head is a crown of glory if it is found in the way of righteousness he who is slow to anger is better than the mighty and he who rules his spirit then he who takes a city the lot is cast into the lap but it's every decision is from the Lord proverbs chapter 17 better is a dry morsel with quietness than a house full of feasting with strife a wise servant will rule over a son who causes shame and will share an inheritance among the brothers the refining pot is for silver and the furnace for gold but the Lord tests the hearts an evildoer gives heed to false lips a liar listens eagerly to a spiteful tongue you mocks the poor reproaches his maker he who is glad at calamity will not go and punished children's children or the crown of old men and the glory of children his their father excellent speech is not becoming to a fool much less lying lips to a prince a present is a precious stone in the eyes of its possessor wherever he turns he prospers he who covers a transgression seeks love but he repeats a matter separates the best of friends reproof is more effective for a wise man than 100 blows on a fool an evil man seeks only rebellion therefore a cruel messenger will be sent against him let a man meet a bear robbed of her cubs rather than a fool in his folly whoever rewards evil for good evil will not depart from his house the beginning of strife is like releasing water therefore stop contention before a quarrel starts he who justifies the wicked and he who condemns the just both of them alike are an abomination to the Lord why is there in the hand of a fool the purchase price of wisdom since he has no heart for it a friend loves at all times and a brother is born for adversity a man devoid of understandings shakes hands in a pledge and becomes surety for his friend he who loves transgression loves strife and he who exalts his gait seeks destruction he who has a deceitful heart finds no good and he who has a perverse tongue falls into evil he who baguettes a scoffer does so to his own sorrow and the father of a fool has no joy a merry heart does good like medicine but a broken spirit dries the bones a wicked man accepts a bribe behind the back to pervert the ways of justice wisdom is in the sight of him who has understanding but the eyes of a fool are on the ends of the earth a foolish son is a grief to his father and bitterness to her who bore him also to punish the righteous is not good nor to strike Prince's for their brightness he who has knowledge spares his words and a man of understanding is of a calm spirit even a fool is counted wise when he holds his peace when he shuts his lips he's considered perceptive proverbs chapter 18 a man who isolates himself seeks his own desire he rages against all wise judgment a fool has no delight in understanding but in expressing his own heart when the wicked comes contempt comes also and with dishonor comes reproach the words of a man's mouth are deep waters the wellspring of wisdom is a flowing brook it is not good to show partiality to the wicked or to overthrow the righteous in judgment a fools lips enter into contention and his mouth calls for blows of bulls mouth is his destruction and his lips are the snare of his soul the words of the tale bear are like tasty trifles and they go down into the inmost body he who is slothful in his work is a brother to him who is a Great destroyer the name of the Lord is a strong tower the righteous run to it and are safe the rich man's wealth is his strong City and like a high wall in his own esteem before destruction the heart of man is haughty and before honor his humility he who answers a matter before he hears it it is folly and shamed to him the spirit of a man will sustain him in sickness but who can bear a broken spirit the heart of the prudent acquires knowledge and the ear of the wise seeks knowledge a man's gift makes room for him and brings him before great men the first one to plead his cause seems right until his neighbor comes and examines him casting Lots causes contentions to cease and keeps the mighty apart a brother offended is harder to win than a strong city and contentions are like the bars of a castle a man's stomach shall be satisfied from the fruit of his mouth and from the produce of his lips he shall be filled death and life are in the power of the tongue and those who love it will eat its fruit he who finds a wife finds a good thing and obtains favor from the Lord the poor man uses entreaties but the rich answered roughly a man who has friends must himself be friendly but there is a friend who sticks closer than a brother proverbs chapter 19 better is the poor who walks in his integrity then one who is perverse in his lips and is a fool also it is not good for a soul to be without knowledge and he sins who hastens with his feet the foolishness of of man twists his way and his heart threats against the Lord wealth makes many friends but the poor is separated from his friend a false witness will not go unpunished and he who speaks lies will not escape many entreat the favor of nobility and every man is a friend to one who gives gifts all the brothers of the poor hate him how much more do his friends go far from him he may pursue them with words yet they abandon him he who gets wisdom loves his own soul he who keeps understanding will find good a false witness will not go unpunished and he who speaks lies Shall Perish luxury is not fitting for a fool much less for a servant to rule over princes the discretion of a man makes him slow to anger and it is to his glory to overlook a transgression the Kings wrath is like the roaring of a lion but his favour is like the dew on the grass a foolish son is the ruin of his father and the contentions of a wife are a continual dripping houses and riches are an inheritance from father's but a prudent wife is from the Lord slothfulness cast one into a deep sleep and an idle person will suffer hunger he who keeps the commandment keeps his soul but he who is careless of his ways will die he who has pity on the poor lends to the Lord and he will pay back what he has given chasing your son while there is hope and do not set your heart on his destruction a man of great wrath will suffer punishment for if you deliver him you will have to do it again listen to counsel and receive instruction that you may be wise in your latter days there are many plans in a man's heart nevertheless the Lord's counsel that will stand what is desired in a man is kindness and a poor man is better than a liar the fear of the Lord leads to life and he who has it will abide in satisfaction he will not be visited with evil a slothful man buries his hand in the bowl and will not so much as bring it to his mouth again strike a scoffer and the simple will become weary reprove one who has understanding and he will discern knowledge he who mistreats his father and chases away his mother is a son who causes shame and brings reproach cease listening to instruction my son and you will stray from the words of knowledge a disreputable witness scorns justice and the mouth of the wicked devours iniquity judgments are prepared for scoffers and beatings for the backs of fools proverbs chapter 20 wine is a mocker intoxicating drink arouses brawling and whoever is led astray by it is not wise the wrath of a king is like the roaring of a lion whoever provokes him to anger sins against his own life it is honorable for a man to stop striving since any fool can start a quarrel the sluggard will not plow because of winter therefore he will beg during the harvest and have nothing counsel in the heart of man is like deep water but a man of understanding will draw it out most men will proclaim each his own goodness but who can find a faithful man the righteous man walks in his integrity his children are blessed after him a king who sits on the throne of judgment scatters all evil with his eyes who can say I have made my heart clean I am pure for my sin diverse weights and diverse measures they are both alike an abomination to the Lord even a child is known by his deeds by whether what he does is pure andhrite the hearing ear and the seeing eye the Lord has made both of them do not love sleep lest you come to poverty open your eyes and you will be satisfied with bread it is good for nothing cries the buyer but when he has gone his way then he boses there is gold and a multitude of rubies but the lips of knowledge a precious jewel take the garment of one whose surety for a stranger and hold it as a pledge when it is for seductress bred gained by deceit is sweet to a man but afterward his mouth will be filled with gravel every purpose is established by counsel by wise counsel wage war he who goes about as a tail bear reveals secrets therefore do not associate with one who flatters with his lips whoever curses his father or his mother his lamp will be put out in deep darkness an inheritance gained hastily at the beginning will not be blessed at the end do not say I will recompense evil wait for the Lord and He will save you diverse weights are an abomination to the Lord and a false balance is not good a man's steps are of the Lord how then can a man understand his own way it is a snare for a man to devote rashly something as holy and afterward to reconsider his vows a wise King sifts out the wicked and brings the threshing wheel over them the spirit of a man is the lamp of the Lord searching all the inner depths of his heart mercy and truth preserved the king and by loving-kindness he upholds his throne the glory of young men is their strength and the splendor of old men is their gray head blows that hurt cleanse away evil as do stripes the inner depths of the heart proverbs chapter 21 the king's heart is in the hand of the Lord like the rivers of water he turns it wherever he wishes every way of a man is right in his own eyes but the Lord weighs the hearts to do righteousness and justice is more acceptable to the Lord than sacrifice a haughty look a proud heart and the prowling of the wicked our sin the plans of the diligent lead surely to plenty but those of everyone who is hasty surely to poverty getting treasures by a lying tongue is the fleeting fantasy of those who seek death the violence of the wicked will destroy them because they refuse to do justice the way of a guilty man is perverse but as for the pure his work is right it is better to dwell in the corner of a housetop then in a house shared with a contentious woman the soul of the wicked desires evil his neighbor finds no favor in his eyes when the scoffer is punished the simple is made wise but when the wise is instructed he receives knowledge the righteous God wisely considers the house of the wicked overthrowing the wicked for their wickedness whoever shuts his ears to the cry of the poor will also cry himself and not be heard a gift in secret pacifies anger and a bribe behind-the-back strong wrath it is a joy for the just to do justice but destruction will come to the workers of iniquity a man who wanders from the way of understanding will rest in the congregation of the dead he who loves pleasure will be a poor man he who loves wine and oil will not be made rich the wicked shall be a ransom for the righteous and the unfaithful for the upright it is better to dwell in the wilderness than with an angry and contentious woman there is desirable treasure and oil and the dwelling of the wise but a foolish man squanders it he who follows righteousness and mercy finds life righteousness and honor a wise man scales the city of the mighty and brings down the trusted stronghold whoever guards his mouth and tongue keep his soul from trouble a proud and haughty man scoffer is his name he acts with arrogant pride the desire of the slothful kills him for his hands refuse to labor he covets greedily all day long but the righteous gives and does not spare the sacrifice of the wicked is an abomination how much more when he brings it with wicked intent a false witness shall perish but the man who hears him will speak endlessly a wicked man hardens his face but as for the upright he establishes his way there is no wisdom or understanding or counsel against the Lord the horse is prepared for the day of battle but deliverance is of the Lord proverbs chapter 22 a good name is to be chosen rather than great riches loving favor rather than silver and gold the rich and the poor have this in common the Lord is the maker of them all a prudent man foresees evil and hides himself but the simple pass on and are punished by humility and the fear of the Lord are riches and honor and life thorns and snares are in the way of the perverse he who guards his soul will be far from them train up a child in the way he should go and when he is old he will not depart from it the rich rules over the poor and the borrower is servant to the lender he who sews iniquity will reap sorrow and the rod of his anger will fail he who has a bountiful eye will be blessed for he gives of his bread to the poor cast out the scoffer and contentions will leave yes strife and reproach will cease he who loves purity of heart and has Grace on his lips the king will be his friend the eye of the Lord preserves knowledge but he overthrows the words of the faithless the slothful man says there's a lion outside I shall be slain in the streets the mouth of an immoral woman is depict he who is a board of the Lord will fall their foolishness is bound up in the heart of a child but the rod of Correction will drive it far from him he who oppresses the poor to increase his riches and he who gives to the rich will surely come to poverty incline your ear and hear the words of the wise and apply your heart to Maia knowledge for it is a pleasant thing if you keep them within you let them all be fixed upon your lips so that your trust may be in the Lord I have instructed you today even you have I not written to you excellent things of counsels and knowledge that I may make you know the certainty of the words of truth that you may answer words of truth to those who send to you do not rob the poor because he is poor nor oppress the afflicted at the gate for the Lord will plead their cause and plunder the soul of those who plunder them make no friendship with an angry man and what the furious man do not go lest you learn his ways and set a snare for your soul do not be one of those who shakes hands in a pledge one of those who is surety for debts if you have nothing with which to pay why should he take away your bed from under you do not remove the ancient landmark which your fathers have set do you see a man who excels in his work he will stand before kings he will not stand before unknown men proverbs chapter 23 when you sit down to eat with a ruler consider carefully what is before you and put a knife to your throat if you are a man given to appetite do not desire his delicacies for they are deceptive food do not overwork to be rich because of your own understanding cease will you set your eyes on that which is not for riches certainly make themselves wings they fly away like an eagle toward heaven do not eat the bread of a miser nor desire his delicacies for as he thinks in his heart so is he eat and drink he says to you but his heart is not with you the morsel you have eaten you will vomit up and waste your pleasant words do not speak in the hearing of a fool for he will despise the wisdom of your words do not remove the ancient landmark nor enter the fields of the fatherless for their Redeemer is mighty he will plead their cause against you apply your heart to instruction and your ears to the words of knowledge do not withhold correction from a child or if you beat him with a rod he will not die you shall beat him with a rod and deliver his soul from hell my son if your heart is wise my heart will rejoice indeed by myself yes my inmost being will rejoice when your lips speak right things do not let your heart end these sinners but in the fear of the Lord continue all day long for surely there is a Hereafter and your hope will not be cut off here my son and be wise and guide your heart in the way do not mix with wine bitters or with gluttonous eaters of meat for the drunkard and the glutton will come to poverty and drowsiness will clothe the man with rags listen to your father who begat you and do not despise your mother when she is old by the truth and do not sell it also wisdom and instruction and understanding the father of the righteous will greatly rejoice and he who baguettes a wise child will delight in him let your father and your mother be glad and let her who bore you rejoice my son give me your heart and that your eyes observed my ways for a harlot is a deep pit and a seductress is an arrow well she also lies in wait as for a victim and increases the unfaithful among men who has whoa who has sorrow who has contentions who has complaints who has wounds without cause who has redness of eyes those who linger long at the wine those who go in search of mixed wine do not look on the wine when it is red when it sparkles in the cup when it swirls around smoothly at the last it bites like a serpent and stings like a Viper your eyes will see strange things and your heart will utter perverse things yes you will be like one who lies down in the midst of the sea or like one who lies at the top of the mast saying they have struck me but I was not hurt they have beaten me but I did not feel it when shall I awake that I may seek another drink proverbs chapter 24 do not be envious of evil men nor desire to be with them for their heart devises violence and their lips talk of troublemaking through wisdom a house is built and by understanding it is established by knowledge the rooms are filled with all precious and pleasant riches a wise man is strong yes a man of knowledge increases strength for by wise counsel you will wage your own war and in a multitude of counselors there is safety wisdom is too lofty for a fool he does not open his mouth and the gate he who plots to do evil will be called a schemer the devising of foolishness is sin and the scoffer is an abomination to men if you faint in the day of adversity your strength is small deliver those who are drawn toward death and hold back those stumbling to the slaughter if you say surely we did not know this does not he who weighs the hearts considerate he who keeps your soul does he not know it and will he not render to each man according to his deeds my son eat honey because it is good and the honeycomb which is sweet to your taste so shall the knowledge of wisdom be to your soul if you have found it there is a prospect and your hope will not be cut off do not lie and wait a wicked man against the dwelling of the righteous do not plunder his resting place for a righteous man may fall seven times and rise again but the wicked shall fall by calamity do not rejoice when your enemy Falls and do not let your heart be glad when he stumbles lest the Lord see it and it displeased him and he turn away his wrath from him do not fret because of evildoers nor be envious of the wicked for there will be no prospect for the evil man the lamp of the wicked will be put out my son fear the Lord and the king do not associate with those given to change for their calamity will rise suddenly and who knows the ruin those two can bring these sayings also belong to the wise it is not good to show partiality and judgment he who says to the wicked your righteous him the people will curse nations will aport him but those who rebuke the wicked will have delight and a good blessing will come upon them he who gives a right answer kisses the lips prepare your outside work make it fit for yourself in the field and afterward build your house do not be a witness against your neighbor without cause for would you deceive with your lips do not say I will do it to him just as he has done it to me I will render to the man according to his work I went by the field of the slothful and by the vineyard of the man devoid of understanding and there it was all overgrown with thorns its surface was covered with nettles its stone wall was broken down when I saw it I considered it well I looked on it and I received instruction a little sleep a little slumber a little folding of the hands to rest so your poverty will come like a prowler than your want like an armed man proverbs chapter 25 these also are the Proverbs of Solomon which the men of Hezekiah king of Judah copied it is the glory of God to conceal a matter but the glory of kings is to search out the matter as the heavens for height and the earth for depth so the heart of kings is unsearchable take away the dross from silver and it will go to the silversmith for jewelry take away the wicked from before the king and his throne will be established in righteousness do not exalt yourself in the presence of the king and do not stand in the place of great men for it is better that he say to you come up here then that you should be put lower in the presence of the Prince whom your eyes have seen do not go hastily to court for what will you do in the end when your neighbor has put you to shame debate your case with your neighbor himself and do not disclose the secret to another st who hears it expose your shame and your reputation be ruined a word fitly spoken is like apples of gold and settings of silver like an earring of gold and an ornament of fine gold is a wise reprove er to an obedient ear like the cold of snow and the time of harvest is a faithful messenger to those who send him for he refreshes the soul of his masters whoever falsely boasts of giving is like clouds and wind without rain by long forbearance a ruler is persuaded and a gentle tongue breaks the bone have you found honey eat only as much as you need lest you be filled with it and vomit seldom set foot in your neighbor's house lest he become weary of you and hate you a man who bears false witness against his neighbour is like a club a sword and a sharp arrow confidence in an unfaithful man in a time of trouble is like a bad tooth and a foot out of joint like one who takes away a garment in cold weather and like vinegar on soda is one who sings songs to a heavy heart if your enemy is hungry give him bread to eat and if he is thirsty give him water to drink for so you will heap coals of fire on his head and the Lord will reward you the north wind brings forth rain and a backbiting tongue an angry countenance it is better to dwell in a corner of a housetop than in a house shared with a contentious woman as cold water to a weary soul so is good news from a far country a righteous man who falters before the wicked is like a murky spring and a polluted well it is not good to eat much honey so to seek one's own glory is not glory whoever has no rule over his own spirit is like a city broken down without walls proverbs chapter 26 as snow in summer and rain in harvest so honor is not fitting for a fool like a flighting sparrow like a flying swallow so a curse without cause shall not alight a whip for the horse a bridle for the donkey and a rod for the fools back do not answer a fool according to his folly lest you also be like him answer a fool according to his folly lest he be wise in his own eyes he who sends a message by the hand of a fool cuts off his own feet and drinks violence like the legs of the lane that hang limp is a proverb in the mouth of fools like one who binds a stone in a sling is he who gives honor to a fool like a thorn that goes into the hand of a drunkard is a proverb in the mouth of fools the Great God who formed all things gives the fool his higher and the transgressor his wages as a dog returns to his own vomit so a fool repeats his folly do you see a man wise in his own eyes there is more hope for a fool than for him the slothful man says there's a lion in the road a fierce lion in the streets as a door turns on its hinges so does the slothful turn on his bed the slothful man buries his hand in the bowl it worries him to bring it back to his mouth the sluggard is wiser in his own eyes than seven men who can answer sensibly he who passes by and metals in a quarrel not his own is like one who takes a dog by the ears like a madman who throws firebrands arrows and death is the man who deceives his neighbor and says I was only joking where there is no wood the fire goes out and where there is no tail bearer strife ceases as charcoal is to burning coals and wood to fire so is a contentious man to Kindle strife the words of a tail bearer are like tasty trifles and they go down into the inmost body fervent lips with a wicked heart are like earthenware covered with silver dross he who hates disguises it with his lips and lays up deceit within himself when he speaks kindly do not believe him for there are seven abominations in his heart though his hatred is covered by deceit his wickedness will be revealed before the whole congregation whoever digs a pit will fall into it and he who rolls a stone will have it roll back on him a lying tongue hates those who are crushed to by it and a flattering mouth works ruin proverbs chapter 27 do not boast about tomorrow but you do not know what a day may bring forth let another man praise you and not your own mouth a stranger and not your own lips a stone is heavy and sand is weighty but a fool's wrath is heavier than both of them wrath is cruel and anger a torrent but who is able to stand before jealousy open rebuke is better than love carefully concealed faithful are the wounds of a friend but the kisses of an enemy are deceitful a satisfied soul loathes the honeycomb but to a hungry soul every bitter thing is sweet like a bird that wanders from its nest is a man who wanders from his place pointman and perfumed delight the heart and the sweetness of a man's friend does so by hearty counsel do not forsake your own friend or your father's friend nor go to your brother's house in the day of your calamity for better is a neighbor nearby than a brother far away my son be wise and make my heart glad that I may answer him who approaches me a prudent man foresees evil and hides himself the simple pass on and are punished take the garment of him who is surety for a stranger and hold it in pledge when he is surety first seductress he who blesses his friend with a loud voice rising early in the morning it will be counted a curse to him a continual dripping on a rainy day and a contentious woman are alike whoever restrains her restrains the wind and grasps oil with his right hand as iron sharpens iron so a man sharpens the countenance of his friend whoever keeps the fig tree will eat its fruit so he who waits on his master will be honored as in water face reveals face so a man's heart reveals the man hell and destruction are never full so the eyes of man are never satisfied the refining pot is for silver and the furnace for gold and a man is valued by what others say of him though you grind a fool in a mortar with a pestle along with crushed grain yet his foolishness will not depart from him be diligent to know the state of your flocks and attend to your herds for riches are not forever nor does a crown endure to all generations when the hay is removed and the tender grass shows itself and the herbs of the mountains are gathered in the lands will provide your clothing and the goats the price of a field you shall have enough goat's milk for your food for the food of your household and the nourishment of your maidservants proverbs chapter 28 the wicked flees when no one pursues but the righteous are bold is a lion because of the transgression of a land many are its princes but by a man of understanding and knowledge write will be prolonged a poor man who oppresses the poor is like a driving rain which leaves no food those who forsake the law praise the wicked but such as keep the law contend with them evil men do not understand justice but those who seek the Lord understand all better is the poor who walks in his integrity than one perverse in his ways though he be rich whoever keeps the law is a discerning son but a companion of gluttons shames his father one who increases his possessions by usery and extortion gathers it for him who will pity the poor one who turns away his ear from hearing the law even his prayer shall be an abomination whoever causes the upright to go astray in an evil way he himself will fall into his own pit but the blameless will inherit good things the rich man is wise in his own eyes but the poor who has understanding searches him out when the righteous rejoice there is great glory but when the wicked arise and then hide themselves he who covers his sins will not prosper but whoever confesses and forsakes them will have mercy happy is the man who is always reverent but he who hardens his heart will fall into calamity like a roaring lion and a charging bear is a wicked ruler over poor people a ruler who lacks understanding is a great oppressor but he who hates covetousness will prolong his days a man burdened with bloodshed will flee into a pit let no one help him whoever walks blamelessly will be saved but he who is perverse in his ways will fall at once he who tells his land will have plenty of bread but he who follows frivolity will have poverty enough a faithful man will bound with blessings but he who hastens to be rich not go unpunished to show partiality is not good because for a piece of bread a man will transgress a man with an evil eye hastens after riches and does not consider that poverty will come upon him he rebukes a man will find more favor afterward then he who flatters with the tongue whoever Rob's his father or his mother and says it is no transgression the same is a companion to a destroyer he who is of a proud heart stirs up strife but he who trusts in the Lord will be prospered he who trusts in his own heart is a fool but whoever walks wisely will be delivered he who gives to the poor will not lack but he who hides his eyes will have many curses when the wicked arise men hide themselves but when they perish the righteous increase proverbs chapter 29 he who is often reproved and hardens his neck will suddenly be destroyed in that without remedy when the righteous are in authority the people rejoice but when a wicked man rules the people groan whoever loves wisdom makes his father rejoice but a companion of harlots wastes his wealth the King establishes the land by justice but he who receives bribes overthrows it a man who flatters his neighbor spreads a net for his feet by transgression an evil man is snared but the righteous sings and rejoices the righteous considers the cause of the poor but the wicked does not understand such knowledge scoffers ensnare city but wise men turn away wrath if a wise man contends with a foolish man whether the fool rages or laughs there is no peace the bloodthirsty hate the blameless but the just seek his well-being a fool vents all his feelings but a wise man holds them back if a ruler pays attention to lies all his servants become wicked the poor man and the oppressor have this in common the Lord gives light to the eyes of both the king who judges the poor with truth his throne will be established forever the rod and reproof give wisdom but a Child Left to himself brings a new his mother when the wicked are multiplied transgression increases but the righteous will see their fall correct your son and he will give you rest yes he will give delight to your soul where there is no revelation that people cast off restraint but happy is he who keeps the law a servant will not be corrected by mere words for though he understands he will not respond do you see a man hasty in his words there is more hope for a fool than for him he who pampers his servant in childhood will have him as a son in the end an angry man stirs up strife and a furious man abounds in transgression a man's pride will bring him love but the humble and spirit will retain honor whoever is a partner with a thief hates his own life he swears to tell the truth but reveals nothing the fear of man brings a snare but whoever trusts in the Lord shall be safe many seek the rulers favor but justice for man comes from the Lord an unjust man is an abomination to the righteous and he who is upright in the way is an abomination to the wicked proverbs chapter 30 the words of ager the son of Jacob his utterance this man declared to appeal to FeO and who call surely I am more stupid than any man and do not have the understanding of a man I neither learned wisdom nor have knowledge of the Holy One who is ascended into heaven or descended who has gathered the wind in his fists who has bound the waters in a garment who has established all the ends of the earth what is his name and what is his son's name if you know every word of God is pure he is a shield to those who put their trust in him do not add to his words lest he reprove you and you be found a liar two things I requested you depriving me not before I died remove falsehood and lies far from me give me neither poverty nor riches feed me with the food you prescribed for me lest I be full and denying you and say who is the Lord or lest I be poor and steal and profane the name of my god do not malign a servant to his master lest he curse seonyu be found guilty there is a generation that curses its father and does not bless its mother there is a generation that is pure in its own eyes yet is not washed from its filthiness there is a generation o how lofty are their eyes and their eyelids are lifted up there is a generation whose teeth are like swords and whose fangs are like knives to devour the poor from off the earth and the needy from among men the leech has two daughters crying give give there are three things that are never satisfied four things that never say it is enough the grave the Barren womb the earth that is not satisfied with water and the fire that never says it is enough the eye that mocks his father and scorns obedience to his mother the Ravens of the valley will pick it out and the Young Eagles will eat it there are three things which are too wonderful for me yes for which I do not understand the way of an eagle in the air the way of a serpent on a rock the way of a ship and the midst of the sea and the way of a man with a virgin this is the way of an adulterous woman she eats and wipes her mouth and says I have done no wickedness for three things the earth is perturbed yes for for it cannot bear up for a servant when he reigns a fool when he is filled with food a hateful woman when she is married and a maidservant who succeeds her mistress there are four things which are little on the earth but they are exceedingly wise the ants are a people not strong yet they prepare their food in the summer the rock badgers are a feeble folk yet they make their homes in the cracks the locusts have no king yet they all advance in ranks the spider skillfully grasps with its hands and it is in King's palaces there are three things which are majestic and pace yes four which are stately and walk a lion which is mighty among beasts and does not turn away from any a greyhound a male goat also and a king whose troops are with him if you have been foolish in exalting yourself or if you have devised evil put your hand on your mouth for as the churning of milk produces butter and as a ringing of the nose produces blood so the forcing of Wrath produces strife proverbs chapter 31 the words of King Lemuel the utterance which his mother taught him what my son and what son of my womb and what son of my vows do not give your strength to women nor your ways to that which destroys Kings it is not for Kings Oh Lemuel it is not for Kings to drink wine nor for Prince's intoxicating drink lest they drink and forget the law and pervert the justice of all the afflicted give strong drink to him who is perishing and wine to those who are bitter of heart let him drink and forget his poverty and remember his misery no more open your mouth for the speechless in the cause of all who are pointed to die open your mouth judge righteously and plead the cause of the poor and needy who can find a virtuous wife for her worth is far above rubies the heart of her husband safely trusts her so he will have no lack of game she does him good and not evil all the days of her life she seeks rule and flats and willingly works with her hands she's like the merchant ships she brings her food from afar she also rises wild as yet night and provides food for her household and a portion for her maid servants she considers a field and buys it from her profits she plants a vineyard she Gerdes herself with strength and strengthens her arms she perceives that her merchandise is good and her lamp does not go out by night she stretches out her hands to the distaff and her hands hold the spindle she extends her hand to the poor yes she reaches out her hands to the needy she is not afraid of snow for her household for all her household is clothed with scarlet she makes tapestry for herself her clothing is fine linen and purple her husband is known in the gates when he sits among the elders of the land she makes linen garments and sells them and supplies sashes for the merchants strength and honor are her clothing she shall rejoice in time to come she opens her mouth with wisdom and on her tongue is the law of kindness she watches over the ways of her household and does not eat the bread of idleness her children rise up and call her blessed her husband also and he praises her many daughters have done well but you excel them all charm is deceitful and beauty is vain but a woman who fears the Lord she shall be praised give her of the fruit of her hands and let her own works praise her in the gates you

Contents

Structure

Scroll of the Book of Proverbs
Scroll of the Book of Proverbs

The superscriptions divide the collections as follows:

  • Proverbs 1–9: "Proverbs of Solomon, Son of David, King of Israel"
  • Proverbs 10–22:16: "Proverbs of Solomon"
  • Proverbs 22:17–24:22: "The Sayings of the Wise"
  • Proverbs 24:23–34: "These Also are Sayings of the Wise"
  • Proverbs 25–29: "These are Other Proverbs of Solomon that the Officials of King Hezekiah of Judah Copied"
  • Proverbs 30: "The Words of Agur"
  • Proverbs 31:1–9: "The Words of King Lemuel of Massa, Which his Mother Taught Him"
  • Proverbs 31:10–31: the ideal wise woman (elsewhere called the "woman of substance").[6]

Contents

"Proverbs" translates to the Hebrew word mashal, but "mashal" has a wider range of meaning than the short catchy sayings implied by the English word. Thus, while roughly half the book is made up of "sayings" of this type, the other half is made up of longer poetic units of various types. These include "instructions" formulated as advice from a teacher or parent addressed to a student or child, dramatic personifications of both Wisdom and Folly, and the "words of the wise" sayings, longer than the Solomonic "sayings" but shorter and more diverse than the "instructions".[7]

The first section (chapters 1–9) consists of an initial invitation to young men to take up the course of wisdom, ten "instructions", and five poems on personified Woman Wisdom.[8] Proverbs 10:1–22:16, with 375 sayings, consists of two parts, the first contrasting the wise man and the fool (or the righteous and the wicked), the second addressing wise and foolish speech.[9] Chapters 25–29, attributed to editorial activity of "the men of Hezekiah," contrasts the just and the wicked and broaches the topic of rich and poor.[10] Chapter 30:1–4, the "sayings of Agur", introduces creation, divine power, and human ignorance.[11]

Composition

Solomon writing Proverbs (Gustave Doré)
Solomon writing Proverbs (Gustave Doré)

It is impossible to offer precise dates for the sayings in Proverbs, a "collection of collections" relating to a pattern of life which lasted for more than a millennium.[2] The phrase conventionally used for the title is taken from chapter 1:1, mishley shelomoh, Proverbs of Solomon (the phrase is repeated at 10:1 and 25:1), is likely more concerned with labeling the material than ascribing authorship.[12]

The book is an anthology made up of six discrete units. The first, chapters 1–9, was probably the last to be composed, in the Persian or Hellenistic periods. This section has parallels to prior cuneiform writings.[13] The second, chapters 10–22:16, carries the superscription "the proverbs of Solomon", which may have encouraged its inclusion in the Hebrew canon. The third unit is headed "bend your ear and hear the words of the wise": a large part of it is a recasting of a second-millennium BCE Egyptian work, the Instruction of Amenemope, and may have reached the Hebrew author(s) through an Aramaic translation. Chapter 24:23 begins a new section and source with the declaration, "these too are from the wise." The next section at chapter 25:1 has a superscription to the effect that the following proverbs were transcribed "by the men of Hezekiah", indicating at face value that they were collected in the reign of Hezekiah in the late 8th century BCE. Chapters 30 and 31 (the "words of Agur," the "words of Lemuel," and the description of the ideal woman) are a set of appendices, quite different in style and emphasis from the previous chapters.[14]

The "wisdom" genre was widespread throughout the ancient Near East, and reading Proverbs alongside the examples recovered from Egypt and Mesopotamia reveals the common ground shared by international wisdom.[15] The wisdom literature of Israel may have been developed in the family, the royal court, and houses of learning and instruction;[16] nevertheless, the overwhelming impression is of instruction within the family in small villages.[17]

Themes

Excerpt from Proverbs 3 displayed at Portland International Jetport in Portland, Maine
Excerpt from Proverbs 3 displayed at Portland International Jetport in Portland, Maine
A page of the Book of Proverbs from a Bible from 1497
A page of the Book of Proverbs from a Bible from 1497

Along with the other examples of the Biblical wisdom traditionJob and Ecclesiastes and some other writings – Proverbs raises questions of values, moral behavior, the meaning of human life, and righteous conduct. The three retain an ongoing relevance for both religious and secular readers, Job and Ecclesiastes through the boldness of their dissent from received tradition, Proverbs in its worldliness and satiric shrewdness. Wisdom is as close as Biblical literature comes to Greek philosophy, of which it was a contemporary; it shares with the Greeks an inquiry into values and reflections on the human condition, although there is no discussion of ontology, epistemology, metaphysics, and the other abstract issues raised by the Greeks.[3]

Proverbs was almost excluded from the Bible because of its contradictions (the result of the book's origins as not just an anthology but an anthology of anthologies). The reader is told, for example, both to "not answer a fool according to his folly", according to 26:4, and to "answer a fool according to his folly", as 26:5 advises. More pervasively, the recurring theme of the initial unit (chapters 1–9) is that the fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom, but the following units are much less theological, presenting wisdom as a transmissible human craft, until with 30:1–14, the "words of Agur," we return once more to the idea that God alone possesses wisdom.[14]

"The fear of God is the beginning of wisdom" (Proverbs 9:10 – the phrase implies submission to God's will[4]). Wisdom is praised for her role in creation ("God by wisdom founded the earth; by understanding he established the heavens" – Proverbs 3:19). God acquired her before all else, and through her he gave order to chaos ("When [God] established the heavens...when he drew a circle on then face of the Deeps...when he marked out the foundations of the earth, then I was beside him" – Proverbs 8:27–31). Since humans have life and prosperity by conforming to the order of creation, seeking wisdom is the essence and goal of the religious life.[5] Wisdom, or the wise person, is compared and contrasted with foolishness or the fool, meaning one who is lacking in wisdom and uninterested in instruction, not one who is merely silly or playful (though see the words of Agur for a "fool" who has wisdom, and could be seen as playful).

For the most part Proverbs offers a simplistic view of life with few grey areas: life lived according to the rules brings reward, life in violation of them is certain to bring disaster. In contrast, Job and Ecclesiastes appear to be direct contradictions of the simplicities of Proverbs, each in its own way all but dismissing the assumptions of the "wise".[18] Noteworthy also is the fact that the "mighty acts of God" (the Exodus, the giving of the Torah at Sinai, the Covenant between God and Israel, etc.) which make up Israel's history are completely or almost completely absent from Proverbs and the other Wisdom books: in contrast to the other books of the Hebrew bible, which appeal to divine revelation for their authority ("Thus says the Lord!"), wisdom appeals to human reason and observation.[19]

Later interpretation and influence

The pre-Exilic (i.e. pre-586 BCE) Old Testament allowed no equals to YHWH in heaven, despite the continued existence of an assembly of subordinate servant-deities.[20] The post-Exilic writers of the Wisdom tradition developed the idea that Wisdom existed before creation and was used by God to create the universe:[21] "Present from the beginning, Wisdom assumes the role of master builder while God establishes the heavens, restricts the chaotic waters, and shapes the mountains and fields."[22] Borrowing ideas from Greek philosophers who held that reason bound the universe together, the Wisdom tradition taught that God's Wisdom, Word and Spirit were the ground of cosmic unity.[23] Christianity in turn adopted these ideas and applied them to Jesus: the Epistle to the Colossians calls Jesus "...image of the invisible God, first-born of all creation...", while the Gospel of John identifies him with the creative word ("In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God").[24]

In the 4th century, when Christianity was caught up in heresies and still developing the creeds which would define its beliefs, Proverbs 8:22 was used both to support and refute the claims of the Arians. The Arians, assuming that Christ could be equated with the "Wisdom of God" (1 Corinthians 1:24), argued that the Son, like Wisdom, was "created" (Proverbs 8:22), and therefore subordinate to the Creator; their opponents, who argued that the relevant Hebrew word should be translated as "begot", won the debate, and the Nicene Creed declared that the Son was "begotten, not made", meaning that God and Christ were consubstantial.[25]

See also

References

  1. ^ Berlin 2011, p. 588.
  2. ^ a b Clements 2003, p. 438.
  3. ^ a b Alter 2010, pp. xiii–xvii.
  4. ^ a b Longman & Garland 2009.
  5. ^ a b Boccaccini 2002, p. 106.
  6. ^ Perdue 2012, pp. x–xi.
  7. ^ Farmer 1991, pp. 17–20.
  8. ^ Perdue 2007, p. 48.
  9. ^ Perdue 2007, p. 58.
  10. ^ Perdue 2007, p. 67.
  11. ^ Perdue 2007, p. 68.
  12. ^ Farmer 1991, p. 25.
  13. ^ Rogers, Robert William (1912). "8. Fragment of Wisdom Literature". Cuneiform parallels to the Old Testament (1st ed.). New York: Eaton and Mains. Retrieved March 13, 2016.
  14. ^ a b Alter 2010, pp. 183–85.
  15. ^ Smothers 2000, pp. 167–68, 174.
  16. ^ Tucker 2000, pp. 163–66.
  17. ^ Crenshaw 2000, p. 217.
  18. ^ Keown 2000, p. 183.
  19. ^ Farmer 1998, p. 130.
  20. ^ Page Lee 1990, pp. 176–77.
  21. ^ Berlin 2011, p. 188.
  22. ^ Parrish 1990, p. 183.
  23. ^ Kaiser 1997, p. 28.
  24. ^ Parrish 1990, pp. 183–84.
  25. ^ Farmer 1991, pp. 53–54.

Bibliography

Works cited

Further reading

  • Crenshaw, James L. "Book of Proverbs," The Anchor Bible Dictionary, 1992
  • Dockery, David S. (general editor), Holman Bible Handbook, Holman Bible Publishers, Nashville, 1992
  • Lasor, William Sanford, Hubbard, David Allan, & Bush, Frederic Wm., Old Testament Survey: The Message, Form, and Background of the Old Testament, 1996
  • Murphy, Roland E., Wisdom Literature: Job, Proverbs, Ruth, Canticles, Ecclesiastes, and Esther. Grand Rapids, 1981
  • Steinmann, Andrew. "Proverbs 1–9 as a Solomonic Composition," Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society, 43, no. 4
  • Waltke, Bruce (2004). Book Of Proverbs: Chapters 1–15. Wm. B. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-8028-2545-2.
  • Waltke, Bruce (2005). The Book of Proverbs: Chapters 15–31. Wm. B. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-8028-2776-0.

External links

Online translations of Book of Proverbs:

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