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Blue Bird All American

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Blue Bird All American
2009 blue bird all american fe.jpg
Blue Bird All American Forward Engine (2009 model)
Overview
ManufacturerBlue Bird Body Company (1948-1992)
Blue Bird Corporation (1992-present)
Production1948-present
Body and chassis
DoorsSingle door
Two door (export)
Floor typeHigh floor
ChassisForward Engine: Blue Bird (1952-present)
Rear Engine: Various (to 1988)
Blue Bird (1988-present)
RelatedBlue Bird Wanderlodge
Powertrain
Engine
  • Gasoline
  • Diesel
  • Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)
Capacity54-90 (school bus)

The Blue Bird All American is a series of buses produced by American bus manufacturer Blue Bird Corporation (originally Blue Bird Body Company). Originally developed as a Type-D school bus (its most common configuration), since its 1948 introduction, Blue Bird has produced versions of the All American for a variety of applications, ranging from the Blue Bird Wanderlodge luxury motorhome to buses for law enforcement use.

While the All American is not the first transit-style school bus, it is the longest-produced model line that is currently in production; six generations have been produced since 1948. Since 1952, Blue Bird has used a proprietary chassis for the All American; the company would later use this practice for the TC/2000 and Vision buses (and their derivatives). The model line is produced in both front-engine and rear-engine configurations.[1]

The current version of the All American was introduced in 2012 for 2014 production;[2] other major updates were introduced in 1952, 1957, 1989, 1999, and 2008. Over its 71 years of production, nearly all examples of the All American have been assembled in Fort Valley, Georgia. From the 1960s to the 1980s, the model line was produced in South America, using locally sourced chassis.

Development

1948 Blue Bird All American, restored by Blue Bird Corporation.
1948 Blue Bird All American, restored by Blue Bird Corporation.

In the 1930s, to expand student seating capacity in school buses, manufacturers developed "forward control" school buses. By modifying conventional truck chassis, the engine was placed next to the driver and the front axle moved rearward of the entrance door. This allowed for the use of greater capacity within the same overall length and better forward visibility; the shorter wheelbase gave them improved maneuverability.

In 1932, Crown Coach introduced the Supercoach alongside a similar design by Wayne Works; Gillig introduced a design with a rear-mounted engine. In 1937, the Crown Supercoach was expanded to a capacity of 79 passengers, becoming one of the largest school buses of its time.

In the years following World War II, Blue Bird company founder A.L. Luce sought to develop his own forward control bus. In 1948, during a trip to Europe, he and his son George visited the Paris Auto Salon.[3] One of the vehicles on display was a front-engine motorcoach (either Van Hool or Jonckheere bodywork) with a General Motors chassis built in an Opel factory in Belgium.[3] Inspired by the design, A.L. Luce sought to develop uses for the chassis as a school bus; however, the Luces learned that it was a model specifically for export markets.[3]

In an effort to reverse-engineer the vehicle, A.L. Luce purchased the Paris Auto coach from the body manufacturer in order to ship it to Blue Bird in Fort Valley, Georgia.[3] Moving past the bodywork, Blue Bird engineers found that the Opel chassis shared much in common with Chevrolet medium-duty trucks converted to forward-control; the front axle was widened and modifications were made to the steering gear. In a unique feature, the transmission was shifted by remote control.[3]

Due to its commonality with the Opel design, Blue Bird chose Chevrolet as the initial chassis for the forward-control prototype.[3] The first prototype, named Blue Bird All American, was completed in 1949. Plagued by engineering issues, the All American did not enter full production until 1950.[3]

First generation (1950-1956)

For 1950 and 1951, the All American saw relatively little marketplace success; its method of assembly hindered its production. While using a Chevrolet/GMC chassis (a version used by Blue Bird conventional models), to build the All American, Blue Bird had to strip the cowled-chassis frame bare and convert it to a forward-control layout before the body was mounted to the frame. Along with adding time to final assembly, the conversion process required that nearly every chassis component be rechecked for functionality.[3]

In 1952, to improve quality and reduce production time, Blue Bird ended the use of second-party chassis for the All American, developing its own design from the ground up. Subsequently, every front-engine All American has utilized a Blue Bird chassis (rear-engine, since 1988); since 2008, all full-size Blue Bird buses use a proprietary chassis design. In a secondary change, Blue Bird expanded the range of engines for the All American beyond Chevrolet and GMC.

In the switch to the Blue Bird chassis, several changes were made to the body of the All American.[3] The front roofline was extended forward several inches, nearly in line with the front bumper. Along with a larger entryway and entry door, the revision introduced a much larger windshield sloped nearly vertically. The overall seating capacity of the All American was expanded, with the largest versions seating up to 72 passengers.

Second generation (1957-1989)

Second Generation
1980sBBAllAmerican.jpg
Early 1980s All American Rear Engine
Overview
ManufacturerBlue Bird Body Company
Model years1957-1989
AssemblyFort Valley, Georgia
Body and chassis
Layoutfront-engine 4x2
rear-engine 4x2
RelatedBlue Bird Wanderlodge
Powertrain
Engine
  • Gasoline
  • Diesel
Transmission
  • Manual
  • Automatic
Chronology
PredecessorBlue Bird All American (1952-1956)
SuccessorBlue Bird TC/2000
Blue Bird All American (1990-1999)
1980s All American Forward Engine in use as a police bus
1980s All American Forward Engine in use as a police bus

For 1957, along with the Blue Bird Conventional, the body of the All American was given a ground-up redesign.[3][4] To better accommodate older students and adult passengers walking inside the bus standing up,[3] the roof was raised upward several inches, matched with flatter sides. The drivers' compartment was completely redesigned; to reduce blind spots, the entry door glass was enlarged and the windshield was made panoramic, nearly wrapping from the entry door to the driver window.[3]

In 1958, after federal legislation permitted their use on road vehicles, quad headlights were added to the All American;[3][4] in various forms, the All American would use quad headlights through 2013.

In 1961, Blue Bird expanded the All American product line by introducing a rear-engine "pusher" configuration.[3] Developed largely to secure bids in areas where rear-engined buses were favored, Blue Bird initially outsourced the chassis for the All American Rear Engine to GMC.[3][5] For 1962, to further improve forward visibility, the windshield was enlarged further, with two versions offered: a 4-pane flat glass version (standard) or a 2-pane curved glass (optional). For 1967, the roofline of the All American underwent a slight revision. To better accommodate the 8-lamp warning systems coming into use, the curved roof cap used since the 1930s was replaced by a flat, vertically-oriented design.[3] For 1968, the bodywork below the windshield was revised, including a new (larger) grille, vertically-stacked headlamps, and a reduction of the amount of chrome trim.[3]

During the 1970s, the All American underwent several changes; centered around compliance with the introduction of safety regulations, few changes were externally visible. To comply with regulations introduced for 1977 production, the body panels and internal structure were strengthened; as a passive restraint system, high-back padded passenger seats were added.[3] To match the front roof cap, Blue Bird changed the rear roof cap to a vertical design (borrowing bodywork from the Wanderlodge).[3]

In contrast to the first All Americans, which offered a maximum of 60-passenger seating, by the end of the 1970s, an All American could be equipped to seat 90 passengers. Alongside its rear-engine counterpart, the front-engine All American was sold with both gasoline and diesel engines. As an effect of the 1970s fuel crises, fuel economy concerns led to widespread adoption of diesel engines in high-capacity school buses.

The All American evolutionary changes during the 1980s, centered around updates to powertrain supplier. In 1981, Ford discontinued its Super Duty V8; the Chevrolet 427 cubic-inch V8 became the sole gasoline-powered engine offering. Alongside the rear-engine version, the front-engine All American was produced with diesel engines supplied by Caterpillar, Cummins, and Detroit Diesel. As a design change, in 1982, a drop-sash window was added to the rearmost row of seats, replacing a fixed pane of glass (available as an option for several years).[3]

After using second-party chassis from multiple manufacturers since 1961, Blue Bird commenced production of a proprietary chassis for the rear-engine All American for 1988.

1957-1989 Blue Bird All American powertrain details
Engine name Production Fuel
Chevrolet Mark IV V8 1965-1989 Gasoline
Ford Super Duty V8 c.1958-1981 Gasoline
Caterpillar 1160 V8

Caterpillar 3208 V8

1970-1989 Diesel
Cummins VT555 V8 1975-c.1985 Diesel
Detroit Diesel 8.2L V8 1980-1989 Diesel

Design epilogue

In production for 32 years, the second-generation All American is among the longest-produced bus bodies in North American bus manufacturing history (outclassed by Crown, Gillig, and the GM New Look/Classic). With the exception of the All American D3-series and EC-72 prototypes, all full-size Blue Bird school buses produced since 1957 have derived much of their bodywork from the second-generation All American. While using a lighter-duty chassis and a different design for the driver compartment, the TC/2000 school bus also derives much of its bodywork from the second-generation All American. In various sizes, the windshield design introduced on the All American in 1962 was retained through 2013; it currently remains in use on the Vision.

Following the introduction of a rear-engine chassis for the All American in 1988, Blue Bird began a shift towards using company-produced chassis for all of its bodies; with the exception of the Micro Bird (based on a cutaway van), all Blue Bird vehicles are produced on proprietary chassis.[6]

Third generation (1989-1998)

Third generation
CoRi Schulbus Puerto Jimenez.jpg
1992-1998 All American Forward Engine (retired, photo from Costa Rica)
Overview
Also calledBlue Bird TC/3000 (export)
Blue Bird CS
Model years1989-1998
AssemblyFort Valley, Georgia
Body and chassis
Layoutfront-engine 4x2
rear-engine 4x2
Related
Powertrain
EngineDiesel
Compressed Natural Gas
TransmissionAutomatic
Chronology
PredecessorBlue Bird All American (1957-1989)
SuccessorBlue Bird All American (A3)

Introduced during 1989 production, the third-generation All American marked the most extensive changes to the model line since 1957. To modernize the All American for both drivers and mechanics, a number of changes were made to the interior and chassis of the bus. Externally, the third generation adopted horizontally-aligned headlamps (for the first time since 1967).

To streamline its production, the third-generation All American shares much of its body with the second generation (entirely so, above the window line). The drivers' compartment was completely redesigned, retaining only the windshield and driver-side window. The instrument panel was re-angled to face the driver, including more legible gauges; a modernized secondary control panel was adopted from the TC/2000.

On front-engine buses, a less-obstructive engine cover design provided more room for both the driver and the front entry steps (the design remained much larger than that of the TC/2000, as the two model lines used different engines). While the windshield was retained from the previous generation, several changes were made to improve driver sightlines, including a redesigned entry door with larger glass panels (a feature later adopted by all Blue Bird buses). To improve serviceability, the configuration of the front body panels was revised, allowing them to be removed for general maintenance without the use of tools.

In a major change, the third-generation All American featured an entirely new powertrain range, discontinuing both manual transmissions and gasoline engines (standard features on the TC/2000). Following the discontinuation of the Caterpillar 3208 and Detroit Diesel 8.2L V8s, Cummins inline-6 diesels were introduced.[7]

Engine name Production Fuel
Cummins C8.3 I6 1989-1998 Diesel
John Deere 8.1L I6 1991-1999 CNG

To bring it in line with the TC/2000, Blue Bird rebranded the new generation of the export name of the All American to Blue Bird TC/3000. Previously, Canadian exports (the largest market outside the United States) were re-branded as Blue Bird All Canadians. As with the previous generation, the 1990 All American would change little over its production run. 1990-1991 models are distinguished by widely spaced "Blue Bird" lettering below the windshield while 1992-1998 models are identified by narrowly spaced lettering.

Alternative-fuel vehicles

In 1991, Blue Bird took part in a California Energy Commission program to develop modern, low-emissions school buses.[8] Following the development of prototype derived from a GMC-chassis conventional,[9] Blue Bird supplied 10 buses using a GMC engine converted to run on compressed natural gas.[8][10] For subsequent phases of the program, the CNG buses were rear-engine All Americans, using engines supplied by John Deere.[8]

Outside of the California school bus study, CNG school buses became an option, with Blue Bird offering an 8.1L John Deere CNG engine as an option for the rear-engine All American alongside its TC/2000 counterpart.[11][12]

Fourth generation (1999-2013)

Fourth generation (A3)
Scarborough bus 14.JPG
Overview
Also calledBlue Bird TC/3000 (export)
Model years
  • FE:1999-2013
  • RE:1999-2008
AssemblyFort Valley, Georgia
Body and chassis
Layoutfront-engine 4x2
rear-engine 4x2
Related
  • Blue Bird APC
  • Blue Bird CS
Powertrain
EngineDiesel
Compressed Natural Gas
TransmissionAutomatic
Chronology
PredecessorBlue Bird All American (1990-1999)
Blue Bird TC/2000
SuccessorBlue Bird All American (D3)

For 1999, the fourth generation of the All American was introduced.[13] Internally designated the "A3" series, the fourth generation marked a major structural revision to the model line. While sharing most of its body with its predecessor, the fourth generation adopted a "drop-frame" chassis; the portion of the frame rails that supported the engine and transmission were lowered in height.[14][15] In front-engine versions, the intrusion of the engine housing into the drivers' compartment was further reduced. To consolidate production, the fourth-generation All American retained much of the body of its predecessor. While continuing to share much of its body from the long-running second-generation All American, the fourth generation adopted elements from the TC/2000, including its larger windshield (increasing forward visibility). The dashboard and control panel underwent a redesign with larger gauges and switches; to streamline production, the TC/2000 adopted the design in 2000. Externally, the fourth-generation All American adopted a smaller grille (for front-engine versions), with "Blue Bird" lettering moved from below the windshield to between the headlamps.

During its production, the A3-series marked a significant change of the Blue Bird product range. Following the 1999 introduction of the A3 series, the TC/2000 rear-engine was discontinued, with Blue Bird consolidating rear-engine production to the All American product range. In 2001, the TC/1000 front-engine minibus was withdrawn, with the CS and APC commercial derivatives of the All American and TC/2000 ending in 2002. In 2003, the TC/2000 ended production (with a short run of 2004 vehicles). After 2007, the Blue Bird product range consisted solely of the All American, Vision, and Micro Bird.

The fourth-generation All American continued the use of Cummins and Caterpillar inline-6 diesel engines, offering Cummins and John Deere CNG engine options.[14][15]

Blue Bird All American A3FE/A3RE powertrain specifications[14][15]
Engine name Fuel Transmission
Caterpillar 3126/C7 Diesel Allison AT545

Allison MT643

Allison MD3060

Allison MD3066

Caterpillar 3116
Cummins ISC
Cummins ISB
John Deere 8.1L I6 CNG
Cummins 5.9B

Initially planned for replacement by the fifth-generation D3 series, the rear-engine A3 series was discontinued in 2008. Supported by continued customer demand, the front-engine A3 was produced through 2013 (outliving its successor by a year). Both the fourth-generation and fifth-generation All Americans were replaced by the 2014 T3 series.

Alongside its traditional role of a yellow school bus, the A3 series was produced for other applications; the model line was offered for sale for U.S. General Services Administration motor pool fleets, along for export worldwide.

Fifth-generation (2010-2013)

Fifth generation (D3)
Juab School District school bus, Jan 18.jpg
2010-2013 Blue Bird All American RE (D3RE)"
Overview
Also calledBlue Bird TX3 (export)
Production2008-2012
Model years2010-2013
AssemblyFort Valley, Georgia
Layoutfront-engine 4x2
rear-engine 4x2
Powertrain
EngineDiesel
Compressed Natural Gas
TransmissionAutomatic
Chronology
PredecessorBlue Bird All American (A3)
SuccessorBlue Bird All American (T3)
2010 Blue Bird TX3 (Canada)
2010 Blue Bird TX3 (Canada)

The fifth-generation All American (internally designated the "D3" series), was unveiled at an industry trade show in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina on October 28, 2008.[16] Introduced for 2010 production, the D3 series marked the most extensive changes to the body design of the All American (and all Blue Bird buses) in over 50 years.

Influenced by the 2006 EC-72 conventional, the fifth-generation All American introduced an all-new roofline design, squaring off the corners (effectively increasing interior headroom). To improve driver sightlines, the long-running flat-glass windshield was replaced by a two-piece curved design, extending further downward and upward. In two notable design changes, the front fascia of the D3 abandoned quad headlamps for a dual-headlamp configuration (for the first time since 1957), adopting round headlamp lenses for the first time since 1988. The rear emergency door was enlarged in height and width for the first time. Inside, the driver's compartment was completely redesigned, adopting a new layout for driver controls (on both sides of the steering wheel) with a redesigned instrument panel (later used by the Vision).

The drop-frame chassis introduced by the A3 series was continued for the D3, offering both diesel and CNG engines (the latter on rear-engine versions). Following the exit of Caterpillar from on-highway engine production, all engines were sourced from Cummins. The FE was powered by the ISB; the RE offered the ISC.

Developed as the intended successor to the A3 series, the fifth-generation All American RE replaced its predecessor after 2009 production. As a consequence of customer demand, Blue Bird continued production of the A3 front-engine model line alongside its D3 counterpart until production ended in 2012; the D3 was outlived by its predecessor.

In production for only four years, Blue Bird replaced both versions of the D3 series and the front-engine A3 (in production since 1999) with the sixth-generation All American, introduced for 2014 production.

Blue Bird All American D3 specifications[17][18]
Model Name All American FE All American RE
Seating Capacity 54-90 66-84
Overall Length (inches) 354–487 inches (9.0–12.4 m) 405–489 inches (10.3–12.4 m)
Body Width (exterior) 96 inches (2.4 m)
Body Height (depending on configuration) 123–124 inches (3.1–3.1 m) 126 inches (3.2 m)
Wheelbase 141–232 inches (3.6–5.9 m) 189–273 inches (4.8–6.9 m)
Interior Headroom 78 inches (2.0 m)
GVWR Up to 36,200 pounds (16,400 kg)
Fuel Type(s) Diesel
  • Diesel
  • Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)
Engine Cummins ISB-10

(200–280 hp or 150–210 kW)

  • Cummins ISC-10 (260–300 hp or 190–220 kW)
  • Cummins ISL-G CNG (250–280 hp or 190–210 kW)
Transmission
  • Allison PTS 2500 (standard)
  • Allison PTS 3000 (optional)
  • Allison PTS 3000 (standard)
  • Allison PTS B300 (optional)
Brakes Standard
  • Hydraulic Brakes
  • 4-wheel Anti-lock

Optional

  • Air Brakes
Standard
  • Air Brakes
  • 4-wheel Anti-lock

Sixth generation (2014-present)

Sixth generation (T3)
Iron County School District school bus.JPG
2014-2015 Blue Bird All American RE
Overview
Also calledBlue Bird TX4 (export)
Production2012-present
Model years2014-present
AssemblyFort Valley, Georgia
Powertrain
EngineDiesel
Compressed Natural Gas
Electric
TransmissionAutomatic
Chronology
Predecessor
  • Blue Bird All American (D3)
  • Blue Bird All American (A3)

In October 2012, Blue Bird debuted the sixth generation of the All American for 2014 production (internally designated the T3 series).[2][19] Replacing both the fourth and fifth generations, the sixth generation introduced a number of structural reinforcements to the body, intended for increased rollover protection.[19] In another change, Blue Bird increased parts commonality between the All American and the Vision; along with passenger compartment assemblies, the All American adopted dashboard components and controls from the driver compartment. While visually sharing body panels used by the A3 and Vision, the T3 retained the front fascia of the D3 (with a new grille), sharing its two-piece windshield and round headlamps. As part of the redesign, the roofline returned to a curved configuration. In a visual change, Blue Bird ended the use of the full-length roofline "streamer" (roof stripe), replacing it with a design shared directly with Micro Bird buses.

Again using a drop-frame chassis, the T3 is offered with both diesel and CNG engines. A 6.7L Cummins inline-6 is standard for both versions; a diesel version of the Cummins ISL (L9 since 2018) was introduced for the rear-engine configuration. For 2019, the rear-engine chassis entered production as a battery-electric vehicle.

Blue Bird All American T3 Specifications[20]
Model Name All American FE All American RE
Seating Capacity 54-90 66-84
Overall Length (inches)
Body Width (exterior) 96 inches (2.4 m)
Body Height (depending on configuration) 122–128 inches (3.1–3.3 m)
Wheelbase (depending on capacity) 141–232 inches (3.6–5.9 m) 189–273 inches (4.8–6.9 m)
Interior Headroom 77 inches (2.0 m)
GVWR Up to 36,200 pounds (16,400 kg)
Fuel Type(s) Diesel Diesel

Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)

Electric (BEV)

Engine
  • 2014-2017: Cummins ISB 6.7 200–280 hp (150–210 kW)
  • 2018-present: Cummins B6.7 200–280 hp (150–210 kW)
Diesel
    • 2014-2017: Cummins ISB 6.7 200–300 hp (150–220 kW)
    • 2018-present: Cummins B6.7 (200–300 hp (150–220 kW) )
    • 2014-2017: Cummins ISL 8.9 ( 200–300 hp (150–220 kW) )
    • 2018-present: Cummins L9 ( 260–300 hp (190–220 kW)
  • Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)
    • Cummins ISL-G CNG (250–280 hp (190–210 kW))
  • Electric[21]
    • 100-150 kWh capacity (80-100 mile range)
    [22]
Transmission Allison PTS 2500 5-speed automatic
  • Allison PTS 2500 5-speed automatic (standard)
  • Allison PTS 3000 5/6-speed automatic (optional)
Brakes Standard
  • Hydraulic 4-wheel disc

Optional

  • Air drum
  • Air disc
  • Air drum
  • Air disc

Export markets

First Student UK school buses located in Wrexham, Wales.
Right-hand drive Blue Bird TC/3000 REs in Wales
1980 Blue Bird All American FE (South America) in Chile (unknown chassis)
1980 Blue Bird All American FE (South America) in Chile (unknown chassis)

Throughout much of its production, the All American has been exported by Blue Bird to markets worldwide as both a school bus and for other applications. Following the expansion of Blue Bird into Canada in 1958, the All American adopted the Blue Bird All Canadian brand name. Following the 1988 introduction of the TC/2000, the All Canadian was renamed the Blue Bird TC/3000, using the same name in all export markets. Export versions of the D3 and T3 generations are branded as the TX3 and TX4, respectively.

Following the 1966 establishment of its manufacturing facility located in Guatemala (Blue Bird Central America), the factory produced buses using the All American body.[3] In a shift from its American-produced counterpart, Blue Bird Central America used locally sourced truck chassis (Ford, Mercedes-Benz, and Hino), instead of the proprietary Blue Bird chassis. Alongside school buses, many examples were built for mass transit. Blue Bird Central America was closed by the company in the early 1980s.

Variants

Blue Bird CSFE3000
Blue Bird CSFE3000

Commercial use (APC/CS)

Alongside buses produced for multiple applications, Blue Bird produced two distinct model commercial-use model ranges of the All American during the 1990s. The Blue Bird APC (All Purpose Coach) was directly derived from the body of the school bus, typically fitted with transit bus seating.[23] The heaviest-duty model (the APC 3000) was derived from the All American.

Again sharing its chassis underpinnings with the TC/2000 and All American, the Blue Bird CS (Commercial Series) is a commercial transit bus that was produced during the 1990s;[24] the heaviest-duty CS 3000 was derived from the All American. The CS was fitted with its own roofline, including transit passenger windows, a wheelchair lift, and a destination sign.

After 2002, the APC and CS were withdrawn, with all commercial-use buses (such as law-enforcement vehicles) directly derived from the All American A3-series. Subsequently, Blue Bird did not design transit bus variants of the D3 and T3 generations.

Recreational vehicle (Wanderlodge)

"Large Marge", a 1980 Blue Bird Wanderlodge FC33
1980 Blue Bird Wanderlodge

From 1963 to 1989, the Blue Bird Wanderlodge luxury motorhome was derived from body and chassis of the second-generation All American. Initially developed as a front-engine vehicle, Blue Bird introduced rear-engine versions in 1982 (the first tandem-axle Blue Bird). During the 1980s, the design of the two model lines began to diverge, with Blue Bird ending use of the All American chassis for 1990 production, as the Wanderlodge adopted a 102-inch body width (not then legal for school buses).

In 2007, Blue Bird sold the rights to the Wanderlodge model line, with production ending in 2009.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Product Information". Blue Bird Corporation. Archived from the original on 2009-08-18. Retrieved 2009-08-19.
  2. ^ a b http://www.blue-bird.com/pressrelease.aspx?item=2012[permanent dead link]
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u "Blue Bird, School Bus, History, Blue Bird Body Co., Blue Bird Corp., Wanderlodge, Buddy Luce, Albert L. Luce, Cardinal Mfg., Fort Valley, Georgia - CoachBuilt.com". www.coachbuilt.com. Retrieved 2015-08-16.
  4. ^ a b http://www.curbsideclassic.com/curbside-classics-american/curbside-classic-1957-blue-bird-all-american-bus-the-all-american-dream-comes-in-many-variations-and-colors/
  5. ^ "Evolution of the School Bus- School Bus Fleet". www.schoolbusfleet.com. Retrieved 2019-06-05.
  6. ^ "Blue Bird Corporation/About Us/History". Archived from the original on 2011-07-08. Retrieved 2010-02-21.
  7. ^ "Blue Bird All American School Buses". 1998-02-12. Archived from the original on 1998-02-12. Retrieved 2019-06-10.
  8. ^ a b c "CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION | FINAL STATUS REPORT PHASE 4 | SAFE SCHOOL BUS CLEAN FUEL EFFICIENCY DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM" (PDF). October 2002.
  9. ^ "The chassis". Retrieved 2019-06-10.
  10. ^ "The engine". Retrieved 2019-06-10.
  11. ^ "Blue Bird Corporation Environmental Stewardship Statement". Blue Bird Corporation. Archived from the original on 2010-07-24. Retrieved 2010-07-04.
  12. ^ "Blue Bird NGV School Bus Specifications". 1998-01-28. Archived from the original on 1998-01-28. Retrieved 2019-06-10.
  13. ^ "Blue Bird All American School Buses". 1999-02-20. Archived from the original on 1999-02-20. Retrieved 2019-06-11.
  14. ^ a b c "Blue Bird All American RE Specifications". 1999-02-20. Archived from the original on 1999-02-20. Retrieved 2019-06-11.
  15. ^ a b c "Blue Bird All American FE Specifications". 1999-02-20. Archived from the original on 1999-02-20. Retrieved 2019-06-11.
  16. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-07-10. Retrieved 2010-05-08.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  17. ^ "All-American Forward Engine School Bus Specification Sheet" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-01-14.
  18. ^ "All-American Rear Engine School Bus Specification Sheet" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-01-14.
  19. ^ a b http://www.schoolbusfleet.com/Channel/Management-Training/News/2012/10/15/Blue-Bird-to-reveal-redesigned-Type-Ds.aspx
  20. ^ https://www.blue-bird.com/Uploads/Public/Documents/ProductLiterature/SB-AABROCHURE-0715%20(Pages).pdf
  21. ^ "Blue Bird Introduces All-New Electric School Bus Solutions". Adomani Electric.
  22. ^ "Efficient Drivetrains, EDI PowerDrive™ 7000 Integrated into Blue Bird Type C Bus". Efficient Drivetrains.
  23. ^ "Blue Bird APC Series". 1998-12-06. Archived from the original on 1998-12-06. Retrieved 2019-06-12.
  24. ^ "Blue Bird CS Buses". 1998-12-06. Archived from the original on 1998-12-06. Retrieved 2019-06-12.
This page was last edited on 8 August 2020, at 00:20
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