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Bengali poetry

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bengali literature
বাংলা সাহিত্য
Charyapada.jpg
Kazi Nazrul Islam, circa 1940.jpg
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Bengali poetry is a rich tradition of poetry in the Bengali language and has many different forms. Originating in the Bengal region of South Asia, the history of Bengali poetry underwent three successive stages of development: poetry of the early age (like Charyapad), the Medieval period and the age of modern poetry which was introduced in the 1930s. The national poet of Bangladesh, the country with the highest number of native Bengali speakers, is Kazi Nazrul Islam - a 20th-century writer infamous for his activism against British colonial rule through revolutionary works such as Bidrohi (Rebel).

Introduction

Bankim Chandra Chatterjee's poem Vande Mataram is the national song of India and Rabindranath Tagore's Jana Gana Mana is the National anthem of India, both poems were originally written in Bengali-language
Bankim Chandra Chatterjee's poem Vande Mataram is the national song of India and Rabindranath Tagore's Jana Gana Mana is the National anthem of India, both poems were originally written in Bengali-language

Poetry in the colloquial dialect of Bengal first originated from Prakrit, and based upon local socio-cultural traditions. It was antagonistic towards Vedic rituals and laws as opposed to the sahajaya traditions of the poets themselves - who were mainly Buddhist sages.[1][better source needed]

The medieval period marked the introduction of puthis, which played an important role in Muslim life and brought much Persian and Arabic influence to the poetic lexicon. Shah Gharibullah was said to have initiated this puthi trend with his epic "Amir Hamza". Many jongonamas, puthis based on battles, were written during this time. Jongonamas were generally elegiac in tone. Works relating to Karbala were called marsiya (meaning 'grief' in Arabic) literature. Both janganama and marsiya literature first developed in Arabia and later Persia. Muslim Sufis and soldiers introduced this form of poetry in the Bengali language to the masses in Bengal and Arakan. Well-known poems of include Zainab's Chautisha by Sheikh Faizullah, Maqtul Husayn by Mohammad Khan and Qasim-er Lodai O Fatima-r Surotnama by Sherbaz. The works mixed Bengali folk poetry with Perso-Arabian stories and themes, and are considered an important part of the Muslim culture of Bengal.[2]

Ancient and Medieval Era

Charyapad is the oldest poetry and literary specimen of Bengali language. It is also the oldest work in the neo-Indian Aryan language.The composers of these hymns, composed between the tenth and twelfth centuries AD, were easily Buddhist Siddhacharyas.The 24 major Charyapadas were by Lui Pa, Kukkuripa, Biruapa, Gundaripa, Chatilpa, Bhusuk Pa, Kahnpad, Kambalambarpa, Dombipa, Shantipa, Mahittapa, Veenapa, Sarhapa, Shabar Pa, Azdebpa, Dhenpana, Dankapa, Darikpa Dhampa, Tantipa, Laridombipa. 1200-1350 AD of Bengali literature has been marked as the "dark age of Bengali Literature."During this time Srikrishnakirtan was composed by Baduchandidas.The other remarkable poets of Vaishnava literature of this era were Vidyapati, Jnandas, Govindadas, Yashoraj Khan, Chandkaji, Ramchandra Basu, Balram Das, Narhari Das, Vrindavan Das, Basudavas, Bansibad. Syed Sultan, Harhari Sarkar, Fateh Paramananda, Ghanshyam Das, Gayas Khan,Alaol, Deen Chandidas, Chandrashekhar, Haridas, Shivram, Karam Ali, Pir Muhammad, Hiramani, Bhavananda. Famous poets of Mangal Kavya are Kanahari Dutt, Narayan Dev, Vijaygupta, Bipradas Piplai, Madhav Acharya, Mukundaram Chakraborty, Ghanram Chakraborty, Srishyam Pandit, Bharat Chandra Roy Gunakar, Khemananda, Ketka Das Khemananda, Dwij Madhav, Adi Rupram, Manik Ram, Mayur Bhatt, Khelaram, Rupram, Sitaram Das, Shyamj.

The 18th-century two brilliant Shakta bhakti court poets were Bharatchandra Ray and Ramprasad Sen.

Poets of West Bengal (1800- present)

The poet who built the bridge between the Middle and Modern Ages is the poet of the Ages:Ishwar Chandra Gupta (1812-1859). Michael Madhusudan Dutt (1824-183) broke the medieval paradigm and the poet entered free verse. Composes sonnets. Gained, the fame of the father of modern poetry.Bird of the Dawn(Bhorer Pakhi): Biharilal Chakraborty (1835-1894), a romantic and lyric poet of European style. Poet Rabindranath Tagore(181-1941) entered Bengali literature like a Mahiruh tree. There is no branch of literature other than the epic where he has not established the pillar of fame. The contemporary poets of the Rabindric era were Satyendranath Dutta, Jatindra Mohan Bagchi. At the beginning of the twentieth century, five men opposed Rabindra in poetry, namely: Mohitlal Majumder, Kazi Nazrul Islam and Jatindranath Sengupta beginning with their anti - Romantic poetic style. Golden Age of Modern Poetry: Thirty-Five Panchpandava Poets:Amiya Chakraborty (1901-6), Jibanananda Das (1899-1954), Buddhadeb Basu (1906-64), Bishnu Dey (1909-62), Sudhindranath Dutta (1901-60). They were followed by the generation of Shakti Chattopadhyay (1933-1995) ,Sankha Ghosh (1932) ,Sunil Gangopadhyay (1935-2012)

Poets of Bangladesh

Following the Partition of India in 1947, Bengali poets were divided along nationalistic lines of India and Pakistan. The poets of East Bengal celebrated the glory of Islam, many taking inspiration from Kazi Nazrul Islam. Some of the popular Bengali Muslim poets of this period included Farrukh Ahmad, Talim Hossain, Golam Mostofa and Raushan Yazdani. The Bangladesh Liberation War and struggle for freedom became a popular theme in the years that followed. Al Mahmud is considered one of the greatest Bengali poets to have emerged in the 20th century.[3]

See also

References

  1. ^ Arif, Hakim (2012). "Poetry". In Islam, Sirajul; Miah, Sajahan; Khanam, Mahfuza; Ahmed, Sabbir (eds.). Banglapedia: the National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Online ed.). Dhaka, Bangladesh: Banglapedia Trust, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. ISBN 984-32-0576-6. OCLC 52727562. Retrieved 10 April 2021.
  2. ^ Khandker Muzammil Haq (2012). "Janganama". In Islam, Sirajul; Miah, Sajahan; Khanam, Mahfuza; Ahmed, Sabbir (eds.). Banglapedia: the National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Online ed.). Dhaka, Bangladesh: Banglapedia Trust, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. ISBN 984-32-0576-6. OCLC 52727562. Retrieved 10 April 2021.
  3. ^ "Al Mahmud turns 75". The Daily Star. 13 July 2011. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
This page was last edited on 10 March 2021, at 05:02
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