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Battle of Tendra

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Battle of Tendra
Date8–9 September 1790
Location
Tendra
Result Russian victory
Belligerents
 Russian Empire  Ottoman Empire
Commanders and leaders
Fyodor Ushakov Hussein Pasha
Strength
10 battleships
6 frigates
14 battleships
8 frigates
Casualties and losses
25 killed, 25 wounded[1] 2 battleships, 3 small craft, more than 2000 killed, 733 taken prisoner[1]

The Battle of Tendra was a naval action fought on 8 and 9 September 1790 in the Black Sea as part of the Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792). It ended in a victory for the Russians over the Ottomans.[1]

The Russian fleet of 10 battleships, 6 frigates and small craft sailed from Sevastopol on 5 September under Fyodor Ushakov for Kherson to pick up some frigates. At 6 a.m. on 8 September it encountered the Ottoman fleet of 14 battleships, 8 frigates and 23 small crafts at anchor near Tendra. As the Ottomans formed into a battle line, the Russian fleet sailed toward the tail end of the Ottoman line in 3 parallel lines, forming into one line as they did so.

The Ottoman admiral, Hussein Pasha, seeing his tail threatened, turned north and came back parallel to the Russians, who followed suit so the two fleets ended up on paralleled tracks, heading north-east. This was completed by about 2 p.m.. Ushakov ordered 3 frigates to the off-battle side of the van to guard against an Ottoman doubling of the Russian line (Ottoman ships of the period were usually coppered and therefore several knots faster than Russian ships), leaving 13 ships of 710 guns in his line, opposed to 14 with 900 guns. Ushakov then turned toward the Ottoman ships and firing began at about 3 p.m..

The Ottomans began to bear away and by 6 p.m. were in full retreat. The Russians followed closely, inflicting much damage - in particular, the Ottoman Vice Admiral's ship was attacked by Ioann Bogoslov, and the Admiral's and Rear-Admiral's ships by Rozhdestvo Christovo and Preobrazhenie Gospodne. The Ottomans speed allowed them to get away though, and soon after 8 p.m. firing ceased and the Russians anchored.

The next day, 2 damaged Ottoman ships, the Kapitana (Vice Admiral's ship) and Melike Bahri were seen close by, and the Russians attacked. Melike Bahri surrendered to Maria Magdalina without resistance, but the "Kapitana" put up a stout resistance. At 10 a.m. she was attacked by Sv. Andrei Pervozvannyi, which brought down her fore topsail, then by Sv. Georgii Pobyedonosets, Preobrazhenie Gospodne and others. By noon she was completely surrounded, but fought on. At 2 p.m. Ushakov in Rozhdestvo Christovo shot away all her masts and placed his ship across her bows, and at 3 p.m. she surrendered. Unfortunately she was seen to be on fire, and blew up after only 20 men, including Said Bey and her captain, had been taken off. Only 101 men were saved out of 800 on board.

Some Russian ships had been chasing the rest of the Ottoman fleet but they were losing ground and at about 4:30 p.m. Ushakov recalled them. Russian privateers later brought in 3 small craft. Russian casualties were 25 killed and 25 wounded, and 733 Ottomans were captured. Several ships had minor damage in their masts and rigging. Russian victory in the Battle of Tendra allowed them to control the Black Sea.

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  • ✪ Hundred Years' War: Battle of Crecy 1346 DOCUMENTARY

Transcription

The Hundred Years War of 1337 to 1453 Between England and France was one of the longest conflicts in history and one of the bloodiest the dynastic spat between two royal families pulled in a dozen neighboring kingdoms And eventually turned into the central element of medieval history for Western Europe Changing the outlook of multiple facets of its society forever One of the pivotal battles of this conflict was the Battle of Crecy that happened in 1346 The conquest of England by William of Normandy Created a new reality in Western Europe as he and his descendants were still the vassals of the French kings But also were monarchs of a strong realm Williams granddaughter Matilda marries Geoffrey Plantagenet and by doing that Added the counties of Anjou terrain and Maine to the domains of the English kings in France their son henry ii married one of the most influential women of the medieval era eleanor of aquitaine And acquired her vast duchy as a dowry By the middle of the 12th century the Plantagenet dynasty controlled almost half of France Meanwhile the domain of the French kings was tiny and their power limited That would change with the new king philip ii He would use henry. Ii sons against him After the death of henry ii richard the first known as the Lionheart became King in 1189 Philip and Richard alongside the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire Frederick Barbarossa Initiated the Third Crusade after the fall of Jerusalem to Saladin however the French King returned home in 1191 and used the absence of Richard due to the crusade and then imprisonment to gain more lands in France Richard finally returned in 1194 and was able to nullify Philips games Richard passed away in 1199 and his brother John who would later be known as Lackland became the king of England John was a weak King and although he received help from the Holy Roman Empire their united armies were defeated by Philip at Bhuvan in 1214 The English King was now under constant feudal pressure and in 1215. He was forced to sign the famous, Magna Carta Philip benefited from all this and by the end of his reign in 1223 English Kings controlled only half of the Duchy of Aquitaine But the English were forced to sign the Treaty of Paris in 1259 which formalized the conquests of philip ii This piece is considered to be one of the factors that made the Hundred Years War inevitable France had the upper hand until the end of the rule of King Philip's the fourth The superstitious will claim that his persecution of the Templars and the curse of their Grand Master brought the end of his dynasty But in any case shortly after the execution of the Templar Grandmaster Philip died and his three sons ruled for only fourteen years combined without leaving any male heirs to the throne That was the end of Capetian rule and it triggered a dynastic crisis Nothing was preventing one of the daughters of the last three kings from becoming the ruler of the country But the Council of aristocrats cited the archaic salic law that prevented women from holding any land The logic didn't hold up as female aristocrats had been hoping titles in France for centuries There were a few other candidates, but only two of them had any chance of being elected King first was the grandson of Philip the fourth via his daughter Isabel the King of England Edward the third and Second his fraternal nephew Philip the count of Valois The French aristocracy did not think that Edward was an optimal choice They were scared that Frances and England's monarchies would unite and that would make it difficult for them to retain all of their privileges so in 1328 the count of Valois became the king as Philip the sixth Edward seemingly agreed that he should not be king of France as he still had problems in Scotland and paid homage to Philip as his vassal through the Duchy of Aquitaine in 1329 But the fact that England still held this Duchy was a problem and in 1337 Philip confiscated Aquitaine citing the fact that Edward was giving refuge to his mortal enemy robert d'Artois 1337 is considered the year the Hundred Years War started in 1348 word responded by laying claim to the French throne yet again The Battle of Sullust was the first battle of the war it was fought on sea on the 24th of June 1340 Edward and his fleet were able to sink or capture almost 200 French ships while 20,000 Frenchmen lost their lives the French Navy was bigger But the English vessels used their manoeuvrability and the fact that their long bowmen were able to control the engagement to win the battle easily The French fleet was crippled and England got unopposed control over the channel throughout the war Edward was now able to move any troops. He wished to mainland Europe and nothing hindered trade between England and Flanders however financial problems didn't allow Edward to attack right away and in its initial phase the Hundred Years War was a proxy war as English and French Kings supported different claimants in the war of the Breton succession Edward invaded only in July of 1346 When his troops landed in Normandy and surprised the French defenders by taking can surely after Philips army started moving to the north to entrap Edwards numerically inferior forces The English army tried to retreat into Flanders to get assistance from allies in the area But as Philip was catching up to them Edward had no other choice, but to fight The battle took place on the 26th of August 1346 near kracie in northern France The English army was led by King Edward himself and had around 15,000 warriors with 2,500 nobles Knights and armored cavalry 5,000 longbowman 3,000 mounted arches 4,000 spearmen and 5 organ guns cool dry Balkans troops from Flanders Aquitaine and Brittany fought on their side the army of France had Philip the sick and the blind king of bohemia john leading it and consisted of 12,000 heavy horsemen 12,000 infantry and 6,000 crossbowmen for a total of more than 30,000 The English troops positioned themselves on the hill between crazy and wedeck Or their army was divided into three groups each with Dismounted Knights in the center spearmen in the rear and longbowmen on the flanks The front of the English army was covered by stakes and trenches to slow down enemy cavalry Philips army was tired from a March, but despite any common sense the French decided to attack as soon as they saw Edwards positions Crossed women from Genoa and France formed the vanguard to start skirmishing with English longbowmen The battle began at 5 p.m. Unfortunately for the French crossbowmen their pabbie shields were left in the baggage train and as soon as they started moving forward a short very intense rain broke out While the English longbowmen were able to detach their strings the crossbowmen lacked this luxury their weapons were damaged and their volley against the longbowman failed While the latter was able to rout French skirmishes lacking their pavese with a heavy counter volley the crossbowmen retreated under arrow and artillery fire The French Knights felt nothing but contempt for any infantry, and they killed many of the withdrawing crossbowmen This clash within the french army created disarray, and the English longbowmen used that to damage their enemy is further By now the French Knights had dealt with the retreating infantry and attacked their cavalry on the right flank moved against the English left However the obstacles and heavy arrow fire diminished the effectiveness of this attack Many horses were killed and Knights were either forced to retreat or died without killing any enemies The second cavalry charge started on the French left And it was led by the King of Bohemia John who despite being blind Asked to be tied to his horse and pointed towards the enemy This attack was more successful as it reached the English units commanded by the air Prince Edward known as the Black Prince The English bowmen had to retreat behind the dismounted men-at-arms and Knights It seemed that the French were gaining the upper hand as the banner of the Prince fell, and he was wounded However the English left was free to counter-attack and charged into the right side of John's troops The Bohemian King was killed and his soldiers routed The French then attempted to attack 13 more times, but were repelled The English Center under King Edward's didn't fight until now as the French troops became tired Edward ordered his Knights forward And this attack effectively ended the battle the French King fought valiantly Was wounded in the jaw and two horses were killed unto Him, but eventually he abandoned the battlefield The English troops cleared up to the remainder of the French infantry left on the field the French lost more than 10,000 warriors and a large portion of their Knights Philip asked the Scottish King David for help and the latter invaded northern England however He was defeated in the Battle of Neville's cross and became a prisoner himself Meanwhile Edward moved and besieged the strategic city of Calais and captured it in 1347 This gave the English a crucial foothold on the continent for the next two centuries This was a remake of one of our old Documentaries we decided to remake our older videos as we respect our audience too much to leave them with a product we now consider inferior Within a few weeks. We're going to release the next episode of this series This is the kings and Generals Channel, and we will catch you on the next one You

Ships involved

Russia

  • Rozhdestvo Christovo 84 (flag of Vice-Admiral Fyodor Ushakov)
  • Maria Magdalina 66
  • Preobrazhenie Gospodne 66
  • Sv. Pavel 66
  • Sv. Vladimir 66
  • Sv. Aleksandr Nevskii 50
  • Sv. Andrei Pervozvannyi 50
  • Sv. Georgii Pobyedonosets 50
  • Ioann Bogoslov 46
  • Sv. Petr Apostol 46
  • Fanagoria 40
  • Kinburn 40
  • Legkii 40
  • Perun 40
  • Stryela 40
  • Taganrog 40
  • Rozhdestvo Christovo (bomb)
  • Polotsk
  • 2 fireships
  • 17 privateers

Ottoman Empire

Bahr-i Zafer 72 (flag of Kapudan Pasha Giritli Hüseyin)
Melik-i Bahri 72 (flag of Patrona Bey) Sank at storm on the night of 8–9 September
Anka-i Bahri 72
Fethü'l Fettah 66
Nüvid-i Fütuh 66
Peleng-i Bahri 66 Captured 9 September
Tevfikullah 66
Feyz-i Hüda 66 (flag of Riyale Bey)
Mesudiye 58
Mansuriye 58 (flag of Kapudane Said Bey) Blew up 9 September
Inayet-i Hakk 58
Burc-ı Zafer 52
Şehbaz-ı Bahri 52
Ukâb-ı Bahri 52
Mazhar-ı Hidâyet 38
Mazhar-ı Saadet 38
Mebdâ-i Nusret 32
Raad-ı Bahri 20 (bomb frigate)
Berk-i Bahri 20 (bomb frigate)
Berk-i Hafız 20 (bomb frigate)
Şihab-ı Sakıb 20 (bomb frigate)
Cedid Bomba 20 (bomb frigate)
23 small craft (kırlangıç, pergende (brigantine) and şehtiye (xebec) type ships) 3 were captured 9 September

References

  1. ^ a b c Sozaev E. Tredrea J. Russian Warships in the Age of Sail 1696–1860: Design, Construction, Careers and Fates. Seaforth Publishing, 2010. P. 92

Sources

  • Anderson, R. C. (1952). Naval Wars in the Levant 1559–1853. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

This page was last edited on 10 November 2019, at 10:19
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