To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

Boeing Starliner

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Boeing Starliner
CST-100 Starliner integration with Atlas V for Orbital Flight Test (KSC-20191121-PH-CSH02 0080) (cropped).jpg
Starliner Calypso being placed atop an Atlas V.
Country of originUnited States
ApplicationsISS crew and cargo transport
Spacecraft typeCrewed capsule
Launch mass13000 kg
Crew capacityUp to 7
  • Diameter (CM): 4.56 m [3]
  • Length (CM+SM): 5.03 m [3]
Volume11 m3 (390 cu ft)[4]
RegimeLow Earth orbit
Design life
  • 60 hours (free flight)[1]
  • 210 days (docked)[1][2]
StatusIn development and testing
Maiden launch20 December 2019, 11:36:43 UTC (uncrewed)

The Boeing CST-100[a] Starliner[5] is a class of reusable crew capsules expected to transport crew to the International Space Station (ISS)[6] and other low-Earth orbit destinations.[7] It is manufactured by Boeing for its participation in NASA's Commercial Crew Program.

The capsule has a diameter of 4.56 m (15.0 ft),[3] which is slightly larger than the Apollo command module and smaller than the Orion capsule.[8] The Boeing Starliner holds a crew of up to seven people and is being designed to be able to remain in-orbit for up to seven months with reusability of up to ten missions.[9] It is designed to be compatible with the Atlas V, Delta IV, Falcon 9, and Vulcan Centaur launch vehicles.[10]

In the first phase of its Commercial Crew Program, NASA awarded Boeing US$18 million in 2010 for preliminary development of the spacecraft.[11] In the second phase Boeing was awarded a US$93 million contract in 2011 for further spacecraft development.[12] On 3 August 2012, NASA announced the award of US$460 million to Boeing to continue work on the Starliner under the Commercial Crew Integrated Capability (CCiCap) program.[13] On 16 September 2014, NASA selected the Boeing Starliner, along with SpaceX Crew Dragon, for the Commercial Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCap) program, with an award of US$4.2 billion.[14]

The Boeing Starliner Orbital Flight Test (uncrewed test flight) launched with the Atlas V N22,[15] on 20 December 2019 from SLC-41 at Cape Canaveral, Florida. During the test, the Starliner experienced a timing anomaly that precluded a docking with the International Space Station.[16][17] Two days after launch, on 22 December 2019 at 12:58 UTC, with the landing at White Sands Space Harbor, New Mexico, the Boeing Starliner Calypso became the first space capsule intended to be crew-capable to make a land-based touchdown in the United States.[18]


Starliner mockup, capsule without service module
Starliner mockup, capsule without service module

The design draws upon Boeing's experience with NASA's Apollo, Space Shuttle and ISS programs as well as the Orbital Express project sponsored by the Department of Defense.[8] Starliner has no Orion heritage, but it is sometimes confused with the earlier and similar Orion-derived Orion Lite proposal that Bigelow Aerospace was reportedly working on with technical assistance from Lockheed Martin.[19] It will use the NASA Docking System for docking[20][21][22][dubious ] and use the Boeing Lightweight Ablator for its heat shield.[23] The Starliner's solar cells will provide more than 2.9 kW of electricity, and will be placed on top of the micro-meteoroid debris shield located at the bottom of the spacecraft's service module.[24]

It is designed to be compatible with multiple launch vehicles, including the Atlas V, Delta IV, and Falcon 9, as well as the planned Vulcan Centaur.[10][25]

Unlike earlier United States space capsules, Starliner will make airbag-cushioned landings on the ground rather than into water. Five landing areas are planned in the Western United States, which will give the Starliner about 450 landing opportunities every year.[26]

Starliner includes one space tourist seat, and the Boeing contract with NASA allows Boeing to price and sell passage to low Earth orbit on that seat.[27]


Starliner pressure vessel at the former Orbiter Processing Facility in October 2011 showing its isogrid construction.
Starliner pressure vessel at the former Orbiter Processing Facility in October 2011 showing its isogrid construction.
The wind tunnel testing of CST-100's outer mold line in December 2011.
The wind tunnel testing of CST-100's outer mold line in December 2011.

The CST-100 (Crew Space Transportation-100) name was first used when the capsule was revealed to the public by Bigelow Aerospace CEO Robert Bigelow in June 2010.[28] The letters CST stand for Crew Space Transportation.[29] It was often reported that the number 100 in the name stands for 100 km (62 mi), the height of the Kármán line which is one of several definitions of the boundary of space,[30][31] The Rocketdyne RS-88 engine will be used for its Launch escape system.[32]

Receiving the full fixed-price payments for the Commercial Crew Program Phase 1 Space Act Agreement required a set of specific milestones to be met during 2010:[33]

  • Trade study and down-select between pusher-type and tractor-style launch escape system
  • System definition review
  • Abort System Hardware Demonstration Test
  • Base Heat Shield Fabrication Demonstration
  • Avionics Systems Integration Facility demonstration
  • CM Pressure Shell Fabrication Demonstration
  • Landing System Demonstration (drop test and water uprighting test)
  • Life Support Air Revitalization demonstration
  • Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) hardware/software demonstration
  • Crew Module Mockup demonstration.

In July 2010, Boeing stated that the capsule could be operational in 2015 with sufficient near-term approvals and funding, but also indicated they would proceed with the development of the Starliner only if NASA implemented the commercial crew transport initiative that was announced by the Obama administration in its FY2011 budget request. Boeing executive Roger Krone stated that NASA investment would allow Boeing to close the business case, while this would be very difficult without NASA. In addition, a second destination besides the ISS would be needed to close the business case and Krone said that cooperation with Bigelow was crucial for this.[8]

Boeing was awarded a US$92.3 million contract by NASA in April 2011 to continue to develop the CST-100 under CCDev phase 2.[34] On 3 August 2012, NASA announced the award of US$460 million to Boeing to continue work on the CST-100 under the Commercial Crew Integrated Capability (CCiCap) program.[13]

On 31 October 2011, NASA announced that through a partnership with Space Florida, the Orbiter Processing Facility-3 at Kennedy Space Center would be leased to Boeing for manufacture and test of Starliner.[35]

On 16 September 2014, NASA chose Boeing (Starliner) and SpaceX (Crew Dragon) as the two companies that will be funded to develop systems to transport U.S. government crews to and from the International Space Station. Boeing won a US$4.2 billion contract to complete and certify the Starliner by 2017, while SpaceX won a US$2.6 billion contract to complete and certify their crewed Dragon spacecraft. The contracts include at least one crewed flight test with at least one NASA astronaut aboard. Once the Starliner achieves NASA certification, the contract requires Boeing to conduct at least two, and as many as six, crewed missions to the space station.[36] NASA's William H. Gerstenmaier had considered the Starliner proposal as stronger than the Crew Dragon and Sierra Nevada's Dream Chaser spacecraft.[37]

Part of the agreement with NASA allows Boeing to sell seats for space tourists. Boeing proposed including one seat per flight for a space flight participant at a price that would be competitive with what Roscosmos charges tourists.[38]

On 4 September 2015, Boeing announced that the spacecraft would officially be called the CST-100 Starliner, a name that follows the conventions of the 787 Dreamliner produced by Boeing Commercial Airplanes.[39] In November 2015, NASA announced it had dropped Boeing from consideration in the multibillion-dollar Commercial Resupply Services second-phase competition to fly cargo to the International Space Station.[40]

In May 2016, Boeing delayed its first scheduled Starliner launch from 2017 to early 2018.[41][42] Then in October 2016, Boeing delayed its program by six months, from early 2018 to late 2018, following supplier holdups and a production problem on the Spacecraft 2. By 2016, they were hoping to fly NASA astronauts to the ISS by December 2018.[41][43]

In April 2018, NASA suggested the first planned two-person flight of the Starliner, slated for November 2018, was now likely to occur in 2019 or 2020. If the delays are maintained it would be expected to carry one additional crew member and extra supplies. Instead of staying for two weeks as originally planned, NASA said the expanded crew could stay at the station for as long as six months as a normal rotational flight.[44]


Test of Starliner's airbags in April 2012.
Starliner pad abort test in November 2019.

A variety of validation tests have been underway on test articles since 2011.

In September 2011, Boeing announced the completion of a set of ground drop tests to validate the design of the airbag cushioning system. The airbags are located underneath the heat shield of the Starliner, which is designed to be separated from the capsule while under parachute descent at about 1,500 m (4,900 ft) altitude. The airbags are deployed by filling with a mixture of compressed nitrogen and oxygen gas, not with the pyro-explosive mixture sometimes used in automotive airbags. The tests were carried out in the Mojave Desert of southeast California, at ground speeds between 16 and 48 km/h (10 and 30 mph) in order to simulate crosswind conditions at the time of landing. Bigelow Aerospace built the mobile test rig and conducted the tests.[29]

In April 2012, Boeing dropped a mock-up of its Starliner over the Nevada desert at the Delamar Dry Lake, Nevada, successfully testing the craft's three main landing parachutes from 3,400 m (11,200 ft).[45]

In August 2013, Boeing announced that two NASA astronauts evaluated communications, ergonomics, and crew-interface aspects of the Starliner, showing how future astronauts will operate in the spacecraft as it transports them to the International Space Station and other low Earth orbit destinations.[46]

Boeing reported in May 2016 that its test schedule would slip by eight months in order to reduce the mass of the spacecraft and aerodynamics issues anticipated during launch and ascent on the Atlas V rocket.[47] The Orbital Flight Test was scheduled for spring 2019. The booster for this Orbital Flight Test, an Atlas V N22 rocket, is being assembled at ULA's facility at Decatur, Alabama.[48] The first crewed flight (Boe-CFT) was scheduled for summer 2019, pending test results from Boe-OFT. It was planned to last 14 days and carry one NASA astronaut and one Boeing test pilot to the ISS.[49] On 5 April 2018, NASA announced that the first planned two-person flight, originally slated for November 2018, was likely to occur in 2019 or 2020.[50] In July 2018, Boeing announced the assignment of former NASA astronaut Christopher Ferguson to the Boe-CFT mission. On 3 August 2018, NASA named its first Commercial Crew astronaut cadre of four veteran astronauts to work with SpaceX and Boeing: Robert Behnken, Eric Boe, Sunita Williams, and Douglas Hurley.[51]

In July 2018, a test anomaly was reported in which there was a hypergolic propellant leak due to several faulty abort system valves. Consequentially, the first unpiloted orbital mission was delayed to April 2019, and the first crew launch rescheduled to August 2019.[52][53] In March 2019, Reuters reported these test flights had been delayed by at least three months,[54] and in April 2019 Boeing announced that the unpiloted orbital mission was scheduled for August 2019.[55]

In May 2019, all major hot-fire testing, including simulations of low-altitude abort thruster testing, was completed using a full up to service module test article that was "flight-like", meaning that the service module test rig used in the hot-fire testing included fuel and helium tanks, reaction control system, orbital maneuvering, and attitude control thrusters, launch abort engines and all necessary fuel lines and avionics that the ones that will be used for crewed missions will have. This cleared the way for the pad abort test and the subsequent uncrewed and crewed flights.[56]

A pad abort test took place on 4 November 2019.[57] The capsule accelerated away from its pad, but then one of the three parachutes failed to deploy and the capsule landed with only two parachutes.[58][59] Landing was however deemed safe, and the test a success. Boeing did not expect the malfunction of one parachute to affect the Starliner development schedule.[60]

First orbital flight test

Starliner landed at White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico following OFT in December 2019.
Starliner landed at White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico following OFT in December 2019.

The orbital flight test launched on 20 December 2019, but after deployment, an 11-hour offset in the mission clock of Starliner caused the spacecraft to compute that "it was in an orbital insertion burn", when it was not. This caused the attitude control thrusters to consume more fuel than planned, precluding a docking with the International Space Station.[16][17] The spacecraft landed at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, two days after launch.[61] After the successful landing, the spacecraft was named Calypso (after the research vessel RV Calypso for the oceanographic researcher Jacques-Yves Cousteau) by the commander of the Boeing Starliner-1 mission, NASA astronaut Sunita Williams.[62]

Two software errors detected during the test, one of which prevented a planned docking with the International Space Station, could each have led to the destruction of the spacecraft had they not been caught and corrected in time, NASA said on 7 February 2020. A joint NASA-Boeing investigation team "found the two critical software defects were not detected ahead of flight despite multiple safeguards", according to an agency statement. "Ground intervention prevented the loss of the vehicle in both cases". Before re-entry, engineers discovered the second critical software error that affected the thruster firings needed to safely jettison the Starliner's service module. The service module software error "incorrectly translated" the jettison thruster firing sequence.[63]

Second orbital flight test

After software problems and other issues plagued the first test flight, preventing the spacecraft from reaching the International Space Station, Boeing officials said on 6 April 2020, that the Starliner crew capsule would fly a second uncrewed demonstration mission, Orbital flight test 2, before flying astronauts. NASA said it had accepted a recommendation from Boeing to fly a second unpiloted mission. The Washington Post reported the second orbital flight test, with much the same objectives as the first, was expected to launch from Cape Canaveral "sometime in October or November 2020". Boeing said it would fund the unplanned crew capsule test flight "at no cost to the taxpayer". Boeing told investors earlier in 2020 it was taking a US$410 million charge against its earnings to cover the expected costs of a second unpiloted test flight.[64] Boeing officials said on 25 August 2020, that set the stage for the first Starliner demonstration mission with astronauts in mid-2021.[65] On 10 November 2020, NASA's Commercial Crew Program manager Steve Stich said that the second orbital flight test would be delayed until first quarter 2021 due to software issues.[66] The uncrewed test continued to slip, with the OFT-2 uncrewed test flight being scheduled for March 2021 and the crewed flight targeted for a launch the following summer.[67] The launch date of OFT-2 has moved again with the earliest estimated launch date set for 30 July 2021.[68]


With the completion of the NASA/Boeing investigation into the Starliner OFT-1 flight of December 2019, the review team identified 80 recommendations that Boeing, in collaboration with NASA, is addressing, with action plans for each already well under way. Since the full list of these recommendations are company sensitive and proprietary, only those changes publicly disclosed are known.[69]

Boeing's Starliner spacecraft was designed to accommodate seven passengers, or a mix of crew and cargo, for missions to low Earth orbit. For the NASA service missions to the International Space Station, it will carry four passengers and small cargo. Starliner uses an innovative, weldless structure and is reusable up to 10 times with a six-month turnaround time. Boeing plans to rotate between two reusable crew modules for all planned Starliner missions. Each flight will use a new service module, which provides propulsion and power generation capacity for the spacecraft. It features wireless Internet and tablet technology for crew interfaces.[70]

Change of Starliner Docking System

Boeing has modified the design of the Starliner docking system to add a re-entry cover for additional protection during the capsule's fiery descent through the atmosphere. This re-entry cover will be hinged, like the SpaceX design. Teams have also installed the OFT-2 spacecraft's propellant heater, thermal protection tiles, and the airbags used to cushion the capsule's landing. The crew module for the OFT-2 mission began acceptance testing in August 2020, which is designed to validate the spacecraft's systems before it is mated with its service module, according to NASA.[65][71][72]

List of spacecraft

As of January 2020, Boeing planned to have three Boeing Starliner spacecraft in service to fulfill the needs of the Commercial Crew Program with each spacecraft expected to be capable of being reused up to ten times with a six-month refurbishment time.[73][74] On 25 August 2020, Boeing announced its plan to rotate between just two capsules for all planned Starliner missions instead of three.[65]

Since Boeing does not intend to build Spacecraft 4, no spare vehicle contingency exists for spacecraft issues (or loss) during NASA Commercial Crew contract.[71] Boeing only has two Starliner spacecraft, so it does not have the ability to pursue commercial space opportunities (Axiom commercial station, space tourists) during the NASA crew contract period.

Image Designation Name Status Flights Time in flight Notes Cat.
Boeing CST-100 Starliner Pad Abort Test Preparations KSC-20191031-PH-BOE01 0001 orig (cropped).jpg
Spacecraft 1 None Retired 1 1 minute 35 seconds Vehicle used in the Boeing Pad Abort Test and then retired.[75][76][77] Commons-logo.svg
CST-100 Starliner at Boeing's spacecraft test facilities in El Segundo, California (cropped).png
Spacecraft 2 TBA Active 0 None Was first Starliner planned to carry crew, now to be used on OFT-2.[77] Commons-logo.svg
CST-100 Starliner integration with Atlas V for Orbital Flight Test (KSC-20191121-PH-CSH02 0080) (cropped).jpg
Spacecraft 3 Calypso Active 1 2 days 1 hour 22 minutes 10 seconds Named after Jacques Cousteau's research vessel Calypso.[76] First Starliner to fly in space.[76][77] Commons-logo.svg Wikidata-logo.svg
  Test article   Spaceflight vehicle

List of flights

List includes only completed or currently manifested missions. Launch dates are listed in UTC.

Mission Patch Vehicle Launch date (UTC) Crew Remarks Duration Outcome
Boe-PAT Spacecraft 1 4 November 2019, 14:15:00 N/A Pad abort test, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico. One of three parachutes failed to fully open due to being rigged incorrectly before launch, but parachute system functioned adequately.[60] 95 seconds Success
Boe-OFT Spacecraft 3
20 December 2019, 11:36:43 N/A First uncrewed orbital test flight of Starliner. The mission's main objective of ISS rendezvous was aborted due to software incorrectly keeping mission time, leading to a late orbital insertion burn with excessive fuel expenditure. Starliner landed in New Mexico two days after launch.[78][79][80][61] 2 days Partial failure
Boe-OFT 2
Orbital Flight Test-2 mission patch.png
Spacecraft 2 30 July 2021, 18:53[68] N/A Second uncrewed orbital test flight of Starliner added due to partial failure of previous test flight. Will attempt to dock with the ISS.[81] 8 days Planned
Boe-CFT TBD NET Late 2021[82] United States Barry Wilmore
United States Michael Fincke
United States Nicole Aunapu Mann
First crewed test flight of Boeing Starliner. 2-4 months Planned
Starliner-1[5] Spacecraft 3
NET Early 2022 United States Sunita Williams
United States Josh A. Cassada
United States Jeanette Epps
Japan Koichi Wakata[83]
First operational flight of Boeing Starliner. Before the partial failure of OFT and the addition of OFT-2 to the schedule this was to be a reflight of the OFT vehicle which was christened Calypso by mission commander Williams upon its return to Earth.[84] 6 months Planned
Starliner-2 to Starliner-6 Alternating Spacecraft 2 and 3 2022–2026 United States TBA
United States TBA
Following Starliner-1, NASA has contracted Boeing for at least five more operational flights to the ISS.[85] 6 months Planned

Technology partners

See also


  1. ^ CST is an acronym for Crew Space Transportation


  1. ^ a b Reiley, Keith; Burghardt, Michael; Wood, Michael; Ingham, Jay; Lembeck, Michael (2011). Design Considerations for a Commercial Crew Transportation System (PDF). AIAA SPACE 2011 Conference & Exposition. September 27–29, 2011. Long Beach, California. doi:10.2514/6.2011-7101. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 May 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
  2. ^ Carreau, Mark (24 July 2013). "Boeing Refines CST-100 Commercial Crew Capsule Approach". Aviation Week. Retrieved 8 May 2014.
  3. ^ a b c Burghardt, Mike (August 2011). "Boeing CST-100: Commercial Crew Transportation System" (PDF). Boeing. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 May 2013. Retrieved 8 May 2014.
  4. ^ Krebs, Gunther (April 2017). "Starliner (CST-100)". Gunther's Space Page. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
  5. ^ a b This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  6. ^ Memi, Edmund G.; Morgan, Adam K. (23 September 2009). "Boeing Submits Proposal for NASA Commercial Crew Transport System" (Press release). Boeing.
  7. ^ "Boeing's New CST-100 'Starliner' Processing Facility Taking Shape at KSC". 4 September 2015.
  8. ^ a b c Clark, Stephen (21 July 2010). "Boeing space capsule could be operational by 2015". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 18 September 2011.
  9. ^ "Boeing: Crew Space Transportation (CST) System". Boeing. Retrieved 25 January 2016.
  10. ^ a b Lindenmoyer, Alan (2010). Commercial Crew and Cargo Program (PDF). 13th Annual FAA Commercial Space Transportation Conference February 10–11, 2010 Arlington, Virginia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2010.
  11. ^ Memi, Edmund G.; Gold, Michael N. (2 February 2010). "NASA Selects Boeing for American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Award to Study Crew Capsule-based Design" (Press release). Boeing.
  12. ^ Morring, Jr., Frank (25 April 2011). "Five Vehicles Vie For Future Of U.S. Human Spaceflight". Aviation Week. Archived from the original on 9 May 2014. "the CCDev-2 awards... went to Blue Origin, Boeing, Sierra Nevada Corp. and Space Exploration Technologies Inc. (SpaceX)
  13. ^ a b "Boeing, SpaceX and Sierra Nevada Win CCiCAP Awards". SpaceNews. 3 August 2012. Archived from the original on 4 January 2013.
  14. ^ "Boeing and SpaceX Selected to Build America's New Crew Space Transportation System". NASA. 16 September 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2015. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  15. ^ Memi, Edmund G.; Rye, Jessica F. (4 August 2011). "Boeing Selects Atlas V Rocket for Initial Commercial Crew Launches" (Press release). Boeing. Retrieved 29 October 2011.
  16. ^ a b "Starliner suffers "off-nominal" orbital insertion after launch". Space News. 20 December 2019. Retrieved 20 December 2019.
  17. ^ a b Sheetz, Michael (20 December 2019). "Boeing Starliner fails mission, can't reach space station after flying into wrong orbit". CNBC. Retrieved 20 December 2019.
  18. ^ Malik, Tariq. "Boeing's 1st Starliner Spacecraft Lands in New Mexico After Shortened Test Flight". Retrieved 29 December 2019.
  19. ^ Klamper, Amy (14 August 2009). "Company pitches 'lite' spaceship to NASA". NBC News. Retrieved 7 September 2009.
  20. ^ Grondin, Yves-A. (5 August 2013). "NASA Outlines its Plans for Commercial Crew Certification".
  21. ^ Commercial Space Flight Panel. SpaceUp Houston. 2011.
  22. ^ Messier, Doug (23 March 2011). "Update on Boeing CST-100 Crew program". Parabolic Arc.
  23. ^ Latrell, Joe (28 July 2015). "Boeing's CST-100 takes shape at former NASA facility". Spaceflight Insider. Retrieved 3 August 2018.
  24. ^ "Spectrolab Solar Cells to Power Boeing's Starliner Spacecraft". 17 November 2016. Archived from the original on 5 August 2018. Retrieved 5 August 2018.
  25. ^ Wall, Mike (3 August 2018). "Crew Dragon and Starliner: A Look at the Upcoming Astronaut Taxis". Retrieved 29 August 2020.
  26. ^ Clark, Stephen (22 September 2015). "Boeing identifies CST-100 prime landing sites". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 5 August 2018.
  27. ^ "Boeing space taxi has tourist seat". Canadian Broadcasting Company. Thomson Reuters. 18 September 2014. Retrieved 7 January 2017.
  28. ^ Gedmark, John; Gold, Mike (16 June 2010). "Bigelow Aerospace Joins the Commercial Spaceflight Federation" (Press release). Commercial Spaceflight Federation.
  29. ^ a b Memi, Edmund G. (12 September 2011). "Space capsule tests aim to ensure safe landings". Boeing. Archived from the original on 24 September 2011. Retrieved 18 September 2011.
  30. ^ Memi, Edmund G.; Morgan, Adam K. (19 July 2010). "Boeing CST-100 Spacecraft to Provide Commercial Crew Transportation Services" (Press release). Boeing.
  31. ^ Chow, Denise (19 July 2010). "New Spaceship Could Fly People to Private Space Stations".
  32. ^ Weitering, Hanneke (24 April 2019). "The Emergency Launch Abort Systems of SpaceX and Boeing Explained". Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  33. ^ CCDev (February 2010). "Space Act Agreement Between NASA and The Boeing Company for Commercial Crew Development (CCDev)" (PDF). NASA. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  34. ^ Dean, James (18 April 2011). "NASA awards US$270 million for commercial crew efforts". Florida Today. The Flame Trench. Archived from the original on 19 April 2011.
  35. ^ Weaver, David; Curie, Michael; Philman, Amber; Lange, Tina; Korn, Paula (31 October 2011). "NASA Signs Agreement with Space Florida to Reuse Kennedy Facilities" (Press release). NASA. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  36. ^ Schierholz, Stephanie; Martin, Stephanie (16 September 2014). "NASA Chooses American Companies to Transport U.S. Astronauts to International Space Station". NASA. Retrieved 18 September 2014. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  37. ^ Norris, Guy (11 October 2014). "Why NASA Rejected Sierra Nevada's Commercial Crew Vehicle". Aviation Week. Archived from the original on 13 October 2014. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
  38. ^ Klotz, Irene (17 September 2014). "Boeing's 'space taxi' includes seat for a tourist". Reuters. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 6 August 2015.
  39. ^ Clark, Stephen (4 September 2015). "Enter the Starliner: Boeing names its commercial spaceship". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
  40. ^ Rhian, Jason (6 November 2015). "NASA delays CRS 2 awards again, drops Boeing from consideration". Spaceflight Insider. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
  41. ^ a b Berger, Eric (11 October 2016). "Boeing delays Starliner again, casting doubt on commercial flights in 2018". Ars Technica. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
  42. ^ Berger, Eric (11 May 2016). "Boeing's first crewed Starliner launch slips to 2018". Ars Technica. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
  43. ^ Norris, Guy (10 October 2016). "Boeing Delays CST-100, Still Targets 2018 ISS Mission". Aviation Week & Space Technology. Retrieved 11 October 2016.
  44. ^ Pasztor, Andy (5 April 2018). "NASA, Boeing Signal Regular Missions to Space Station to Be Delayed". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
  45. ^ Clark, Stephen (3 April 2012). "Parachutes for Boeing crew capsule tested over Nevada". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 3 April 2012.
  46. ^ "Boeing Space Capsule One Step Closer to Orbit". NYSE Big Stage. 19 August 2013. Archived from the original on 4 October 2013.
  47. ^ Foust, Jeff (12 May 2016). "Boeing delays first crewed CST-100 flight to 2018". SpaceNews.
  48. ^ Rhian, Jason (4 January 2018). "Boeing CST-100 Starliner one step closer to flight with completion of DCR". Spaceflight Insider. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  49. ^ Bergin, Chris (27 November 2017). "Boeing Starliner trio preparing for test flights". Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  50. ^ Pasztor, Andy (5 April 2018). "NASA, Boeing Signal Regular Missions to Space Station to Be Delayed". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  51. ^ NASA Commercial Crew (3 August 2018). "NASA Assigns Crews to First Test Flights, Missions on Commercial Spacecraft". NASA. Retrieved 3 August 2018. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  52. ^ "NASA's Commercial Crew Program Target Test Flight Dates". 4 October 2018. Retrieved 5 October 2018. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  53. ^ "Commercial Crew Program - February 6, 2019". Retrieved 6 February 2019. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  54. ^ Eric M. Johnson (20 March 2019). "Boeing delays by months test flights for U.S. human space program: sources". Reuters. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  55. ^ Clark, Stephen (2 April 2019). "Boeing delays first Starliner test flight to August, NASA extends duration of first crew mission". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
  56. ^ Clark, Stephen (25 May 2019). "Boeing's Starliner crew capsule completes major propulsion test". Spaceflight Now.
  57. ^ Clark, Stephen. "Boeing tests crew capsule escape system". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 4 November 2019.
  58. ^ Berger, Eric (4 November 2019). "Starliner flies for the first time, but one of its parachutes failed to deploy". Ars Technica.
  59. ^ Boeing PR (4 November 2019). "Boeing statement regarding CST-100 Starliner pad abort test". Boeing. Retrieved 4 November 2019.
  60. ^ a b Clark, Stephen (4 November 2019). "Boeing tests crew capsule escape system". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 29 August 2020.
  61. ^ a b Amos, Jonathan (20 December 2019). "Boeing astronaut ship stalls in orbit". BBC News.
  62. ^ Lewis, Marie (22 December 2019). "Tune in for Starliner Postlanding News Conference". NASA Commercial Crew Program. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  63. ^ Harwood, William (7 February 2020). "NASA, Boeing managers admit problems with Starliner software verification". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 29 August 2020.
  64. ^ Clark, Steven (7 April 2020). "After problem-plagued test flight, Boeing will refly crew capsule without astronauts". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 29 August 2020.
  65. ^ a b c Clark, Stephen (25 August 2020). "Boeing plans second Starliner test flight in December 2020 or January 2021". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
  66. ^ Malik, Tariq. "NASA says Boeing's next Starliner test flight won't launch until 2021 | Space". Retrieved 16 November 2020.
  67. ^ "NASA and Boeing Target New Launch Date for Next Starliner Flight Test". Boeing. 9 December 2020. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  68. ^ a b "Boeing and NASA Update Launch Target for Next Starliner Test Flight". Boeing. 6 May 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  69. ^ "NASA and Boeing Complete Orbital Flight Test Reviews". NASA. 7 July 2020. Retrieved 29 August 2020. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  70. ^ "A 21st Century Space Capsule". Boeing. Retrieved 29 August 2020.
  71. ^ a b Clark, Stephen (18 January 2021). "Boeing making progress on Starliner software for test flight in March". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
  72. ^ Howell, Elizabeth (21 January 2021). "Boeing's Starliner spacecraft software passes qualification review for next NASA test flight". Retrieved 21 January 2021.
  73. ^ Krebs, Gunter. "Starliner (CST-100)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 29 August 2020.
  74. ^ "CST-100 Starliner". Boeing.
  75. ^ Siceloff, Steven (6 April 2017). "Boeing Powers On Starliner Spacecraft For First Time". NASA. Archived from the original on 9 March 2020. Retrieved 9 March 2020. Once completed, Spacecraft 1 will be launched without a crew on a flight test to demonstrate its capability to abort a mission from the launch pad in the unlikely event of an emergency This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  76. ^ a b c Clark, Stephen (22 December 2019). "Boeing's first commercial crew capsule christened "Calypso"". Spaceflight Now. Archived from the original on 9 March 2020. Retrieved 9 March 2020. The Starliner vehicle that landed Sunday in New Mexico, designated Spacecraft 3 [...] Spacecraft 1 was built for Boeing's pad abort test and is not intended to fly in space. [...] she has named the Starliner vehicle that returned Sunday "Calypso" in an ode to the research vessel used by French explorer Jacques Cousteau
  77. ^ a b c "Reporter's Starliner Notebook" (PDF). Boeing. 2019. p. 9. Retrieved 9 March 2020. Spacecraft 1 was used for testing the launch abort system during the program's Pad Abort Test in New Mexico. Spacecraft 2 [is] being prepared to fly the first people on Starliner's Crew Flight Test. Spacecraft 3 [is] slated for the uncrewed Orbital Flight Test...
  78. ^ Halaschak, Zachary. "Boeing Starliner spacecraft goes off course and fails mission". Washington Examiner. Retrieved 20 December 2019.
  79. ^ Bridenstine, Jim [@JimBridenstine] (20 December 2019). "Update: #Starliner had a Mission Elapsed Time (MET) anomaly causing the spacecraft to believe that it was in an orbital insertion burn, when it was not" (Tweet). Retrieved 20 December 2019 – via Twitter. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  80. ^ Gebhardt, Chris. "Starliner suffers mission-shortening failure after successful launch". Retrieved 20 December 2019.
  81. ^ Davenport, Christian (6 April 2020). "After botched test flight, Boeing will refly its Starliner spacecraft for NASA". The Washington Post. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  82. ^ Clark, Stephen (26 April 2021). "Launch Schedule". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 27 April 2021.
  83. ^ "NASA, Boeing target July 30 for redo of Starliner test flight to ISS". Retrieved 21 May 2021.
  84. ^ Williams, Sunita [@Astro_Suni] (22 December 2019). "A couple of the awesome people who brought Calypso home! Thank you Steve and Kayva!" (Tweet). Retrieved 22 December 2019 – via Twitter. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  85. ^ This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.

External links

This page was last edited on 4 June 2021, at 12:50
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.