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Belmont transmitting station

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Belmont
Belmont - geograph.org.uk - 619487.jpg
Then the tallest structure in the UK, seen in November 2007
Belmont transmitting station (Lincolnshire)
Mast height1,154 feet (351.7 m)
Coordinates53°20′09″N 0°10′19″W / 53.335861°N 0.172°W / 53.335861; -0.172
Grid referenceTF217837
Built1965 (height increased in 1967)
BBC regionBBC Yorkshire (1965–2004)
BBC Yorkshire and Lincolnshire (2004–present)
ITV regionITV Anglia (1965–74)
ITV Yorkshire (1974–present)
Local TV serviceThat’s Humber
That's Lincolnshire

The Belmont transmitting station is a broadcasting and telecommunications facility next to the B1225, one mile west of the village of Donington on Bain in the civil parish of South Willingham, near Market Rasen and Louth in Lincolnshire, England (grid reference TF217837). It is owned and operated by Arqiva.

It has a guyed tubular steel mast, with a lattice upper section. The mast was shortened in April 2010 and is now 1,154 feet (351.7 m) in height.[1][2] Before this it was 1,272 feet (387.7 m) high and was considered to be the tallest structure of its kind in the world (taller masts, such as the KVLY-TV mast in the United States, use steel lattice construction), the tallest structure of any type in the United Kingdom. After the top section was removed, the mast's reduced height relegated it to the second-highest in the UK after Skelton.

Despite the mast being shortened it can be seen in daylight on clear days from most areas close to and within the Lincolnshire Wolds. On clear nights its bright red aircraft warning lights can be very widely seen across much of Lincolnshire from as far north as the River Humber and Barton-Upon-Humber; from the west of the county it can be seen from Lincoln, Gainsborough and Grantham; from the south of the county it can be seen from Spalding and Bourne; and from the east it can be seen from Skegness, Mablethorpe and most areas along the Lincolnshire coast. The lights can also be seen from many parts of Nottinghamshire, coastal areas of North West Norfolk and a few parts of Derbyshire on very clear nights.

Construction

View from the air in July 1990
View from the air in July 1990

The mast was constructed in 1965 and it came into service on 20 December of that year. As built it was a tubular pipe 900 feet (274.3 m) long by 9 feet (2.7 m) in diameter, surmounted by a 365 feet (111.3 m) lattice upper section (an identical mast was constructed in 1964 at Emley Moor near Huddersfield in Yorkshire, but the other mast collapsed due to guy failure caused by icing and high winds on 19 March 1969). Its ropes weigh 85 tons, made by British Ropes, with steel from Steel, Peech and Tozer of Templeborough in southern Yorkshire. The column weighs 210 tons and has 375 segments, with steel from United Steel Companies at Scunthorpe in northern Lincolnshire.[3]

In September 1967, meteorological equipment was added to the 1,265 feet (385.6 m) mast extending its height to 1,272 feet (387.7 m). The imperial measurement was the accepted value quoted by publications including the 1993 edition of the Guinness Book of Records.[4] The metric measurement quoted by the current owners is 0.2 m (8 in) shorter.

Between October 2009 and April 2010, the mast was shortened as part of the Digital Switchover works, most of the top section above the fifth stay level was removed (along with the sixth stay level) and the mast now stands 1,154 feet (351.7 m) high.

Coverage

From its location, high in the Lincolnshire Wolds, it broadcasts digital television and both analogue and digital radio to Lincolnshire, eastern Yorkshire, northern parts of Norfolk and some parts of Nottinghamshire. When it was first operated it transmitted (amongst others) ITV station Anglia Television. Following a re-organisation of ITV coverage in 1972, from 1974 it started transmitting neighbouring station Yorkshire Television instead, which it continues to do to this day. Due to most of the region being flat, Belmont has few relay stations although there is a main relay station at Oliver's Mount covering the Scarborough area.

Transmitter power

In the analogue era Belmont, at 500 kW E.R.P. for the four main analogue television channels, was one of the most powerful transmitters in the UK, though there were four UK transmitters which were more powerful; Sutton Coldfield, Crystal Palace and Sandy Heath were all at 1000 kW and Emley Moor was 870 kW. After digital switchover Belmont's digital transmitting power was 50 kW for SDN (previously Mux A), 100 kW for Arqiva A & B (Mux C, D) and 150 kW for BBC A, D3&4 and BBC B (Mux 1, 2, B).

700MHz clearance

On 4 March 2020, Belmont was due to complete its 700MHz clearance and will become an A group transmitter, excluding the temporary MUXES 7 and 8 (see graph). Since Belmont started out as an A group for (just) analogue it returns to that band after being a wideband for 21 years. Technically the advent of C5 analogue complicated the issue for a few months prior to (dual) running digital transmissions started in 1998.

Services listed by frequency

Analogue television

20 December 1965 – 19 November 1966

First transmissions from the site: ITV's 405-line television service was fed by off-air reception of Mendlesham at Great Massingham in Norfolk, with an onward microwave link to Belmont via an intermediate point at Winceby in Lincolnshire.

Frequency VHF kW Service
184.75 MHz 7V 20 Anglia Television

19 November 1966 – 24 May 1971

The BBC's services came online on both VHF and UHF. BBC 1 was initially fed by means of an off-air rebroadcast of Holme Moss but this was plagued by co-channel interference from the continent. BBC2 was an off-air rebroadcast from Emley Moor.[5] On 19 March 1969, the Emley Moor mast collapsed, taking Belmont's BBC2 transmissions off-air for several days.[6]

Despite the programme sources on VHF and UHF being (for many years) off-air rebroadcasts of other transmitters in the vicinity, Belmont was always regarded by the BBC as being a "main station" both on VHF and UHF. The IBA initially regarded it as a relay of Mendlesham (and numbered it 14.2 in their numbering of VHF stations) but from 1974 it became a "main station" for Yorkshire Television (renumbered as 20.0 in the IBA's numbering of VHF stations)[7] after changes in the minor franchise areas.

It was always number 120.0 in the BBC/IBA numbering scheme for UHF stations[8]).

Frequency VHF UHF kW Service
184.75 MHz 7V 20 Anglia Television
214.75 MHz 13V 20 BBC1
527.25 MHz 28 500 BBC2

24 May 1971 – 30 July 1974

ITV's UHF service began.[9]

Frequency VHF UHF kW Service
184.75 MHz 7V 20 Anglia Television
214.75 MHz 13V 20 BBC1
479.25 MHz 22 500 BBC1
503.25 MHz 25 500 Anglia Television
527.25 MHz 28 500 BBC2

30 July 1974 – 2 November 1982

After changes to the regional structure of ITV in 1972, Belmont stopped being a relay of Mendlesham and became a main station for Yorkshire TV.[6] It was fed by a Post Office (later BT) microwave link from Leeds, allowing Yorkshire TV to supply Belmont with a separate 7-minute segment of their regional news magazine programme "Calendar", a Belmont titled version of Anglia's weather forecast, as well as having the ability to sell advertising separately in the Belmont and Emley Moor areas. The microwave link from Leeds to Belmont apparently ran via Emley Moor, where the IBA could insert test transmissions, such as Test Card "F"

Frequency VHF UHF kW Service
184.75 MHz 7V 20 Yorkshire TV
214.75 MHz 13V 20 BBC1
479.25 MHz 22 500 BBC1
503.25 MHz 25 500 Yorkshire TV
527.25 MHz 28 500 BBC2

2 November 1982 – 30 March 1997

Both the BBC and ITV 405-line VHF TV services from Belmont were discontinued early[10] in mid-1982, and when Channel 4 began formal transmissions in November that year it was radiated on UHF from the site:

Frequency UHF kW Service
479.25 MHz 22 500 BBC1
503.25 MHz 25 500 Yorkshire TV
527.25 MHz 28 500 BBC2
559.25 MHz 32 500 Channel 4

30 March 1997 – 15 November 1998

Belmont started transmitting the UK's final terrestrial analogue UHF TV service: Channel 5. This was done well out-of-band and at reduced power compared with the main group.

Frequency UHF kW Service
479.25 MHz 22 500 BBC1
503.25 MHz 25 500 Yorkshire Television
527.25 MHz 28 500 BBC Two
559.25 MHz 32 500 Channel 4
751.25 MHz 56 50 Channel 5

Analogue and digital television

15 November 1998 – 3 August 2011

Belmont began transmitting digital TV, with the new digital multiplexes spaced far from the existing analogue channels. In July 2007 it was confirmed by Ofcom that Belmont would be remaining a wideband transmitter after digital switchover.

Frequency UHF kW Service/Operator System
479.25 MHz 22 500 BBC1 PAL System I
503.25 MHz 25 500 Yorkshire Television/
ITV Yorkshire
PAL System I
527.25 MHz 28 500 BBC Two PAL System I
546.000 MHz 30 10 BBC (Mux 1) DVB-T
559.25 MHz 32 500 Channel 4 PAL System I
690.000 MHz 48 20 Digital 3&4 (Mux 2) DVB-T
751.25 MHz 56 50 Channel 5 PAL System I
762.166 MHz 57+ 4 Arqiva (Mux D) DVB-T
786.000 MHz 60 4 Arqiva (Mux C) DVB-T
834.000 MHz 66 10 BBC (Mux B) DVB-T
850.000 MHz 68 10 SDN (Mux A) DVB-T

3 August 2011 – 17 August 2011

BBC Two closed on UHF 28. BBC One was moved on to that channel for its final three weeks of service. Pre-DSO Multiplex 1 (BBC) on UHF 30 was closed and was replaced by BBC A on UHF 22.

Frequency UHF kW Service/Operator System
482.000 MHz 22 150 BBC A DVB-T
503.25 MHz 25 500 ITV Yorkshire PAL System I
527.25 MHz 28 500 BBC1 PAL System I
559.25 MHz 32 500 Channel 4 PAL System I
690.000 MHz 48 20 Digital 3&4 (Mux 2) DVB-T
751.25 MHz 56 50 Channel 5 PAL System I
762.166 MHz 57+ 4 Arqiva (Mux D) DVB-T
786.000 MHz 60 4 Arqiva (Mux C) DVB-T
834.000 MHz 66 10 BBC (Mux B) DVB-T
850.000 MHz 68 10 SDN (Mux A) DVB-T

Digital television

17 August 2011 – 26 November 2013

All the remaining analogue and existing digital signals were turned off and replaced with higher-power digital signals.

Frequency UHF kW Operator System
482.000 MHz 22 150 BBC A DVB-T
506.000 MHz 25 150 Digital 3&4 DVB-T
530.000 MHz 28 150 BBC B DVB-T2
545.833 MHz 30- 50 SDN DVB-T
730.000 MHz 53 100 Arqiva A DVB-T
786.000 MHz 60 100 Arqiva B DVB-T
  • Arqiva A and Arqiva B were limited to 4 kW until 23 November 2011, when they were increased to 100 kW.

26 November 2013 – 4 February 2020

Local TV, carrying Estuary TV, and Arqiva C, carrying additional HD services, launched on 26 November 2013.

Frequency UHF kW Operator Multiplex System
482.000 MHz 22 150 BBC A PSB1 DVB-T
506.000 MHz 25 150 Digital 3&4 PSB2 DVB-T
530.000 MHz 28 150 BBC B PSB3 DVB-T2
545.833 MHz 30- 50 SDN COM4 DVB-T
562.000 MHz 32 5 Local TV LOC DVB-T
570.000 MHz 33 37.1 Arqiva C COM7 DVB-T2
730.000 MHz 53 100 Arqiva A COM5 DVB-T
754.000 MHz 56 39 Arqiva D COM8 DVB-T2
786.000 MHz 60 100 Arqiva B COM6 DVB-T

5 February 2020 - 03 March 2020

Arqiva A moved from UHF 53 to UHF 23, in accordance with the 700MHz clearance.

Frequency UHF kW Operator Multiplex System
482.000 MHz 22 150 BBC A PSB1 DVB-T
490.000 MHz 23 75 Arqiva A COM5 DVB-T
506.000 MHz 25 150 Digital 3&4 PSB2 DVB-T
530.000 MHz 28 150 BBC B PSB3 DVB-T2
545.833 MHz 30- 64 SDN COM4 DVB-T
562.000 MHz 32 5 Local TV LOC DVB-T
746.000 MHz 55 37.1 Arqiva C COM7 DVB-T2
754.000 MHz 56 39 Arqiva D COM8 DVB-T2
786.000 MHz 60 100 Arqiva B COM6 DVB-T

4 March 2020 - 24 June 2020

Arqiva B moved from UHF 60- to UHF 26, and a power increase of the Local multiplex, in accordance with the 700MHz clearance.

Frequency UHF kW Operator Multiplex System
482.000 MHz 22 150 BBC A PSB1 DVB-T
490.000 MHz 23 75 Arqiva A COM5 DVB-T
506.000 MHz 25 150 Digital 3&4 PSB2 DVB-T
514.000 MHz 26 75 Arqiva B COM6 DVB-T
530.000 MHz 28 150 BBC B PSB3 DVB-T2
545.833 MHz 30- 64 SDN COM4 DVB-T
562.000 MHz 32 10 Local TV LOC DVB-T
746.000 MHz 55 37.1 Arqiva C COM7 DVB-T2
754.000 MHz 56 39 Arqiva D COM8 DVB-T2

25 June 2020 - Present

COM 8 was switched off permanently in accordance with the 700MHz clearance programme.

Frequency UHF kW Operator Multiplex System
482.000 MHz 22 150 BBC A PSB1 DVB-T
490.000 MHz 23 75 Arqiva A COM5 DVB-T
506.000 MHz 25 150 Digital 3&4 PSB2 DVB-T
514.000 MHz 26 75 Arqiva B COM6 DVB-T
530.000 MHz 28 150 BBC B PSB3 DVB-T2
545.833 MHz 30- 64 SDN COM4 DVB-T
562.000 MHz 32 10 Local TV LOC DVB-T
746.000 MHz 55 37.1 Arqiva C COM7 DVB-T2

Analogue radio (FM VHF)

19 November 1966 – 11 November 1980

Frequency kW Service
88.8 MHz 8 BBC Light Programme (later BBC Radio 2)
90.9 MHz 8 BBC Third Programme (later BBC Radio 3)
93.1 MHz 8 BBC Home Service (later BBC Radio 4)

11 November 1980 – February 1992

BBC Radio Lincolnshire started broadcasting.

Frequency kW[11] Service
88.8 MHz 8 BBC Radio 2
90.9 MHz 8 BBC Radio 3
93.1 MHz 8 BBC Radio 4
94.9 MHz 3 BBC Radio Lincolnshire

February 1992 – present day

Lincs FM and Classic FM join the set of FM broadcasts.

Frequency kW[11] Service
88.8 MHz 8 BBC Radio 2
90.9 MHz 8 BBC Radio 3
93.1 MHz 8 BBC Radio 4
94.9 MHz 3 BBC Radio Lincolnshire
98.3 MHz 8 BBC Radio 1
100.5 MHz 3.1 Classic FM
102.2 MHz 3.2 Lincs FM

Digital radio (DAB)

Frequency Block kW[11] Service
215.072 MHz 12A MuxCo Lincolnshire
216.928 MHz 11A Sound Digital
222.064 MHz 11D 5 Digital One
225.648 MHz 12B 5 BBC National DAB

Relays

Below is a list of transmitters that relay Belmont.

Digital television

transmitter kW BBC-A BBC-B D3&4 SDN ARQ-A ARQ-B Pol.
Grimsby 0.002 45 39 42 N/A N/A N/A BV
Hunmanby 0.025 48 36 33 N/A N/A N/A KV
Lincoln Central 0.02 44 47 41 N/A N/A N/A BV
Oliver's Mount 2 29 37 31 32 34 35 AV
Weaverthorpe 0.009 39 45 42 N/A N/A N/A BV

See also

References

  1. ^ "Arqiva planning application". East Lindsey District Council. 29 August 2008. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011.
  2. ^ "Belmont Transmitter". A.T.V. Poles, Brackets & Aerials. Retrieved 4 May 2016.
  3. ^ Times Friday 10 September 1965, page 9
  4. ^ Guinness Book of Records 39th Edition (1993), page 93 – ISBN 0-85112-978-1
  5. ^ "U.H.F. TRANSMITTING AERIAL FOR THE BELMONT TELEVISION STATION" (PDF). downloads.bbc.co.uk. 1967. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  6. ^ a b "TheBigTower Belmont Dates". thebigtower.com.
  7. ^ "Former U.K. Television Stations". wolfbane.com.
  8. ^ "Former U.K. Television Stations (UHF Analogue System)". wolfbane.com.
  9. ^ "ITV75p146w". mb21.co.uk. Archived from the original on 31 May 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
  10. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 January 2009. Retrieved 7 September 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  11. ^ a b c Radio Listeners Guide 2010

External links

Relay stations

Records
Preceded by
Gerbrandy Tower
1,255 ft (382.5 m)
Tallest structure in EU
1,272 ft (387.7 m)

1973–2010
Succeeded by
Torreta de Guardamar
1,210 ft (368.8 m)
This page was last edited on 29 October 2021, at 20:51
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