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Bindu (symbol)

Bindu (Sanskrit: बिंदु) is a Sanskrit word meaning "point" or "dot".

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• ✪ CO2 Lewis Structure - How to Draw the Dot Structure for Carbon Dioxide
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Transcription

OK, this is Dr. B. We're going to do the Lewis structure for CO2, Carbon dioxide. On the periodic table, Carbon is in group 4, or 14 sometimes; and then Oxygen is in group 6 or 16. But we have two of them. So let's multiply that together there: so we have 12 plus 4, 16 total valence electrons. Let's draw the structure. Carbon is the least electronegative; that means it's going to go at the center. So we'll put the Carbon right here, and then Oxygens on either side of that. So now we want to draw some chemical bonds. Let's put a pair of electrons between each of these, so now they're bonded. We've used four. Then let's complete the octets on the outer shell. So, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16. That looks pretty good: looks like it kind of works out the way we want it to. Let's check and see if we have octets. This Oxygen here has 8. This Oxygen here has 8. They both have octets. The Carbon only has 4 valence electrons, it doesn't have an octet. What we can do is, we can share electrons--these nonbonding electrons out here between the atoms there. Now we have 2, 4, 6, 8; that Oxygen's OK. The Carbon has 2, 4, 6. Little bit closer. Let's take some electrons over here and share them on this side so that Oxygen has 8, we still have 8 over here. And now Carbon in the center has 2, 4, 6, 8. So we've completed the octet. And if you add them up, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, we've used 16 valence electrons. That's all we had to start out with. Let's clean that up there. If we wanted to write this as a structural formula, we could also do that and that would look like this. In this structural formula, the two lines right here are the same as these two pairs of valence electrons. This is Dr. B., and thank you for watching.

Philosophy

In metaphysics, Bindu is considered the point at which creation begins and may become unity. It is also described as "the sacred symbol of the cosmos in its unmanifested state".[1][2] Bindu is the point around which the mandala is created, representing the universe.[3]

Bindu is often merged with [seed] (or sperm) and ova. In the Yoga Chudamani Upanishad Bindu is a duality, with a white Bindu representing shukla (pure) and a red Bindu representing maharaj (mastery). The white Bindu resides in the bindu visarga and is related to Shiva and the Moon, while the red Bindu resides in the muladhara chakra and is related to Shakti and the Sun.[4] In yoga, the union of these two parts results in the ascension of kundalini to the sahasrara.[5]

Chakra

Purple Bindu chakra (may also be red)

In Tantra, Bindu (or Bindu visarga—"falling of the drop") is a point at the back of the head where Brahmins grow their tuft of hair.[6][7] This point is below the sahasrara chakra and above the ajna chakra, and is represented by a crescent moon with a white drop. It represents the manifestation of creations such as consciousness.[8]

The Bindu visarga is said to be the source of Bindu fluid, which contains a nectar (amrita) and a poison.[9] The fluid is released from the Bindu visarga, and can be stored in the lalana chakra and purified in the Vishuddha chakra. When the Vishuddha is inactive the fluid flows to the manipura chakra, where it is consumed (leading to physical decline). According to the Hatha Yoga Pradipika, a hatha yoga practitioner can prolong their life by controlling the flow of the fluid.[10] Through practice of Khecari mudra, a practitioner can manipulate the flow of the fluid from the lalana to the Vishuddha (where it is purified to amrita).

The picture of the chakra is a lotus with 23 petals. Its symbol is the moon, which supports the growth of vegetation. Krishna said in the Bhagavad Gita XV/13, "Becoming the nectarine moon I nourish all plants". Its divinity is Shiva, who is portrayed with the crescent moon in his hair.

The Bindu chakra is a centre for health, giving us the power for physical and mental recuperation. It benefits eyesight, quietens the emotions and promotes inner harmony, clarity and balance. With the help of this chakra we are capable of controlling hunger and thirst, gaining the ability to overcome unhealthy eating habits. Concentration on Bindu relieves anxiety and depression, nervousness and feelings of oppression in the heart.[11]

Tibetan letter "A", with the iconographic representation of a rainbow circle

In Tibetan Buddhism Bindu refers to the subtle body, which is composed of drops (Tibetan: ཐིག་ལེ thig le) and winds (Tibetan: རླུང rLung).[12]

Practices

Exercises for the Bindu Chakra are[13]:

• Agnisāra Kriyā
• Ujjāyī Prānāyāma with Khecharī Mudrā and Jālandhara Bandha
• Viparītkaranī Mudrā
• Shirshāsana
• Sarvāngāsana
• Selected Āsanas activate the Bindu Chakra and balance physical functions

There are also special Meditations on the Bindu Chakra.[14]

Notes

1. ^ Khanna 1979: p.171
2. ^ Swami Ranganathananda (1991). Human Being in Depth: A Scientific Approach to Religion. SUNY Press. p. 21. ISBN 0791406792.
3. ^ Shakya, p. 82-83
4. ^ Saraswati, p. 144
5. ^ Kumar, p. 94
6. ^ Saraswati, p. 21
7. ^ Kumar, p. 8-9
8. ^ Saraswati, p. 143
9. ^ Saraswati, p.141-142
10. ^
11. ^ http://www.yogaindailylife.org/esystem/yoga/en/180700/chakras/bindu-chakra/
12. ^ http://studybuddhism.com/web/en/archives/e-books/unpublished_manuscripts/developing_balanced_sensitivity/pt5/sensitivity_17.html Grasping at Mind's Natural Functions for Security. Alexander Berzin
13. ^ Maheshwarananda, Paramhans Swami (2004). "Exercises for the Bindu Chakra". The Hidden Power in Humans: Chakras and Kundalini. Ibera Verlag. ISBN 3-85052-197-4.
14. ^ Maheshwarananda, Paramhans Swami (2004). "Meditation Practices for Bindu Chakra". The Hidden Power in Humans: Chakras and Kundalini. Ibera Verlag. ISBN 3-85052-197-4.

References

• Khanna, Madhu (1979). Yantra: The Tantric Symbol Of Cosmic Unity. Thames and Hudson.
• Kumar, Ravindra (2000). Kundalini for Beginners: The Shortest Path to Self-Realization. Llewellyn Worldwide.
• Rana, Deepak (2012). Yantra, Mantra and Tantrism: The Complete Guide. Neepradaka Press.
• Saraswati, Satyananda (1996). Kundalini Tantra. Bihar School of Yoga.
• Shakya, Milan (June 2000). "Basic Concepts of Mandala." Voices of History, Vol. XV, No. 1. pp. 81–87
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