To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Baz Luhrmann
Luhrmann at Elvis premiere in 2022
Mark Anthony Luhrmann

(1962-09-17) 17 September 1962 (age 61)
EducationNational Institute of Dramatic Art (BFA)
  • Film director
  • film producer
  • screenwriter
  • actor
Years active1982–present
(m. 1997)
AwardsFull list

Mark Anthony "Baz" Luhrmann (born 17 September 1962) is an Australian film director, producer, writer, and actor. With projects spanning film, television, opera, theatre, music, and recording industries, he is regarded by some as a contemporary example of an auteur[2] for his style and deep involvement in the writing, directing, design, and musical components of all his work. He is the most commercially successful Australian director, with four of his films in the top ten highest worldwide grossing Australian films of all time.[3][4]

On the screen he is best known for his "Red Curtain Trilogy", consisting of his romantic comedy film Strictly Ballroom (1992) and the romantic tragedies William Shakespeare's Romeo + Juliet (1996) and Moulin Rouge! (2001). Following the trilogy, projects included Australia (2008), The Great Gatsby (2013), Elvis (2022), and his television period drama The Get Down (2016) for Netflix. Additional projects include stage productions of Giacomo Puccini's La bohème for both Opera Australia and Broadway, and Strictly Ballroom the Musical (2014).

Luhrmann is known for his Grammy-nominated soundtracks for Moulin Rouge! and The Great Gatsby, as well as his record label House of Iona, a co-venture with RCA Records.[5] Serving as producer on all of his musical soundtracks, he also holds writing credits on many of the individual tracks. His album Something for Everybody features music from many of his films and also includes his hit "Everybody's Free (To Wear Sunscreen)".

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/5
    24 339 119
    2 833 694
    1 034 714
    2 929 418
    13 510
  • Baz Luhrmann’s ELVIS | Official Trailer
  • Baz Luhrmann's ELVIS | "Hayride" Clip
  • Baz Luhrmann's ELVIS | First Listen of "Can't Help Falling In Love" by Kacey Musgraves
  • Baz Luhrmann's ELVIS | Austin Butler’s Pre-Production Test Footage
  • The Films of Baz Luhrmann


Early and personal life

Luhrmann was born in Sydney. His mother, Barbara Carmel (née Brennan), was a ballroom dance teacher and dress shop owner, and his father, Leonard Luhrmann, ran a petrol station and a movie theatre.[6][7][8] He was raised in Herons Creek, a tiny rural settlement in mid-northern New South Wales. He attended St Joseph's Hastings Regional School, Port Macquarie (1975–1978); St Paul's Catholic College, performing in the school's version of Shakespeare's Henry IV, Part 1, and Narrabeen Sports High School, where he met future collaborator Craig Pearce.[9]

Luhrmann received the nickname "Baz" at school, given to him because of his hair style, the name coming from the puppet character Basil Brush. While still in high school, Luhrmann changed his name by deed poll to Bazmark, joining his nickname and birth name together.[10] In 1980, Luhrmann graduated high school, and in the same year was cast opposite Judy Davis in the Australian film Winter of Our Dreams.[11] In 1982, using the money he had earned from film and television experience he funded his own theatre company, The Bond Theatre Company[citation needed]. The company performed at the Pavilion at Sydney's Bondi Beach. At the same time, he conceived and appeared in a controversial television documentary, Kids of the Cross, where Luhrmann, embedded as a character, lived with a group of street kids.[12] In 1983, he began an acting course at the National Institute of Dramatic Art. He graduated in 1985 alongside Sonia Todd, Catherine McClements and Justin Monjo.[13] On 26 January 1997, he married Catherine Martin, a production designer; the couple have two children.

Luhrmann supports the Melbourne Demons in the Australian Football League.[14]



Luhrmann in 2018

After theatrical successes, including the short play Strictly Ballroom which premiered at the Wharf Theatre, Luhrmann moved into film. He made his directorial debut with the 1992 film version of Strictly Ballroom.

Luhrmann's modern film interpretation Romeo + Juliet (1996), based on the William Shakespeare play and starring Leonardo DiCaprio and Claire Danes, defeated Titanic at the BAFTAs for best direction, music and screenplay. The film was celebrated at the Berlin Film Festival, where it was recognised with the Golden Bear award for direction and Silver Bear for DiCaprio's performance. Luhrmann also produced both volumes of the soundtrack album, which went triple-platinum.[15]

Luhrmann's Oscar-winning musical Moulin Rouge! (2001), set in the Montmartre Quarter of Paris at the dawn of the 20th century, told the story of an English poet/writer, Christian (Ewan McGregor) who falls in love with the star of the Moulin Rouge, cabaret actress and courtesan, Satine (Nicole Kidman). The film was praised by its adherents, including musical directors Robert Wise and Stanley Donen, as having re-invented the modern musical, blending decades of popular music in remixes and mash-ups.[16] The movie was named one of the AFI's top ten films of 2001[17] and in 2010 was chosen as the top film of the 2000s decade in a poll of 150,000 respondents in the United Kingdom.[18] At the 59th Annual Golden Globes, Moulin Rouge! took home the awards for Best Motion Picture, Best Actress, and Best Original Score.[19] The film also gave birth to a successful soundtrack album, produced by Luhrmann, which sold more than seven million copies and went double-platinum, led by the Grammy-winning number one hit single "Lady Marmalade".[20][15]

Luhrmann's 2008 historical epic Australia featured some of the country's most celebrated actors, including Nicole Kidman, Hugh Jackman, and David Gulpilil. Situated between the two World Wars, the film blended a nostalgic romance with major events from Australian history, including the Bombing of Darwin, and the true story of the Stolen Generations, wherein thousands of mixed-race Aboriginal children were stolen from their families by the state and forcibly integrated into white society. The movie's racial politics were controversial for their time, and notably, its production coincided with Prime Minister Kevin Rudd's 2008 Apology to Australia's Indigenous peoples. Marcia Langton, professor of Australian indigenous studies at Melbourne University publicly supported the film, saying "Luhrmann depicts with satirical sharpness the racial caste system of that time... In his imagined cinema of the 1940s, the spatial and social shape of racism is reconstructed with such exact detail, I felt I had been transported back to my own childhood."[21] While achieving modest box office success in the United States, the film was very successful in Europe, maintaining the #1 slot at the box office for many weeks in France, Germany, Spain, Italy and the Scandinavian countries.[22] It is the second-highest grossing Australian film of all time, next to Crocodile Dundee and ahead of Happy Feet.[23]

In 2013, Luhrmann adapted F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby, shot in 3D,[24] starring Leonardo DiCaprio as Jay Gatsby, Tobey Maguire as Nick Carraway, Carey Mulligan as Daisy Buchanan, Joel Edgerton as Tom Buchanan, Australian newcomer Elizabeth Debicki as Jordan Baker, and legendary Indian actor Amitabh Bachchan as Meyer Wolfsheim. For the film, Luhrmann and costume/production designer Catherine Martin collaborated with Prada, Brooks Brothers, and Tiffany & Co. to create period-inspired dresses, suits, and jewellery based on their own archives and true to the book's own references to luxury brands.[25] The film grossed over $353 million worldwide, making it the director's highest-grossing movie to date.[26][27] Critic Richard Roeper described the adaptation as "the best attempt yet to capture the essence of the novel" while Fitzgerald's granddaughter praised the movie, saying "Scott would have been proud."[28][29] The following year, at the 86th Academy Awards, the film won in both of its nominated categories: Best Production Design and Best Costume Design.[30] The soundtrack, produced by Luhrmann, Anton Monsted, and Jay-Z, sought to blend the music of the Jazz Age with contemporary hip hop as two historical analogues.[31] Featured artists included Beyoncé, Jack White, Lana Del Rey, Sia,, The xx, and Florence and the Machine; the soundtrack also included score from the film's composer and Luhrmann's repeat collaborator Craig Armstrong.[32] The album's sales exceeded expectations, marking the biggest digital sales week for a soundtrack in Billboard history, and peaking at number one on the US Billboard 200 chart.[33][34]

Luhrmann's next project was a film about Elvis Presley's relationship with Colonel Tom Parker, simply called Elvis, which debuted at the Cannes Film Festival in May 2022.[35] Tom Hanks played Parker and Austin Butler portrayed Presley, having been cast after a series of screen tests, as well as music and performance workshops.[36][37][38] The film opened in June 2022, becoming a box office hit and receiving eight Academy Award nominations, including Best Picture and Best Actor for Butler.[39][40] In January 2023, Luhrmann signed a first-look deal with Warner Bros. Pictures after working with the studio on Elvis. [41] In August 2023, it was reported that Luhrmann was being eyed as the top pick to direct Disney's live-action adaptation of Tangled.[42]


Luhrmann at the 2013 Cannes Film Festival

In 2016, Luhrmann collaborated with award-winning playwright Stephen Adly Guirgis on the Netflix series The Get Down about the birth of hip hop in the 1970s.[43] For the series, Luhrmann brought on Nas, Grandmaster Flash, Kurtis Blow and DJ Kool Herc as producers, to help tell the story of the rise of hip hop, punk, and disco during shifting cultural and political transformation through his unique brand of magical realism.[44] The series featured two parts, praised for its vibrant music, fresh cast and authenticity, due to the involvement of many of the era's key historical figures in central roles to the show's development.[45] Part One got a score of 77% from Rotten Tomatoes, while Part Two holds a critic score of 86%.[46][47]




Year Title Director Writer Producer Distributor
1992 Strictly Ballroom Yes Yes No Ronin Films
1996 Romeo + Juliet Yes Yes Yes 20th Century Fox
2001 Moulin Rouge! Yes Yes Yes
2008 Australia Yes Yes Yes
2013 The Great Gatsby Yes Yes Yes Warner Bros. Pictures
2022 Elvis Yes Yes Yes


Year Title Creator Director Writer Executive
2016–2017 The Get Down Yes Yes Yes Yes Directed and co-wrote episode "Where There Is Ruin, There Is Hope for a Treasure"

Screen actor


Year Title Role Notes
1981–82 A Country Practice Jerry Percival 6 episodes
1983 Kids of the Cross Himself Documentary film
2023 Agent Elvis The Director (voice) Episode: "Cocaine Tuesdays"


Year Title Role Notes
1981 Winter of Our Dreams Pete
1982 The Dark Room First student
The Highest Honor Able Seaman A. W. Huston
2013 The Great Gatsby Waiter Uncredited

Stage actor

Year Title Role Notes
1982 Are You Lonesome Tonight? Unknown Performed at Nimrod Downstairs, Sydney
1983 Fanshen Peasant Performed at NIDA, Sydney
1984 Holiday Makers Unknown Performed at NIDA
All's Well That Ends Well Dumain Brother
Strictly Ballroom Ross Pierce Also director,
Performed at NIDA in 1984, and in Bratislava in 1986
1985 Dreamplay Unknown Performed at NIDA. Directed by Jim Sharman
Funeral Games Part of the Hallucinogenics? 3 plays from the 60s event. Performed at NIDA
Chamber Music
The Greeks Trilogy: The War, The Murders, The Gods.
Performed at NIDA, and St Martin's Youth Arts Centre, Melbourne.
Once in a Lifetime Performed at NIDA
1986 Crocodile Creek Directed for the New Moon Theatre Company in Rockhampton.
Amateur musical production set in the Queensland goldfields
1989 The Conquest of the South Pole Unknown Performed at Belvoir St Theatre, Sydney

Other ventures

Luhrmann, who started appearing on TV screen in 1981, appeared in Winter of Our Dreams, directed by John Duigan. By 1992, he already can direct a film, thus started with the video of "Love Is in the Air" by John Paul Young. The next year, Luhrmann staged his interpretation of A Midsummer Night's Dream by Benjamin Britten. In 1997 when the CD of Something for Everybody was released, it featured Luhrmann's films and operas. Following the success, he created and managed a company Bazmark [fr] along his wife, Catherine Martin.

In 1997 as a music producer, Luhrmann credited "Everybody's Free", a spoken word song in Europe, Australia and the Americas. Luhrmann directed a 2004 commercial for Chanel N° 5 entitled N° 5 the Film. On Charlie Rose interview, he told Rose that the commercial was based in the 1953 film, Roman Holiday.[48] The next year 2005, Luhrmann was appointed an Ambassador for the Australian Theatre for Young People, and in next three years, he was asked by the Prime Minister of Australia Kevin Rudd to make adverts for the promotion of tourism in Australia.[49] In 2009 during the 81st Academy Awards in February, Luhrmann put together a number dedicated to musicals which consisted of Hugh Jackman, Beyoncé, Zac Efron, Vanessa Hudgens, Dominic Cooper and Amanda Seyfried. In September of same year, he appeared as a guest judge of the Dancing with the Stars.

Luhrmann and the painter Vincent Fantauzzo embarked on an art initiative which took them to India, where they created artworks on walls of hotels, in the streets of Rajasthan and on 17th century forts in 2010.[50] He also shot the campaign film The Secret Life of Flowers. Though mostly hands-off with the stage production of Moulin Rouge!, Luhrmann produced its Broadway cast recording in 2019.[51]

Luhrmann led the jury at the 2023 Red Sea International Film Festival held in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.[52]

Influence and legacy

Luhrmann has cited Italian grand opera as a major influence on his work and has also given a nod to other theatrical styles, such as Bollywood films, as having influenced his style. Luhrmann was a ballroom dancer as a child and his mother taught ballroom dancing which was an inspiration for Strictly Ballroom. Luhrmann's favourite films are Star 80, , War and Peace, Medium Cool and Fitzcarraldo.[53]

Luhrmann's influence has extended outside the traditional realm of media and entertainment. Deeply involved in the fashion and art worlds, Luhrmann's No. 5 the Film for Chanel not only holds a Guinness World Record for the highest budget for an advertising commercial ever produced,[54] but pioneered the now commonplace genre of fashion film and branded content. Luhrmann works closely with the Metropolitan Museum of Art's Anna Wintour Costume Center, having chaired the annual Met Gala as well as producing a short film for the museum, celebrating Miuccia Prada and Elsa Schiaparelli.[55] More recently, he and his wife Catherine Martin have adapted their style for projects in events, retail, architecture and design with Barneys New York[56] and developer and hotelier Alan Faena.[57][58]

In November 2022, Lurhmann featured in Desert Island Discs on BBC Radio 4; his chosen favourite track, book and luxury item were "Che gelida manina" from Puccini's La bohème (sung by Pavarotti), Tolstoy's War and Peace, and a silk eye mask respectively.[59]

Awards and honours

Year Title Academy Awards BAFTA Awards Golden Globe Awards
Nominations Wins Nominations Wins Nominations Wins
1992 Strictly Ballroom 8 3 1
1996 Romeo + Juliet 1 7 4
2001 Moulin Rouge! 8 2 12 3 6 3
2008 Australia 1
2013 The Great Gatsby 2 2 3 2
2022 Elvis 8 9 4 3 1
Total 20 4 39 12 10 4

Media appearances

In culture

In 2022, the Israeli writers of The Jews Are Coming made a tribute in Hebrew to "Everybody's Free (To Wear Sunscreen)" with Moses standing before the Israelites and quoting the Ten Commandments with the background music from "Sunscreen" and several parts closely translated from Luhrmann's text, such as getting to know your parents before they disappear.[63]


  1. ^ "Baz Luhrmann biodata". Yahoo! Movies. Retrieved 14 November 2009.
  2. ^ Wallace, Amy (7 February 2014). "Deep Inside Baz Luhrmann's Creative Chaos". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
  3. ^ "Top 10 grossing Australian films of all time". ABC News (Australia). 1 August 2015. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
  4. ^ "Australia's top 10 highest grossing films of all time". The New Daily. 30 December 2016. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
  5. ^ "Baz Luhrmann, RCA To Launch Bazmark Label". Billboard. Retrieved 5 July 2018.
  6. ^ "Baz Luhrmann profile at".
  7. ^ "Baz Luhrmann a man of many talents", The Courier-Mail, 26 November 2008[dead link]
  8. ^ "Jennifer-Harrison-Chisholm – User Trees".
  9. ^ Ryan, Tom (5 November 2014). Baz Luhrmann: Interviews. Univ. Press of Mississippi. ISBN 9781626743007.
  10. ^ "Baz Luhrmann: 'I've never waited for permission to do anything' " by Ryan Gilbey, The Guardian, 24 April 2018
  11. ^ "Baz Luhrmann (12 works by)". AustLit. 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
  12. ^ Kids of the Cross at IMDb Edit this at Wikidata
  13. ^ "NIDA Alumni". Archived from the original on 14 October 2013.
  14. ^ Beveridge, Riley (29 January 2016). "Your AFL club's most famous supporters, from Barack Obama to Cam Newton". Fox Sports. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
  15. ^ a b Chagollan, Steve (17 April 2013). "'Gatsby's' Great Music Collection". Variety. Retrieved 23 April 2019.
  16. ^ Berk, Philip (16 December 2017). "2002 – Musical or Comedy: Moulin Rouge!". Golden Globe Awards. HFPA. Retrieved 23 April 2019.
  17. ^ "American Film Institute's Top Films of the Year". InfoPlease. Retrieved 28 June 2011.
  18. ^ "Moulin Rouge! voted best film of the decade". The Daily Telegraph. London. 7 January 2010. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 28 June 2011.
  19. ^ "Winners & Nominees 2002". Golden Globe Awards. HFPA. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
  20. ^ "Lady Marmalade Wins Grammy Award". BigNoiseNow. 28 February 2002. Retrieved 28 June 2011.
  21. ^ Langton, Marcia (23 November 2008). "Faraway Downs fantasy resonates close to home". The Age. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
  22. ^ "Australia". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
  23. ^ "Highest Grossing Aussie Films". World News Australia. Published by SBS. 27 February 2009. Retrieved 28 June 2011.
  24. ^ Michael Jones (18 December 2008). "Baz Luhrmann eyes Great Gatsby". Variety. Retrieved 11 August 2009.
  25. ^ Greene, Lucie (11 May 2013). "Luxury brands and 'The Great Gatsby' movie". Financial Times. The Financial Times LTD. Archived from the original on 10 December 2022. Retrieved 23 April 2019.
  26. ^ "The Great Gatsby". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. Retrieved 26 February 2019.
  27. ^ "Baz Luhrmann". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. Retrieved 26 February 2019.
  28. ^ Roeper, Richard. "The Great Gatsby". Retrieved 26 February 2019.
  29. ^ Kendall, Mary Claire. "Loving 'Gatsby' All About 'Living Fitzgerald'". Forbes. Retrieved 26 February 2019.
  30. ^ "The 86th Academy Awards – 2014". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. 7 October 2014. Retrieved 26 February 2019.
  31. ^ Young, Alex (4 April 2013). "The Great Gatsby soundtrack features new Jay-Z, The xx, Florence & the Machine". Consequence of Sound. Retrieved 23 April 2019.
  32. ^ Blistein, Jon (4 April 2013). "'Great Gatsby' Soundtrack Featured Jay-Z, Andre 3000, Beyonce". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 23 April 2019.
  33. ^ Corner, Lewis (16 May 2013). "'Great Gatsby', Lady Antebellum storm US album chart". Digital Spy. National Magazine Company, Ltd. Retrieved 23 April 2019.
  34. ^ "Soundtrack Chart History". Billboard. Retrieved 23 April 2019.
  35. ^ Tartaglione, Nancy (23 May 2022). "Baz Luhrmann's 'Elvis' Rocks Cannes With 10-Minute Standing Ovation". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved 23 May 2022.
  36. ^ Fleming, Mike Jr. (1 July 2019). "Top Young Talent Vying For Elvis in Baz Luhrmann Film; Ansel Elgort, Miles Teller, Austin Butler, Harry Styles".
  37. ^ "Harry Styles, Ansel Elgort, Miles Teller in the Running to Play Elvis in Baz Luhrmann's Biopic". The Hollywood Reporter. July 2019.
  38. ^ "Baz Luhrmann's Elvis biopic finds its star: Austin Butler". AV Club. 15 July 2019.
  39. ^ Brzeski, Patrick (5 December 2022). "'Elvis,' 'Mystery Road: Origin' Dominate Australia's AACTA Craft Awards". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 5 December 2022.
  40. ^ Lewis, Hilary; Nordyke, Kimberly (24 January 2023). "Oscar Nominations 2023: The Full Nominees List". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 27 January 2023.
  41. ^ Fleming, Mike Jr. (26 January 2023). "'Elvis' Helmer Baz Luhrmann Still In The Building; He Makes First-Look Deal With Warner Bros Pictures After The King Biopic's 8 Oscar Noms". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved 27 January 2023.
  42. ^ "Baz Luhrmann Reportedly Wanted by Disney for Tangled Live-Action Remake". 26 August 2023.
  43. ^ Hetrick, Adam. "Baz Luhrmann and Stephen Adly Guirgis Collaborating on Hip-Hop Television Project". Playbill, 13 December 2013
  44. ^ "Netflix's The Get Down Is the Rare (And Great) Music Drama That's Actually About Music". Pitchfork. 12 August 2016. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
  45. ^ "The Get Down". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
  46. ^ "The Get Down: Season One". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 26 February 2019.
  47. ^ "The Get Down: Season Two". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 26 February 2019.
  48. ^ Luhrmann, Baz (27 November 2008). "Charlie Rose – A conversation about the film "Australia"". The Charlie Rose Show. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015.
  49. ^ Scott, Malcolm (29 July 2008). "Australia Taps Luhrmann for Campaign to Boost Tourism". Bloomberg L.P.
  50. ^ Kanwardeep Singh Dhaliwal (24 March 2010). "Baz Luhrmann & Vincent Fantauzzo's mad Indian motorcycle diary". Archived from the original on 14 January 2012. Retrieved 27 June 2011.
  51. ^ Schulman, Michael (26 August 2019). "Baz Luhrmann's "Moulin Rouge!" Mega Mashup". The New Yorker. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  52. ^ "Jury Head Baz Luhrmann on Attending Red Sea Film Fest Amid Regional Conflict: "Voices of Storytellers Need to Get Out There"". The Hollywood Reporter. 28 November 2023.
  53. ^ "Five Favorite Films of Baz Luhrmann". Rotten Tomatoes. Rotten Tomatoes. 19 October 2010. Retrieved 29 March 2013.
  54. ^ "Most expensive advertisement (commercial) on television". Guinness World Records. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
  55. ^ "Audio and Video | The Metropolitan Museum of Art". Retrieved 25 January 2018.
  56. ^ "Baz Dazzled: The Barneys New York Holiday Window Unveiling with Baz Luhrmann and Catherine Martin". Vogue. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
  57. ^ "What It Looks Like When Baz Luhrmann Helps Design a Miami Hotel". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
  58. ^ Abel, Ann. "The Maestro of Miami Beach: Alan Faena and His New Faena Hotel". Forbes. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
  59. ^ "BBC Radio 4 - Desert Island Discs, Baz Luhrmann, director".
  60. ^ "Baz Luhrmann Guest Judges On Dancing". HuffPost. 28 September 2009. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
  61. ^ Wait Wait...Don't Tell Me! from NPR
  62. ^ "The Sunscreen Song; The Class of '99", BBC World Service
  63. ^ The Ten Commandments Moshe Rabenu - Everybody's Free to Wear Sunscreen, The Jews are Coming, Season 5, chapter 13 (Israeli TV Channel 11 YouTube channel)

External links

This page was last edited on 28 May 2024, at 03:33
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.