To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

Battle of Wadi al-Laban

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Battle of Wadi al-Laban
DateMarch–April 1558
Location
Wadi al-Laban, Morocco
34°18′N 4°54′W / 34.3°N 4.9°W / 34.3; -4.9
Belligerents
Flag of Morocco 1258 1659.svg
Saadi Sultanate
Flag of Ottoman Algiers.svg
Ottoman Algeria
Commanders and leaders
Abdallah al-Ghalib Hasan Pasha
Strength
Unknown Unknown
Casualties and losses
Unknown Unknown
Battle of Wadi al-Laban is located in Morocco
Battle of Wadi al-Laban
Battle of Wadi al-Laban
Location of the battle of Wadi al-Laban in Morocco.

The Battle of Wadi al-Laban, also Battle of Oued el Leben, occurred in March–April 1558 between Saadians and Turkish-Algerian forces under Hasan Pasha, the son of Hayreddin Barbarossa and occurred north of Fes, at Wadi al-Laban ("The riverbed of milk" or "The riverbed of yoghurt"[1]), an affluent of the Sebou River, one day north of Fes.[2] The outcome of the battle is described as indecisive or as a Saadian victory depending on the source.[2][3]

Background

This conflict took place in a context of tensions between Algeria and Morocco. Morocco became an Ottoman province in 1554 with the help of the Algerians[4][5][6] until the return of the Saadian Mohammed ash-Sheikh to power. Following the return of the Saadians, numerous conflicts broke out between Algeria and Morocco, which tried to annex the Algerian city of Tlemcen.[7]

The conflict was initiated when the Moroccan ruler Mohammed ash-Sheikh refused to give allegiance to the Ottomans and the alliance he concluded with the Spaniards.[2] Hasan Pasha, the son of Barbarossa, was named by the Ottoman Empire beylerbey of the Regency of Algiers in June 1557, in order to continue the fight against the Moroccan ruler. He had Mohammed ash-Sheikh assassinated in October 1557 by one of his bodyguards.[2]

Battle

Hasan Pasha then invaded Morocco in early 1558. An indecisive battle between the two sides took place in Wadi al-Laban to the north of Fez,[8] after which, Hasan Pasha decided to retreat upon hearing of Spanish preparations for an offensive from Oran in Western Algeria.[8][9] He embarked with his troops at the port of Qassasa in northern Morocco, just west of Melilla, and from there sailed to Algiers to prepare a defense against the Spaniards, who soon attacked in the Mostaganem expedition.[2]

Aftermath

Despite his initial opposition against the Ottomans, later during his reign Abdallah al-Ghalib was forced to pay an annual tribute of vassalage to the Ottomans therefore establishing Ottoman influence on the entire Maghreb.[10][11][12]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Elgibali, Alaa (2005). Investigating Arabic: Current Parameters in Analysis and Learning. BRILL. p. 58. ISBN 9004137920.
  2. ^ a b c d e Jamil M. Abun-Nasr (20 August 1987). A History of the Maghrib in the Islamic Period. Cambridge University Press. pp. 157–158. ISBN 978-0-521-33767-0.
  3. ^ Véronne, Chantal de La (1997-01-01). Histoire sommaire des Sa'diens au Maroc: La première dynastie chérifienne, 1511-1659 (in French). FeniXX réédition numérique. ISBN 978-2-307-06107-6.
  4. ^ Véronne, Chantal de La (1997-01-01). Histoire sommaire des Sa'diens au Maroc: La première dynastie chérifienne, 1511-1659 (in French). FeniXX réédition numérique. ISBN 978-2-307-06107-6.
  5. ^ Cour, Auguste (2004-09-10). L'établissement des dynasties des Chérifs au Maroc et leur rivalité avec les Turcs de la Régence d'Alger, 1509-1830 (in French). Editions Bouchène. ISBN 978-2-35676-097-5.
  6. ^ Péchot, L. (1914). Histoire de l'Afrique du Nord avant 1830: précédée de la géographie physique et politique de la Tunisie, de l'Algérie et du Maroc (in French). Gojosso.
  7. ^ De La Veronne, Chantal (1973). "Relations entre le Maroc et la Turquie dans la seconde moitié du XVIe siècle et le début du XVIIe siècle (1554-1616)". Revue des mondes musulmans et de la Méditerranée. 15 (1): 391–401. doi:10.3406/remmm.1973.1258.
  8. ^ a b A history of the Maghrib in the Islamic period by Jamil M. Abun-Nasr p.157ff
  9. ^ Charles André Julien (1970). History of North Africa: Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, from the Arab Conquest to 1830. Routledge & K. Paul. p. 296. ISBN 978-0-7100-6614-5.
  10. ^ La bataille de l'Oued el-Makhâzen: dite bataille des Trois Rois (4 aout 1578). P.196. Pierre Berthier. Editions du Centre national de la recherche scientifique
  11. ^ al-Ḥayāh al-iqtiṣādīyah lil-wilāyāt al-ʻArabīyah wa-maṣādir wathāʼiqihā fī al-ʻahd al-ʻUthmānī, Volume 3. P.107. Markaz al-Dirāsāt wa-al-Buḥūth ʻan al-Wilāyāt al-ʻArabīyah fī al-ʻAhd al-ʻUthmānī,
  12. ^ ‎مجلة التاريخية المغربية Issues 37-40 Imprimerie de l'UGTT.

This page was last edited on 4 August 2021, at 20:26
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.