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1887 Constitution of the Hawaiian Kingdom

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

King David Kalākaua (left) signed the 1887 Constitution under threat of force; Lorrin A. Thurston (right) was one of its holidays of nationswriters.

The 1887 Constitution of the Hawaiian Kingdom was a document prepared by anti-monarchists to strip the Hawaiian monarchy of much of its authority, initiating a transfer of power to American, European and native Hawaiian elites. It became known as the Bayonet Constitution for the use of intimidation by the armed militia which forced King Kalākaua to sign it or be deposed.[1][2]

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Transcription

Welcome to Hawaii! This collection of islands in the Pacific Ocean is home to some of the most beautiful, natural scenery you can find. While it's easy to get wrapped up in Hawaii's tropical climate, ocean views, and tourist attractions, The Aloha State has an incredible history that shouldn't be overlooked. Join me, as we take a quick view at the good and the bad that make up this Paradise of the Pacific. Welcome to That Was History, I'm your host Cliff Langston. To kick off our quick review of Hawaii, let's go way back to when the islands were first settled. The Polynesians are credited with the first human settlements on the Hawaiian islands, however, it's tough to know exactly when they arrived. Some records suggest they showed up around 400 A.D., while others claim it might have been as early as 124 A.D. Or even as late as the year 1120. Regardless, this is where Hawaii's native culture comes from. The Polynesians are a pretty large indigenous people group that inhabit the more than 1,000 islands of Polynesia in the Pacific Ocean. As you can see, Hawaii sits at the tip of what is known as the Polynesian Triangle. For hundreds of years, the Polynesian people lived isolated from the rest of the world. During this time, Hawaii was composed of multiple groups with different Chief leaders. They would develop their own laws, social structure, and religion, but their way of life would be forever changed after European explorer, Captain James Cook, made contact with the Hawaiian Islands in January of 1778. Cook developed a trading relationship with the natives for a short time, which came in handy while he was searching for the Northwest Passage. Unfortunately, this relationship would come to an end just over a year later in February of 1779. Due to bad weather, Cook’s crew was anchored in a bay in order to perform repairs. While there, native Hawaiians stole one of his longboats. Seeking Revenge, Captain Cook  tried to kidnap the supreme leader of Hawaii Island. The next day, February 14th, an angry crowd developed that would catch up with Cook and take his life in response to his actions. Did you happen to catch that date? James Cook had the unfortunate pleasure of being killed on Valentine’s Day. Tough break. Approximately 11 years after Cook’s death, the supreme ruler’s nephew, Kamehameha I, would begin a campaign to unify the islands of Hawaii. If his name reminds you of Dragon Ball Z, there’s a reason for that. It is said that the Kamehameha finishing attack from Dragon Ball Z got its name from this Hawaiian King. There is some debate among Dragon Ball Z fans on whether that was intentional or coincidence, so I’ll let you be the judge. Getting back on track, 1810 is marked as the official unification year of the islands under the Kamehameha dynasty. During Kamehameha I’s rule, the legal system of Hawaii was unified and trade with Europe and the United States of America began. He would only live until 1819, but his accomplishments are still celebrated to this day. June 11th is Kamehameha Day which honors him and ancient Hawaiian culture. This holiday was first proclaimed by his grandson in 1871 and continues to be recognized by the United States. Hawaii’s next king was Kamehameha II. The main reason I bring him up is because he died only 5 years into his rule of the islands. He and his wife took a trip to England in 1824 and they both contracted measles while there, which brings me to my next point. The rise of European and American immigrants to Hawaii devastated the native population. When Captain Cook first documented Hawaii, their numbers were around 300,000. By the 1850’s, they were in the neighborhood of 60,000, and by 1920 only 24,000. This is all too similar to what happened to the Native American tribes that were displaced in North America, but why did immigrants decide to come to Hawaii also? Well, two early reasons were curiosity and protestant missionaries, but the biggest reason of them all was Sugar…. Hey guys... that's supposed to be sugar, not pineapples. Yeah. Yeah. You got it? We’re good? Ok, let's do it from the top. The biggest reason of them all was sugar! Not only would Sugarcane encourage immigration to Hawaii, it would also be the driving force behind the natives losing control of their island. It all started in 1835 when William Hooper of Massachusetts was able to lease 980 acres of Hawaiian land from Kamehameha III in order to grow sugarcane. Give it thirty years and sugar plantations would be operating on the four largest islands. In today’s world, this would be considered a jackpot scenario. The Kingdom of Hawaii had land of value which they could use to bolster their economy by leasing it to plantation owners. This is all fine and good until those plantation owners, who are from other countries, decide that they should have a say in Hawaiian politics. They began putting pressure on the king to provide them “land tenure.” Basically, this means they wanted to completely own the land they were currently leasing, which was an odd concept to the Hawaiian people who did not believe in private land ownership. All of this pressure on the king is going to eventually result in the development of The 1840 Constitution of the Kingdom of Hawaii. This constitution established a “constitutional monarchy,” and stated that the land belonged to its people and was to be managed by the king. That doesn’t sound so bad, BUT, it’s also very important to note that this Constitution created executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government for Hawaii, which is going to backfire HARD within 10 years. The legislative branch in particular would now consist of an upper “House of Nobles” and a lower “House of Representatives.” The House of Nobles was made up of Hawaiian chiefs, nobles, and royal or wealthy individuals. Members of the lower House of Representatives were elected by popular vote of the people, but when I say “people” here, I mean everybody; not just the native Hawaiians. While the 1840 Constitution did allow for more political involvement from immigrants, it still did not grant private land ownership which obviously upset some people. Things got so out of hand that there was even a five month period in 1843, known as the Paulet Affair, where the British took over and occupied Hawaii due to claims that the legal rights of British subjects on the islands were being denied - A.K.A. disputes over land ownership. In the end, the Kingdom of Hawaii regained its sovereignty, but not without signing a treaty agreeing to provide British immigrants with equal representation. It was after the Paulet Affair, that Kamehameha III finally responded to everyone’s land demands with the Great Māhele on March 7th of 1848. This was the king’s land redistribution proposal that split Hawaii into thirds. One-third went to the Hawaiian Monarchy, another third went to chiefs and managers, and the last third was meant to go to the people. Now remember when I said that the changes of the 1840 Constitution would backfire? This is how. By 1850, the king’s legislative cabinet was being dominated by Americans that had been voted into those seats. This allowed for two very important laws regarding land to be passed that continued to strip Hawaii away from the natives. On July 10th of 1850, the legislature passed the Alien Land Ownership Act which allowed foreigners to own title to land in Hawaii. Just under a month later, the Kuleana Act would be passed on August 6th. This law allowed for commoners to petition for title to land that they lived on and farmed, but like I’ve mentioned before, the native Hawaiians did not understand the concept of private land ownership and didn’t see a need to claim land that they were already living on. They were given two years to make their claims to land, but sadly most did not. Even worse is the fact that many of those that DID claim property would end up losing it due to Western disease and property taxes. This means that with time, foreigners and big corporations would own the majority of the land. Before Kamehameha III’s death in 1854, the 1852 Constitution of the Kingdom of Hawaii would be established as a result of the legislative branch calling the first constitution from 1840 into review. This second constitution would continue to add elements of democracy into the Hawaiian government, by strengthening the House of Representatives for example, which would further limit the power of the king. Kamehameha IV would feel the effects of these government changes throughout his rule from 1855 to 1863. While king, his objective was to push back the amount of influence Americans had in Hawaii. The United States had their eyes on controlling the islands because they felt it was necessary to protect their west coast. Talks of annexation had already been in the works prior to Kamehameha IV’s rule. The king knew that an American takeover would mean the end of the monarchy and of the Hawaiian people, so he looked to other options. He ended up proposing a reciprocity treaty that dealt with trade and taxes between Hawaii and the United States. An agreement was never reached, so the king began a campaign to limit Hawaii’s reliance on American trade. He worked to strengthen the Hawaiian military and aligned himself more with the United Kingdom. His wife, Queen Emma, was the granddaughter of the British royal adviser that served Kamehameha I. She and the king would have a son that they named Prince Albert Edward after Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, who would later become King Edward VII. Along with all of this, Queen Victoria even agreed to be Prince Albert’s godmother in 1862. Tragically, the little Prince would become ill a short time later and died at the age of 4. Kamehameha IV tried to push through his grief and make trade deals with Britain and other European governments, but he would die of chronic asthma in 1863 having never completed the deals he had hoped to obtain for Hawaii. One big thing he did achieve during his reign was improved healthcare for the people. He originally wanted to pass his healthcare plan through the government, but the legislature struck it down. So, in typical “stick it to the man” fashion, Kamehameha IV and Queen Emma appealed to Hawaiian businessmen and residents to fund the plan. It was a massive success, and the two built Queen’s Hospital. This hospital still operates in downtown Honolulu as The Queen’s Medical Center. Due to the death of Prince Albert, the throne was given to Kamehameha IV’s brother, who, as you can probably guess, became known as Kamehameha V. He would rule until 1872, and fought to bring power back to the king from day one of his reign. Without hesitation, he said that the Hawaiian Constitution from 1852 would not be upheld. Rather than amending that constitution, he opted to draft a completely new one. A constitutional convention was held in July of 1864 where delegates were elected to help formulate this new constitution. The king met some resistance from the delegates during the convention, so he opted to disband it as well. To achieve his agenda, Kamehameha V met with his preferred advisers and implemented the 1864 Constitution of the Kingdom of Hawaii on August 20th, 1864. Some key changes from this constitution include combining the House of Nobles and the House of Representatives into a single body known as the Legislative Assembly, abolishing the Prime Minister position that had been in place since the days of Kamehameha I, and adding a rule for voters born after 1840 that forced them to pass a literacy test and meet certain property requirements. While King, Kamehameha V also made the traditional Hawaiian medicine practices, known as Kahunaism, legal again. He also vetoed a bill in 1865 that would have made it legal to sell liquor to native Hawaiians by saying, “I will never sign the death warrant of my people.” Similar to the previous king, Americans considered Kamehameha V to be anti-american, while the people of the kingdom considered him to be the last great traditional chief. Kamehameha V died in December of 1872 without naming a successor. In accordance with the current constitution, an election was held and the legislature voted to appoint the late king’s cousin, William Charles Lunalilo as the next monarch of Hawaii. This made Lunalilo Hawaii’s first elected king. That’s probably the biggest thing he’s known for, though, because he died from tuberculosis just over a year after becoming king in February of 1874. Lunalilo had plans to revert a lot of the constitutional changes that the previous king had made, but obviously didn’t have enough time to see them through. David Kalākaua was elected as the next ruler of the Hawaiian kingdom after a bitter competition with Queen Emma, the widow of Kamehameha IV. Many believed she was the rightful heiress to the throne, but King Lunalilo never made her his official successor before his death. This sparked the Honolulu Courthouse Riot on Kalākaua’s election day where supporters of Queen Emma attacked and injured 13 legislators who supported Kalākaua. American and British military forces that were docked in Hawaii had to get involved to stop the riot. Despite his initial unpopularity, the king was able to get the United States to agree to what is now known as the Reciprocity Treaty of 1875. This treaty removed import taxes on certain goods coming from Hawaii into the United States. The most important of which was Sugar. In return, Hawaii could not tax American-produced goods coming into the kingdom, and they were also not allowed to develop any similar treaties with other nations. To the king this sounded like a pretty fair agreement given the fact that many people felt that the United States would require that Hawaiian land be included as part of the treaty. The initial term of the treaty was 7 years, and the kingdom’s economy BOOMED as a result, BUT, there are always strings attached if you haven’t picked up on that already. More Americans are going to come to Hawaii to develop sugar plantations, and they’re going to bring their business agendas with them. Not to mention, 7 years is plenty of time for anyone, natives included, to get comfortable with any benefits that they received as a result. Obviously, everyone who ended up profiting off of this treaty wanted it to continue past the original 7 year term. Due to this, the king sought an extension in 1884. At this point, the United States has the Kingdom of Hawaii over a barrel, as they say. I can only describe this next part as a very genius business move by US President Chester A. Arthur. You see, the year before this treaty would expire, the United States passed the Tariff Act of 1883 which would lower sugar tariffs on imports from ALL nations, thereby diminishing Hawaii’s import advantage. After this, the US informed the Kingdom of Hawaii that they would have to give up the area of what is now Pearl Harbor in order to extend their Reciprocity Treaty. The king only had two options from there. He would either have to give up land and upset the native Hawaiians in order to maintain his current relationship with the US, or hope for the best by letting the treaty expire so that he could approach other nations with a similar deal. On December 6th of 1884, King Kalākaua came to an agreement with the United States and gave up Pearl Harbor. I can understand why this was a tough decision for the king to make. If you look at strictly the numbers, the value of Hawaii’s exported goods grew by 722% from 1874 to 1890. Although the king brought wealth to the kingdom, he was also involved in some shady practices, like accepting bribes and misusing appropriated funds, that would bring about the Rebellion of 1887. A group of mostly non-Hawaiians planned to overthrow the government. They aligned themselves with the Honolulu Rifles, a volunteer military company made up of exclusively Caucasian citizens of the Kingdom. The two groups used the threat of force to convince the king to sign a new constitution that they had written. It became known as the “Bayonet Constitution” and resulted in the king losing a great deal of his power, and his cabinet was replaced with men who supported the rebellion. This new constitution also placed higher income requirements on the right to vote, which ended up preventing roughly two-thirds of the Hawaiian population from being able to vote. Essentially, the only people who were still eligible were the rich that made their money off of the sugar industry. Although the king still held his position, I consider this to be the official moment when Hawaii was taken from the natives. About one year after the Rebellion of 1887, native Hawaiian, Robert William Wilcox, tried to lead a rebellion of his own in order to revert the changes made by the Bayonet Constitution. Unfortunately his plot was discovered just 48 hours before its implementation. This event is known as the Wilcox Rebellion of 1888. Another final blow to King Kalākaua’s reign would be the Tariff Act of 1890, also known as the McKinley Tariff. This law by the United States sent import taxes through the roof for many goods, but oddly, it completely eliminated import taxes on sugar, which would destroy Hawaii’s advantage even worse than before and would cripple the Kingdom’s economy in the years to come. The King died less than 4 months later on January 20th of 1891 while on a trip to California. His sister, Queen Lili’uokalani would become the first and only Queen of the Hawaiian Kingdom on January 29th. During her short reign, she tried to alleviate the Kingdom’s economic crisis by proposing a lottery bill and an opium licensing bill. Neither of these were well received by her supporters or opponents in government. The queen also tried to replace the Bayonet Constitution. Her new constitution would have restored power to the monarchy and returned voting rights to all of those that had been disenfranchised by current laws. Although the Queen had gained the support of the majority of registered voters, her cabinet and close friends would not publicly support her proposed constitution out of fear of backlash. Their fears became reality when a group known as The Committee of Safety began a movement to overthrow the queen and the kingdom on January 17th of 1893. The Honolulu Rifles were once again used as a threat of force to get the Queen to cooperate. U.S. Government Minister, John L. Stevens, was also able to get the USS Boston to provide 162 armed sailors and marines to help protect American lives and property in Hawaii. Their presence intimidated the Queen’s supporters enough that she was placed under house arrest without bloodshed. A provisional government was implemented that placed Sanford B. Dole in charge. And, yes, Pineapples are appropriate this time because Sanford Dole was the first cousin once removed to James Dole, who founded the Dole Food Company. I think it’s important to clarify that James Dole and the Dole Food Company had nothing to do with the overthrow of Hawaii. James didn’t move to Hawaii until 1899. I’d be willing to bet that being related to the man in charge probably DID help James acquire his initial plot of land on the island of Oahu though. Sanford Dole would officially become President after the provisional government he led transitioned into the Republic of Hawaii on July 4th, 1894. In January of the following year, Robert Wilcox tried his hand at a second rebellion with the help of Samuel Nowlein. Known as the 1895 Wilcox Rebellion, this was a last attempt to re-establish the Kingdom of Hawaii, but it ended in failure. In her final act as Queen, Lili’uokalani negotiated the release of her supporters from the rebellion in exchange for the official abdication of her throne. She signed the document of abdication on January 24th of 1895. The Republic of Hawaii’s ultimate goal was to be annexed by the United States. It would take William McKinley becoming President of the United States in 1897 for this to happen. The Spanish-American War had begun and the U.S. felt that control of Pearl Harbor was crucial. This led to President McKinley signing the Newlands Resolution on July 7th, 1898 that created the territory of Hawaii. Not surprisingly, Sanford Dole was named as the Territorial Governor. During Hawaii’s time as a U.S. Territory, the sugarcane plantations continued to grow. So much so, that a group of corporations in Hawaii that processed sugar cane became known as “The Big Five.” These corporations wielded a huge amount of political power, became multimillionaires, and ended up controlling 90% of Hawaii’s sugar business. While the Big Five were focused on sugar, James Dole marched his way towards becoming The Pineapple King. In the 1930s, the territory of Hawaii would become known as the Pineapple Capital of the World. We’re now approaching a part of Hawaii’s history that is almost impossible to forget. On December 7th of 1941, the Empire of Japan lead a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor. By the time the attack was over roughly 2,400 servicemen and women, and civilians were dead. President Franklin D. Roosevelt proclaimed it as, “a date which will live in infamy.” The very next day, the United States entered World War II and fought as part of the Allied Powers. For the majority of the war, Hawaii was governed under the rules of Martial Law. The military governor controlled almost every part of Hawaiian life by fingerprinting everyone over the age of 6, rationing gasoline and food, censoring the news and mail, and implementing blackouts and curfews among other things. Martial Law would not be suspended on the islands until October of 1944, about 11 months prior to the complete end of World War II. The decade following the war is really the time period where Hawaii started transforming into what we know it as today. There were a series of strikes among plantation workers in the sugar and pineapple industries throughout the second half of the 1940’s that helped unionization spread in Hawaii. Along with this, the Democratic Party of Hawaii won the 1954 Territorial Elections which brought an abrupt end to the Big Five corporations and the Hawaiian Republican Party’s control. The Democratic Party lobbied for statehood and gained the support of 93% of registered voters in the territory. On March 18th of 1959, President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed the Hawaii Admission Act, and Hawaii officially became the 50th US State on August 21st. It should come as no surprise that many Native Hawaiians felt that the United States stole Hawaii from them. This eventually resulted in Congress passing a joint resolution nicknamed the “Apology Resolution” that was signed by President Bill Clinton on November 23rd of 1993. The resolution, “acknowledges that the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii occurred with the active participation of agents and citizens of the United States and further acknowledges that the Native Hawaiian people never directly relinquished to the United States their claims to their inherent sovereignty as a people over their national lands, either through the Kingdom of Hawaii or through a plebiscite or referendum.” A campaign known as the Hawaii Sovereignty Movement continues to this day that seeks to regain sovereignty for Native Hawaiians. Will Hawaii ever become an independent country again? I’m not convinced that it will, but I definitely understand the Native Hawaiian’s argument for why it should be. Now that we’ve discussed the history, how does Hawaii’s progression from secluded island to US state make you feel? Leave me a comment, and let’s discuss the pros and cons in the comments section below. If you enjoyed this video, I encourage you to check these out as well. Don’t forget to hit that subscribe button and notification bell so that you never miss new videos from our channel. Thanks for watching this episode of That Was History. I’m Cliff Langston, and I’ll see you next time.

Contents

Rebellion of 1887

On June 30, 1887, a meeting of residents including the armed militia of the Honolulu Rifles, a group of white soldiers that were secretly the Hawaiian League’s military arm,[3] and politicians who were members of the Reform Party of the Hawaiian Kingdom, demanded from King Kalākaua the dismissal of his Cabinet, headed by the controversial Walter M. Gibson. Their concerns about Gibson stemmed from the fact that he supported the king’s authority.[4]

The meeting was called to order by Sanford B. Dole (cousin of then 9-year-old James Dole and chaired by Peter Cushman Jones, the president of the largest sugarcane plantation agency in Hawaii.[4] The Hawaiian League and Americans controlled a vast majority of the Hawaiian Kingdom's wealth. Lorrin A. Thurston, the main instigator of the subsequent overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy, prepared a list of demands to the king. The meeting also insisted a new constitution be written.[citation needed]

On the next morning, July 1, 1887, a shipment of arms was discovered from a neutral Australian ship (later found to be smooth-bore hunting guns used to scare birds from farmers' fields). The Honolulu Rifles took control and arrested and almost hanged Gibson.[5] Kalākaua called in US Minister George W. Merrill, and the British, French, Portuguese, and Japanese representatives and requested help, but they all suggested that he should comply with any demands, which he did.[6]:363–364

Thurston then became the powerful interior minister although Englishman William Lowthian Green was nominally head of the Cabinet as Minister of Finance. Gibson was later exiled to San Francisco.[7]

Over less than a week, the new constitution was drafted by a group of lawyers, including Thurston, Dole, William Ansel Kinney, William Owen Smith, George Norton Wilcox, and Edward Griffin Hitchcock. All were also associated with the Hawaiian League, which had explicitly wanted the end of the kingdom and its annexation by the United States since its inception.[1]

Kalākaua signed the document July 6, 1887, despite arguments over the scope of the changes.[citation needed]

It stripped the king of most of his personal authority, empowering the legislature and cabinet of the government. It has since become widely known as the "Bayonet Constitution" because of the threat of force used to gain Kalākaua's cooperation.[8] While Thurston and Dole denied this use of coercion and threats, Queen Liliuokalani asserted that Kalakaua’s life was threatened: "He signed that constitution under absolute compulsion."[citation needed][9]

The new constitution was never ratified in the Hawaiian Kingdom's legislature.[1][10]

Provisions

The 1887 constitution replaced the previous absolute veto, allowed to the king, to one that two-thirds of the legislature of the Hawaiian Kingdom could override.

It also took away the power of the king to act without the consent of his cabinet and gave the legislature, which was controlled by the white Americans by this time, the power to dismiss the cabinet instead of the king. It also removed language from the 1864 constitution implying that the king was above the law, replacing it with language that the king was required to obey his laws to the level of his subjects. The cabinet was now allowed to vote in the legislature, but to reduce the king's influence, he was not allowed to appoint legislators to any other government post. The legislature also gained the authority to imprison those that disrespected, published false reports or comments about or threatened or assaulted any of its members.[11]

The constitution also removed the monarch's power to appoint members of the House of Nobles (the upper house of the legislature), instead making it a body elected by the wealthy landowners to six-year terms and enlarging it to 40 members. Qualifications to serve as a noble or representative now came to include high property and income requirements as well, which stripped almost all of the native population of the ability to serve in the legislature.[11][12]

The 1887 constitution had also attempted to limit profligate spending, which had become a problem under Kalakaua's reign, namely with the costly construction and maintenance of Iolani Palace. The constitution stipulated that the King was required to appoint a Minister of Finance to oversee government spending and submit an annual budget proposal to the legislature.

The 1887 constitution made significant changes to voting requirements. It allowed foreign resident aliens to vote, not just naturalized citizens. Asians, including subjects who previously enjoyed the right to vote, were specifically denied suffrage. Hawaiian, American, and European males were granted full voting rights only if they met the economic and literacy thresholds.[13]

The 1864 constitution required that voters generate annual income of at least US$75 (equivalent to US$1201 in 2019) or own private property worth at least US$150 (equivalent to $2403 in 2019). The wealth requirements were removed during the short reign of Lunalilo in 1874.[2] That change extended voter eligibility to many more Hawaiians and was kept for the lower house.

However, the 1887 constitution required an income of $600 (equivalent to US$16731 in 2019) or taxable property of US$3000 (equivalent to $83656 in 2019) to vote for the upper house (or serve in it). That excluded an estimated two-thirds of the Hawaiian population. Essentially, only white males, wealthy from the sugar industry, retained suffrage with the Bayonet Constitution.

Allocating the government’s power to the Cabinet and then promptly appointing their members to the Cabinet, and securing the disenfranchisement of their opposition, the Hawaiian League seized complete control over the Hawaiian Kingdom.

The Bayonet Constitution was the first great implement in the decline of the monarchy. Though it did not depose the King, it did place considerable limitations on his power.[14]

Native response

Immediately after the adoption of the Bayonet Constitution, the native population of the Hawaiian Kingdom sought to restore King Kalakaua’s power and authority. A committee of Hawaiians met with Kalakaua to discuss dismantling the constitution because the king signed it under duress. According to Thurston, Kalakaua even defended the constitution to protesting natives. Queen Liliuokalani affirmed that he was threatened with violence should he attempt to undo the new constitution. She also listed several petitions from natives that pleaded for a new constitution. Out of 9,500 registered voters, 6,500 signed the petitions. Since the majority of the population supported a new constitution, Queen Liliuokalani proposed one in January 1893. In response, the Hawaiian League overthrew her monarchy and took control of the country.[4][10]

References

  1. ^ a b c David W. Forbes (2003). Hawaiian national bibliography, 1780–1900. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 232–233. ISBN 978-0-8248-2636-9.
  2. ^ a b Anne Feder Lee (June 30, 1993). The Hawaii state constitution: a reference guide. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 4–5. ISBN 978-0-313-27950-8.
  3. ^ Pat Pitzer. "The Overthrow of the Monarchy." Spirit of Aloha, 1994, 2 Accessed January 27, 2015. http://www.hawaii-nation.org/soa.html.
  4. ^ a b c Lorrin A. Thurston, and Andrew Farrell. Memoirs of the Hawaiian Revolution. Honolulu: Advertiser Publishing, 1936. http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001261385.
  5. ^ Sanford B. Dole, and Andrew Farrell. Memoirs of the Hawaiian Revolution. Honolulu: Advertiser Publishing, 1936. http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.b3477492;view=1up;seq=9.
  6. ^ Ralph Simpson Kuykendall (1967). Hawaiian Kingdom 1874–1893, the Kalakaua Dynasty. 3. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-87022-433-1.
  7. ^ "Appointment of a New Cabinet!". Hawaiian Gazette. Honolulu. July 5, 1887. p. 4. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
  8. ^ Wong, Helen; Rayson, Ann (1987). Hawaii's Royal History. Bess Press. p. 196. ISBN 978-0-935848-48-9.
  9. ^ Liliuokalani, Queen of Hawaii, 1838-1917. (1990). Hawaii's story by Hawaii's Queen. Honolulu, Hawaii: Mutual Pub. ISBN 0935180850. OCLC 28821522.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  10. ^ a b Queen of Hawaii, Liliuokalani. Hawaii's Story by Hawaii's Queen. Boston: Lee and Shepard, 1898. http://digital.library.upenn.edu/women/liliuokalani/hawaii/hawaii.html
  11. ^ a b Constitution of the Hawaiian Islands, Signed by His Majesty Kalakaua, July 6 and promulgated July 7, 1887. Hawaiian Gazette (Honolulu, HI), 1887. http://hooilina.org/cgi-bin/journal?e=p-0journal--00-0-0-004-Document---0-1--1en-50---20-docoptions-search-issue---001-0110escapewin&a=p&p=frameset&cl=&d=HASH01b8b242efc454f373219e6b.5.1.6
  12. ^ Henry Edward Chambers (2009) [January, 1896]. Constitutional History of Hawaii. BiblioBazaar, LLC. pp. 25–27. ISBN 978-1-115-62585-2.
  13. ^ Buescher, John. "What Happened to the Royal Family of Hawaii After the U.S. Took Over?" Teachinghistory.org, accessed 1 October 2011.
  14. ^ James H Blount, Report of U.S. Special Commissioner James H. Blount to U.S. Secretary of State Walter Q. Gresham Concerning the Hawaiian Kingdom Investigation. Honolulu, HI. July 17, 1893. http://www.hawaiiankingdom.org/blounts-report.shtml.

Further reading

External links

This page was last edited on 29 August 2019, at 06:45
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