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Battle of Vittorio Veneto

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Battle of Vittorio Veneto
Part of the Italian Front (World War I)
Battle of Vittorio Veneto.jpg

Map of the battle
Date24 October – 4 November 1918
45°57′21″N 12°20′49″E / 45.95583°N 12.34694°E / 45.95583; 12.34694

Italian victory[1]

  • End of the Austro-Hungarian Empire[2][3]
 British Empire
Czechoslovak Italian Legion
 United States
Commanders and leaders
Flag of Italy (1861-1946) crowned.svg
Armando Diaz
Austria-Hungary Archduke Joseph August
Austria-Hungary Alexander von Krobatin
Austria-Hungary Svetozar Boroević

57 divisions:[4]

  • Kingdom of Italy 1,400,000 in 51 divisions
  • United Kingdom ≈40,000 in 3 divisions
  • French Third Republic 25,000 in 2 divisions
  • Bohemia 15,000 in 1 division
  • United States 5,000 in 1 regiment[5]

Total : 1,485,000

7,700 guns
600 aircraft

61 divisions:

  • Austria-Hungary 1,800,000[4]
    6,145 guns
Casualties and losses

Kingdom of Italy 37,461

  • 7,000 killed
  • 23,000 wounded
  • 8,000 missing or captured
United Kingdom 2,139
French Third Republic 778
528,000 [6]
30,000 dead
50,000 wounded
448,000 captured
5,000+ artillery pieces captured

The Battle of Vittorio Veneto was fought from 24 October to 3 November 1918 (with an armistice taking effect 24 hours later) near Vittorio Veneto on the Italian Front during World War I. The Italian victory[1][7][8] marked the end of the war on the Italian Front, secured the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and contributed to the end of the First World War just one week later.[2] The battle led to the capture of 5,000+ artillery pieces and over 350,000 Austro-Hungarian troops, including 120,000 Germans, 83,000 Czechs and Slovaks, 60,000 South Slavs, 40,000 Poles, several tens of thousands of Romanians and Ukrainians, and 7,000 Italians and Friulians.[9]

Some Italian authors see Vittorio Veneto as the final culmination of the Risorgimento nationalist movement, in which Italy was unified.[10]

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • ✪ Italy Attacks - The Battle of Vittorio Veneto I THE GREAT WAR Week 222
  • ✪ Battle of Vittorio Veneto (Italy vs Austro-Hungary World War I)
  • ✪ Central Powers Occupation Of Italy I THE GREAT WAR On The Road
  • ✪ da Caporetto a Vittorio Veneto - la disfatta e la vittoria
  • ✪ Battleship Roma - Corazzata Roma - Schlachtschiff Roma


The Italian Front has been quiet since a summer offensive by the Austrians, and the Italians have been on defense for a year. Exactly a year, as it happens, for this week on the anniversary of Caporetto, the Italian army attacks! I’m Indy Neidell; welcome to the Great War. Last week there was chaos in the German Army High Command, as they tried to decide whether to withdraw in the west, even as the Allies spent the week there advancing along basically the whole front. Austro-Hungarian Emperor Karl announced that the Austrian half on his empire would become a confederation of autonomous sub nations, and an American steamer was torpedoed by the Germans, which inflamed anti-German fervor even as armistice discussions proceeded across the Atlantic. American President Woodrow Wilson has said that armistice terms will be written by the commanders in the field and not him, but he still has things to say in general. First off, autonomy is no longer sufficient for the Austro-Hungarian peoples. He says the US now has obligations to Czechoslovakia and the South Slav people that go way beyond autonomy within the empire. He also says this week that the only armistice possible with Germany is one that renders a renewal of hostilities by Germany impossible. Wilson has a pretty strong position now, for the American army by has the Germans alarmed. On the 24th (Gilbert) The pro-socialist newspaper Arbeiter Zeitung points out that 10,000 fresh American troops come to Europe per day, 300,000 per month, and asks if people really want to continue the war, to deprive the nation of the young men of its future. Three months ago this would’ve been treason, now it was common sense. At the end of the week, those Allied commanders in the field Wilson referred to- Ferdinand Foch, Sir Douglas Haig, Philippe Petain, and John Pershing- do meet to discuss armistice conditions. Their main issue is the same as Wilson’s; making it impossible for Germany to renew the fight at a later date, like in the spring. So they are going to insist on Germany surrendering all artillery and all railway rolling stock, but they’re not all sure Germany will agree to this. Haig thinks that though the Germans have been badly hurt, they aren’t yet beaten and can still fall back and create an effective line. He also feels the Allied armies are pretty well exhausted by now, and that the Americans are not yet organized and in the next battle, the American army “cannot be counted upon for much”. The American Pershing basically ignores this and suggests that, since the American supply lines are nearly 5,000 km going all the way across the Atlantic, the Germans will have to surrender all of their submarines too. The others agree. Foch disagrees with Haig though about the Germans and says that they are not just an army that has been beaten every day for three months, they are an army that is physically, morally, and thoroughly beaten. German High Command- mainly Erich Ludendorff and Paul von Hindenburg- actually agrees with this assessment, but Ludendorff, with Hindenburg’s approval, still sends out a letter to all army group commanders which says armistice conditions are unacceptable and even unworthy of Germany, so they must fight to the finish. Okay, this was withdrawn after the first protest, but not before a telegraph operator sends its text to the Reichstag members of his party- the Independent Socialist Party. On the 25th, the German newspapers publish the telegram. German Chancellor Prince Max von Baden is outraged and goes to the Kaiser demanding Ludendorff’s resignation, or his government would resign. Ludendorff meets the Kaiser and says if the people at home support us, we can fight for months. The Kaiser, though, is royally outraged that Ludendorff telegraphed the troops directly and without consulting him, and Ludendorff, now realizing that even if the war continues he won’t be allowed to run it anymore, resigns. That happens tomorrow, actually, one day in the future. Hindenburg, Army Chief of Staff, also offers his resignation, but the Kaiser refuses. For the remainder of his life, Ludendorff will see Hindenburg’s obedience that day as a terrible betrayal. Ludendorff’s resignation is announced in Berlin movie houses and audiences cheer. In fact, Germany is now too dangerous for him. He will slip away in disguise and head for Sweden. He is succeeded as Quartermaster General by General Wilhelm Groener. The Kaiser has a lot on his plate, to say the least. Earlier this week on the 22nd, to help quiet political unrest, which is starting to get seriously out of hand, he agreed to a general amnesty of political prisoners. Karl Liebknecht, a leader of the revolutionary communist organization the Spartacists, is released. 20,000 people go to the station to greet him. In Russia, Lenin declares, “Three months ago people used to laugh when we said there might be a revolution in Germany.” And as for action on the war’s battlefields this week... In the west on the 19th, the Belgians occupy Zeebrugge and storm Bruges, by the next day the entire Belgian coast is in Allied hands. There is a British-American advance between Oise and Le Cateau, the French and Czechoslovak Legion push enemy back on River Serre, and the 25th marks the end of the Battle of the Selle. That battle may have ended, but a new one was just beginning, on the Italian front. At 0715 on the 24th, what would become known as the Battle of Vittorio-Veneto begins with 1,400-gun bombardment of the Austro-Hungarian positions on Monte Grappa in the mist and rain, followed by an assault by the Italian 4th Army. The Austrians have 9 divisions of defense against 7 attacking, and ferocious fighting continues to the end of week with nearly no gains for the Italians. On the Piave River, the British fight for Papadopoli Island. They take it, but rains and flooding prevent any further advance for the time being. Martin Gilbert quotes a chaplain talking about the British troops here who are used to the Western Front, “...the novelty of the enterprise helped considerably to relieve the tension. There was something hideous and inhuman about a trench attack in France. The mud, the duckboards, the dead horses one passed on the way up, the sickening bark and roar of the guns... On this occasion, however, the situation was quite different... The guns were all silent, the avenues of trees were all decked in the glories of their autumn foliage. Above all, the element of adventure which was involved in the passage of the river... combined to free the men from the load of oppression which even the stoutest heart had felt a year ago on Passchendaele Ridge.” But the enemy’s morale and will to fight was wavering. In fact, on the 24th, the Hungarian government calls on Hungarian units to go home (Stevenson) and they refuse to go into battle on the Asiago. They are allowed to go home and they do so within a day, and this news spread like wildfire to the rest of the Austrian army. In Hungary on the 25th, Count Michael Karolyi, Hungarian Nationalist leader, sets up a Hungarian National Council in Budapest. This is a prelude to a formal separation of Austria and Hungary. And here are some rather long notes to end the week. This week on the 19th all German subs are ordered to return to their home bases and on the 22nd, the German government agrees to renounce unrestricted submarine warfare. But once the German U-Boats are recalled, and since the German navy has no need of an armistice since it’s under no threat at all, German Naval Chief of Staff Reinhard Scheer orders Franz von Hipper, Commander of the High Seas Fleet, to prepare for an all-out attack on the British Grand Fleet, using the battle fleet and all the now available U-Boats. So Hipper puts the order together on the 24th, but it has not yet been approved as the week ends. We’ve seen tank on tank battles, but the first recorded battle- the first that I’m aware of- between armored cars happens this week on the Palestine Front on the 22nd north of Hama. One German armored car and a bunch of trucks armed with machine guns encounter the First Australian Light Car Patrol. That patrol is 12 armored Rolls Royces with Vickers guns and 12 Model T’s with Lewis Guns. The Germans are outnumbered and try to flee, but they are run down and captured. The occupants of the German armored car are killed as they flee their vehicle during the chase- turns out that their armor was not stopping bullets and is something of a death trap. The Spanish Flu has been raging for months, but the second wave- far more deadly- had arrived and was in full force in October 1918 among the armies. David Stevenson gives October case numbers as 39,000 for the Americans, 14,000 for the British, as many as 75,000 for the French... and no numbers for the Germans. This speaks volumes about the state of the German army that there are no statistics. Death from the flu came in days, in some cases just hours. For the war as a whole, 43,000 American servicemen will die of the flu, that’s not a whole lot less than the number that die in actual combat. There are theories that claim the flu hit first and hit harder among the Central Powers armies, and this contributed to their breakdown this fall. Neither I nor anyone can confirm or deny that at this point, but that brings us to the end of the week. A new Italian offensive, a continuing general one in the west, Hungarian soldiers leaving the fight, Lenin hoping for German revolution, the Kaiser trying to quell it before it starts, and firing his military leader. Outrage in the German government, demands from the American one, and Allied High Command trying to agree on armistice terms. Because the writing is on the wall, right? And everyone kinda knows it; Foch and company, Ludendorff, the Kaiser, the German army, even the German navy knows it. That includes Scheer and Von Hipper, who are still just about to order that navy into a fight to the finish with the British navy. And why? Well, even if you lose you gotta make a statement, right? And if everybody dies? Well, at least it was courageous, and after all, it’s only men. If you want to learn more about the Battle of Vittorio Veneto, we went to a local museum there that is also dedicated to the Central Powers occupation beforehand. You can click right here to watch our special episode about that. Our Patreon supporter of the week is Alexandru Popescu. Thank you for supporting our show and thank you for making it possible over all these years. Don’t forget to subscribe, see you next time.



When the battle was fought in November 1918, the nearby city was called simply Vittorio,[11] named in 1866 for Vittorio Emanuele II, monarch from 1861 of the newly created Kingdom of Italy. The engagement, the last major battle in the war (1915–1918) between Italy and Austro-Hungary, was generally referred to as the Battle of Vittorio Veneto, i.e. 'Vittorio in the Veneto region'. The city's name was officially changed to Vittorio Veneto in July 1923.[12]


During the Battle of Caporetto,[13] from 24 October to 9 November 1917, the Italian Army had over 300,000 casualties (dead, injured and captured) and was forced to withdraw, causing the replacement of the Italian Supreme Commander Luigi Cadorna with General Armando Diaz. Diaz reorganized the troops, blocked the enemy advance by implementing defense in depth and mobile reserves, and stabilized the front-line around the Piave River.

In June 1918, a large Austro-Hungarian offensive, aimed at breaking the Piave River defensive line and delivering a decisive blow to the Italian Army, was launched. The Austro-Hungarian Army tried on one side to force the Tonale Pass and enter Lombardy, and on the other side to make two converging thrusts into central Venetia, the first one southeastward from the Trentino, and the second one southwestward across the lower Piave. The whole offensive, which became known as the Battle of the Piave River ended in a heavy defeat for the imperial army, with the Austro-Hungarians losing 11,643 killed, 80,852 wounded and 25,547 captured.[14]

After the Battle of the Piave, General Armando Diaz, despite aggressive appeals by Allied commanders,[15] deliberately abstained from offensive action until Italy would be ready to strike with success assured.[16] In the offensive he planned, three of the five armies lining the front from the Monte Grappa sector to the Adriatic end of the Piave were to drive across the river toward Vittorio Veneto, so as to cut communications between the two Austrian armies opposing them.

Allied forces totaled 57 infantry divisions, including 51 Italian, 3 British (23rd, 7th and 48th), 2 French (23rd and 24th), 1 Czechoslovak (6th) and the 332nd US Infantry Regiment, along with supporting arms. The Austro-Hungarian army had 46 infantry divisions and 6 cavalry divisions, but both sides were ravaged by influenza and malaria and the Austrians only had 6,030 guns to 7,700 Allied.[15]

The Italian armies in the mountains were merely to hold the front line and follow up the enemy when he retreated. The task of opening the attack and taking on the strongest positions fell to Fourth Army (Lieutenant-General Gaetano Giardino) on the Grappa. Twelfth Army, consisting of one French and three Italian divisions was commanded by the English-speaking Lieutenant-General Enrico Caviglia and he had under command Tenth Army (Lieutenant-General Lord Cavan) to protect his right flank. Lord Cavan's army consisted of two British and two Italian divisions and they too were expected to cross the Piave by breaking the Austrian defenses at Papadopoli Island. Third Army was simply to hold the lower Piave and cross the river when enemy resistance was broken. Ninth Army, which contained the Czechoslovak Division and the 332nd US Infantry Regiment as well two Italian divisions, was held in reserve. The Allies had 600 aircraft (93 Anglo-French, including 4 RAF squadrons) to gain complete air superiority in the final offensive.[17]

Order of battle

The Allies:[18][19](Armando Diaz)



As night fell on 23 October, leading elements of Lord Cavan's Tenth Army were to force a crossing at a point where there were a number of islands, and Cavan had decided to seize the largest of these — the Grave di Papadopoli — as a preparation for the full-scale assault on the far bank. The plan was for two battalions from 22nd Brigade of the British 7th Division to occupy the northern half of Papadopoli while the Italian 11th Corps took the southern half.[21] The British troops detailed for the night attack were the 2/1 Honourable Artillery Company (an infantry battalion despite the title) and the 1/ Royal Welch Fusiliers. These troops were helpless to negotiate such a torrent as the Piave, and relied upon boats propelled by the 18th Pontieri under the command of Captain Odini of the Italian engineers. On the misty night of the 23rd the Italians rowed the British forces across with a calm assurance and skill which amazed many of those who were more frightened of drowning than of fighting the Austrians. For the sake of silence the HAC used only their bayonets until the alarm was raised, and soon seized their half of the island. The Italian assault on the south of Papadopoli was driven off by heavy machine-gun fire. Nevertheless, the Austrians had surrendered the island by the end of the night.[22]


Italian machine gunners on Monte Grappa
Italian machine gunners on Monte Grappa

On 24 October, the anniversary of the Battle of Caporetto, in the early hours Comando Supremo launched the splintering attack on Monte Grappa designed to draw in the Austro-Hungarian reserves. At 03:00 the right wing of the Italian Fourth Army began a barrage to give time for its men to move into position. At 05:00 the rest of the artillery joined in. The infantry began to struggle up the steep slopes and secondary peaks which the Austrians had held for so long. The flooding of the Piave prevented two of the three central armies from advancing simultaneously with the third; but the latter, under the command of Earl Cavan, after seizing Papadopoli Island farther downstream, won a foothold on the left bank of the river on 27 October. In the evening the Allies had covered so much ground that they were over-extended and vulnerable to a counter-attack. The Italian Tenth Army maintained its ground and had established a bridgehead 2.5 miles (4.0 km) deep and 5 miles (8.0 km) broad. The British captured 3,520 prisoners and 54 guns.[23] Svetozar Boroević von Bojna, the Austro-Hungarian commander, ordered a counter-attack on the Italian bridgeheads on the same day, but his troops refused to obey orders, a problem confronting the Austrians from that time on, and the counter-attack failed.[24] The first days of the battle involved heavy artillery dueling between the two sides, which were fairly evenly matched in firepower with the Italians possessing 7,700 guns to the Austro-Hungarians' 6,000 guns. From 24 October to 31 October alone, the Italian artillery fired 2,446,000 shells.[25]

On 28 October, a group of Czechs declared Bohemia's independence from Austria-Hungary. The next day, another group purporting to represent the eventual South Slavs proclaimed their independence, and on 31 October, the Hungarian Parliament proclaimed their withdrawal from the union, officially dissolving the Austro-Hungarian state. On 28 October, under these new political and military conditions, the Austro-Hungarian high command ordered a general retreat.

On 29 October the Italian Eighth Army pushed on towards Vittorio Veneto, which its advance guard of lancers and Bersaglieri cyclists entered on the morning of the 30th. The Italian Third Army forced a crossing of the Lower Piave while raids in the mountains disclosed that the Austrians were withdrawing there. Reserves including the 332nd US Infantry Regiment poured over the Piave behind the Italian Tenth Army.

Vittorio Veneto was seized the next day by the Italian Eighth Army, which was already pushing on to the Tagliamento river. Trieste was taken by an amphibious expedition on 3 November. The Italian Eighth Army troops which had managed to cross the Piave were only able to communicate with the west bank by using swimmers. The swimmers were furnished by one of the most elite assault units in Italian history — the Arditi Corps, the Caimani del Piave ("Caimans of the Piave"). 82 were recruited by Captain Remo Pontecorvo Bacci after Caporetto. Carrying a resolza knife and two hand grenades, they were trained to remain in the powerful currents of the icy Piave for up to 16 hours; 50 died in the river during the campaign.[23] The Italian Twelfth Army, commanded by French General Jean Graziani, continued to advance, supported on the right by the Eighth Army.

At dawn on the 31st, the Italian Fourth Army resumed the offensive on Monte Grappa and this time was able to advance beyond the old Austrian positions towards Feltre. In the mountains and on the plain the Allied armies pushed on until an armistice was arranged. The result was that Austria-Hungary lost about 30,000 killed and wounded and 300,000 prisoners (50,000 by 31 October; 100,000 by 1 November; 300,000 by 4 November).[14][15] The Italians suffered during the 10 days' struggle 37,461 casualties (dead and wounded) — 24,507 of them on Monte Grappa.[26] British casualties were 2,139, while the French lost 778 men.[14]

The Armistice of Villa Giusti was signed on 3 November at 15:20, to become effective 24 hours later, at 15:00 on 4 November.


Italian troops landing in Trieste, 3 November 1918
Italian troops landing in Trieste, 3 November 1918

The Austrian command ordered its troops to cease hostilities on 3 November. Following the signing of the armistice, Austrian General Weber informed his Italian counterparts that the Imperial army had already laid down its weapons, and asked to cease combat immediately and to stop any further Italian advance. The proposal was sharply rejected by the Italian General Badoglio, who threatened to stop all negotiations and to continue the war. General Weber repeated the request.[27] Even before the order to cease hostilities, the Imperial Army had already started to collapse, beginning a chaotic retreat.[28] Italian troops continued their advance until 3 p.m. on 4 November. The occupation of all Tyrol, including Innsbruck, was completed in the following days.[29]

Under the terms of the Austrian-Italian Armistice of Villa Giusti, Austria-Hungary’s forces were required to evacuate not only all territory occupied since August 1914 but also South Tirol, Tarvisio, the Isonzo Valley, Gorizia, Trieste, Istria, western Carniola, and Dalmatia. All German forces should be expelled from Austria-Hungary within 15 days or interned, and the Allies were to have free use of Austria-Hungary’s internal communications. They were also obliged to allow the transit of the Entente armies, to reach Germany from the South.[26] Beginning in November 1918, the Italian Army with 20,000-22,000 soldiers occupied Innsbruck and all North Tyrol.[30]

The battle marked the end of the First World War on the Italian front and secured the end of the Austro-Hungarian empire.[2][3] As mentioned above, on 31 October Hungary officially left the personal union with Austria. Other parts of the empire had declared independence, notably what later became Yugoslavia. The surrender of their primary ally was another major factor in the German Empire's decision that they could no longer continue the war.[2][31] On 30 October the Wilhelmshaven mutiny erupted, shortly afterwards the German Revolution of 1918–1919 started to spread from Kiel. Less than a week after the Austro-Hungarians, the Germans requested an armistice.


See also



  1. ^ a b Burgwyn, H. James (1997). Italian foreign policy in the interwar period, 1918–1940. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 4. ISBN 0-275-94877-3.
  2. ^ a b c d Pasoletti, Ciro (2008). A Military History of Italy. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 150. ISBN 0-275-98505-9. ... Ludendorff wrote: In Vittorio Veneto, Austria did not lose a battle, but lose the war and itself, dragging Germany in its fall. Without the destructive battle of Vittorio Veneto, we would have been able, in a military union with the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, to continue the desperate resistance through the whole winter, in order to obtain a less harsh peace, because the Allies were very fatigued.
  3. ^ a b Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2002). History of World War I. Marshall Cavendish. pp. 715–716. ISBN 0-7614-7234-7. The Battle of Vittorio Veneto during October and November saw the Austro-Hungarian forces collapse in disarray. Thereafter the empire fell apart rapidly.
  4. ^ a b Stevenson, David (19 September 2011). With Our Backs to the Wall: Victory and Defeat in 1918. Harvard University Press. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-674-06226-9. Retrieved 26 July 2015. According to the Commando supremo the Allies had 57 divisions and 7,700 guns.
  5. ^ Duffy, Michael (1 February 2002). "The Battle of Vittorio Veneto, 1918". Archived from the original on 13 May 2008. Retrieved 10 June 2008.
  6. ^ Statistics of the Military Effort of the British Empire During the Great War 1914–1920, The War Office, p. 356-357.
  7. ^ Schindler, John R. (2001). Isonzo: The Forgotten Sacrifice of the Great War. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 303. ISBN 0-275-97204-6.
  8. ^ Mack Smith, Denis (1982). Mussolini. Knopf. p. 31. ISBN 0-394-50694-4.
  9. ^ Thompson, Mark. "The White War: Life and Death on the Italian Front 1915-1919." Basic Books, 17 March 2009. Page 363.
  10. ^ Arnaldi, Girolamo (2005). Italy and Its Invaders. Harvard University Press. p. 194. ISBN 0-674-01870-2.
  11. ^ "Historical Maps of Italy: Italy, 1920 (London Geographical Institute)". Retrieved 4 December 2017. Vittorio is shown due north of Venice, south of Belluno.
  12. ^ Ceva, Giulio (2005). Teatri di guerra. Comandi, soldati e scrittori nei conflitti europei (in Italian). Franco Angeli Editore. p. 142. ISBN 8846466802.
  13. ^ Caporetto is the Italian name of the town of Kobarid, today in Slovenia.
  14. ^ a b c Clodfelter 2017, p. 419.
  15. ^ a b c Duffy, Michael (2013). "The Battle of Vittorio Veneto, 1918". First World Retrieved 26 July 2015.
  16. ^ Seton-Watson, Christopher (1967). Italy from Liberalism to Fascism, 1870–1925. Taylor & Francis. p. 500. ISBN 0-416-18940-7. Foch urged Diaz to exploit the success. Diaz, knowing his troops were weary and short of munitions, confined himself to local operations.
  17. ^ War Monthly (Issue 31): Vittorio Veneto, pp. 33–34 by Peter Banyard
  18. ^ Pieropan, Gianni (2009). Storia della Grande Guerra sul fronte italiano. 1914-1918 (in Italian). Milano: Mursia. pp. 771–773. ISBN 88-425-2830-7.
  19. ^ "L'Esercito Italiano nel 1918" (in Italian). Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  20. ^ Jewison, Glenn; Steiner, Jörg C. (2015). "Austro-Hungarian Army Higher Commands 1914-1918". Austro-Hungarian Land Forces 1848-1918. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
  21. ^ Wilks p.136
  22. ^ War Monthly (Issue 31): Vittorio Veneto, p. 35 by Peter Banyard.
  23. ^ a b Peter Banyard. "Vittorio Veneto" War Monthly, Issue 31, p. 37-38
  24. ^ Stevenson (2011), p.160.
  25. ^ Gooch, p. 97
  26. ^ a b Cervone, Pier Paolo (1994). Vittorio Veneto, l'ultima battaglia (in Italian). Milano: Mursia (Gruppo Editoriale). ISBN 88-425-1775-5.
  27. ^ Stato Maggiore dell'Esercito (1988). L'esercito italiano nella Grande Guerra (Tomo 1, 2 & 2bis) (in Italian). 5. Roma: Ufficio Storico.
  28. ^ Weber, Fritz (1959). Das Ende der alten Armee; Österreich-Ungarns Zusammenbruch (in German). Salzburg: Verlag Das Bergland-Buch. Split in two the Imperial army collapsed, starting a chaotic retiring, since October 28.
  29. ^ Low, Alfred D. (1974). The Anschluss Movement, 1918–1919, and the Paris Peace Conference. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society. p. 296. ISBN 0-87169-103-5.
  30. ^ Di Michele, Andrea. Trento, Bolzano e Innsbruck: L’Occupazione Militare Italiana del Tirolo (1918-1920) (PDF) (in Italian). pp. 436–37.
  31. ^ Robbins, Keith (2002). The First World War. Oxford University Press. p. 79. ISBN 0-19-280318-2.


  • Clodfelter, M. (2017). Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, 1492-2015 (4th ed.). Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland. ISBN 978-0786474707.
  • Gooch, John. "The Italian Army and the First World War". Cambridge University Press. 30 June 2014.
  • Wilks, John; Wilks, Eileen (1998). The British Army in Italy 1917-1918. Pen and Sword. ISBN 9780850526080.
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