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Battle of Cárdenas

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Second Battle of Cárdenas
Part of the Spanish–American War
USRC Hudson and USRC Winslow.png

USRC Hudson, led by Frank Hamilton Newcomb, moves to assist a disabled USS Winslow during the Second Battle of Cárdenas.
DateMay 11, 1898
Location
Result Spanish victory
Belligerents
 Spain  United States
Commanders and leaders
Mariano Mateu
Domingo Montes
Chapman C. Todd
John Bernadou
Frank H. Newcomb
Strength
2 small gunboats
1 armed tug[1]
2 torpedo boats
2 gunboats
1 cutter
Casualties and losses
1 armed tug damaged
2 wounded[2]
1 torpedo boat damaged
5 dead
3 wounded

The Second Battle of Cárdenas was a secondary naval engagement of the Spanish–American War fought on 11 May 1898 in the port of Cárdenas, Cuba, between an American squadron of 5 ships under Captain Chapman C. Todd and 3 small Spanish vessels under Mariano Mateu. The battle resulted in an unusually costly American reverse that dissuaded the U.S. Navy from undertaking further attacks on the port.[2]

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Transcription

[ MUSIC ] >> THE YEAR THE WORLD CHANGED WAS 1914. IT WAS THE BEGINNING OF WORLD WAR I. BUT WHILE MOST OF EUROPE WAS CONCERNED AND CONSUMED BY THE GREAT WAR, ANOTHER EARTH SHATTERING EVENT OCCURRED FAR SOUTH AND WEST OF THE CONTINENT IN CONFLICT. THE PANAMA CANAL OPENED ITS LOCKS IN AUGUST OF 1914. FOR THE FIRST TIME, AN ALL WATER CHANNEL BISECTED THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE, A DREAM OF MORE THAN 400 YEARS FINALLY HAVE BEEN REALIZED. [BACKGROUND MUSIC] IN 1502, ON HIS FOURTH VOYAGE TO THE NEW WORLD, CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS SAILED FURIOUSLY AND OBSESSIVELY ALONG THE ATLANTIC COAST OF THE PANAMANIAN ISTHMUS SEARCHING IN VANE FOR A CENTRAL CONVENIENT WATERWAY TO THE OTHER SIDE OF THE GLOBE. FAILING THIS MISSION, COLUMBUS SETTLED FOR BEING THE FIRST EUROPEAN TO CONDUCT WORLD TRADE IN PANAMA. HE EXCHANGED A FEW TRINKETS FOR SEVERAL SOLID GOLD CHEST PLATE SHIELDS WORN BY THE NATIVE PEOPLE. IN THE FOLLOWING DECADE, CONQUISTADOR VASCO BALBOA WAS STANDING ON A SUMMIT IN THE PANAMANIAN HILLS WHEN HE BECAME THE FIRST EUROPEAN TO VIEW BOTH THE ATLANTIC AND PACIFIC OCEANS AT THE SAME TIME. EMOTIONALLY OVERWHELMED, BALBOA FELL TO HIS KNEES WEEPING AND PRAYING IN TRIUMPHANT JOY. DURING THE GOLD RUSH OF 1849, THOUSANDS OF 49ERS JOURNEYED BY BOAT FROM THE AMERICAN EAST COAST TO PANAMA AND THEN CROSSED THE ISTHMUS TO BOARD SHIPS BOUND FOR SAN FRANCISCO. BECAUSE THE MIDDLE AND WESTERN PORTIONS OF THE AMERICAN FRONTIER WERE STILL LARGELY UNSETTLED AND OFTEN HAZARDOUS, THE RACE TO THE CALIFORNIA GOLD FIELDS WENT FASTEST THROUGH PANAMA. IN RESPONSE TO PROSPECTOR DEMAND, A RAILROAD WAS BUILT TO CROSS THE TREACHEROUS ISTHMUS IN THE 1850S. BY MID 1881, A FRENCH COMPANY BEGAN SUPERVISING A TRAGICALLY ILL-FATED PANAMA CANAL ENGINEERING EFFORT. THE PROJECT STALLED AFTER ENDURING 8 DEVASTATING YEARS OF TROPICAL DISEASES AND VARIOUS OTHER DISASTERS. ALL FUNDS WERE TOTALLY SPENT BY 1889. DURING CONSTRUCTION, AT LEAST 20,000 WORKERS WERE KILLED BY A COMBINATION OF MOSQUITO-BORNE MALARIA AND YELLOW FEVER, INTENSE RAINSTORMS, MAJOR MUDSLIDES AND INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS. FOR MANY YEARS, AMERICAN POLITICIANS HAD SOUGHT US AUTHORITY OVER ANY POTENTIAL CANAL WHICH WOULD TRANSECT CENTRAL AMERICA. THE MONROE DOCTRINE WAS OFTEN CITED WHENEVER AMERICAN DOMINANCE IN THE REGION WAS DISCUSSED OR ASSERTED. UNCLE SAM'S MACHINATIONS CULMINATED IN 1903 WHEN PRESIDENT THEODORE ROOSEVELT USE GUNBOAT DIPLOMACY AGAINST COLOMBIA WHILE SUPPORTING A PANAMANIAN SEPARATIST MOVEMENT. ROOSEVELT'S SUCCESSFUL STRATEGY ULTIMATELY INVOLVED PURCHASING AMERICAN CONTROL OF THE ABANDONED FRENCH CONSTRUCTION VENTURE. SADLY, ANOTHER 5600 LABORERS PERISHED BY THE TIME THE CANAL WAS COMPLETED UNDER AMERICAN SUPERVISION IN 1914. >> THE CANAL BECOMES AN EXTENSION, SO THINKING ABOUT THE CANAL BECOMES AN EXTENSION OF THE MANIFEST DESTINY ARGUMENT, THAT IF THE UNITED STATES WAS DESTINED TO REACH THE PACIFIC AND THEN IT DID, IF THE UNITED STATES WAS BASED IN PART ON A GROWING SENSE OF ITSELF AS A MARITIME POWER AND IT WAS, THEN HOW WAS-- WERE THE ATLANTIC AND THE PACIFIC AND THE CARIBBEAN AND THE GULF OF MEXICO AND THESE OTHER AMERICAN RELATED WATERS TO BE CONNECTED WITH EACH OTHER. SO REALLY THE CANAL IS-- THE CANAL IS VERY DEEP IDEA IN AMERICAN CONSCIOUSNESS, THIS LINKING OF THE WATERS, POWERFUL THE WAY THAT THE LINKING OF THE CONTINENT IN OCTOBER 1869 WAS BY THE RAILROAD WHEN THE RAILROADS WERE COMPLETED. [ BACKGROUND MUSIC ] >> TODAY, THE TRADE WINDS BILLOWING THROUGH PANAMA ARE ONCE AGAIN BLOWING SIDE BY SIDE WITH THE WINDS OF CHANGE. THIS TIME, THE PANAMANIAN PEOPLE ARE IN CHARGE OF THEIR OWN DESTINY. THEY HAVE VOTED OVERWHELMINGLY TO EXPAND THE CANAL. THIS PROJECT WILL COST AN ESTIMATED 5 AND A QUARTER BILLION DOLLARS IN THE PROCESS OF CONSTRUCTING A MUCH LARGER THIRD SET OF LOCKS. THE NEW LOCKS WILL SIGNIFICANTLY INCREASE THE SIZE OF SHIPS THAT CAN TRAVERSE THE CANAL. CURRENT PANAMAX SHIPS, MEANING THE MAXIMUM SIZE SHIPS THAT CAN TRANSIT THROUGH PANAMA ARE LIMITED TO FEWER THAN 4,500 TEUS OR ROUGHLY 2,250 40-FOOT LONG CONTAINERS. AFTER THE CANAL'S EXPANSION, SUPER SHIPS CARRYING 12,000 TEUS OR 6,000 40-FOOT CONTAINERS WILL BE ABLE TO TRANSIT THE CANAL. THE REPERCUSSIONS OF A LARGER PANAMA CANAL ARE ENORMOUS, NOT ONLY FOR PANAMA BUT FOR MOST PORTS IN THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE. NEW POSSIBILITIES EXIST IN THIS LATEST METAPHORICAL GOLD RUSH. WHEN THE CANAL EXPANSION OPENS FOR BUSINESS IN THE CENTENNIAL ANNIVERSARY OF 2014, MUCH ABOUT GLOBAL LOGISTICS WILL HAVE CHANGED. >> IF YOU THINK ABOUT IT OVER A LONGER TERM, 40 YEARS AGO, TRADE WAS REALLY CONCENTRATED DOWN THE EAST COAST PORTS. AND SO WHAT HAPPENED IN A RELATIVELY SHORT PERIOD OF TIME, THAT TRADE SHIFTED TO THE WEST COAST PORTS WITH THE OPENING UP OF THE ASIAN COUNTRIES YOU GOT THE TREMENDOUS GROWTH. NOW, PEOPLE ON THE GULF AND PEOPLE ON EAST COAST PORTS WANT A LITTLE BIT OF THE ACTION AND THE WAY THEY CAN GET THAT ACTION IS IN FACT IF THE CANAL IS WIDENED. [ BACKGROUND MUSIC ] >> FOR MORE THAN 3 DECADES, SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA BENEFITED FROM EXPONENTIAL GROWTH IN TRANSPACIFIC TRADE. A MASSIVE LOCAL CONSUMER MARKET ENCOURAGED INCOMING CARGO TRAFFIC, WHICH LED TO BOTH HARBOR AND WAREHOUSE FACILITIES EXPANSION. THESE DEVELOPMENTS RESULTED IN THE SAN PEDRO BAY EMERGING AS A CARGO DESTINATION OF CHOICE. LARGE VESSELS WITH HUGE LOADS COULD DOCK IN THE DEEP WATER OF LOS ANGELES AND LONG BEACH PORTS, WHILE GIGANTIC CRANES RAPIDLY MOVE THEIR CONTAINERS ON TO INTERMODAL TRUCKS AND TRAINS. WELL DEVELOPED RAIL ACCESS FROM THE HARBOR TO THE INTERIOR MEANT THAT FREIGHT BOUND FOR THE MIDWEST WAS TRANSPORTED ON DOUBLE STACK TRAINS FOR THE LONG JOURNEY ACROSS THE COUNTRY. AFTER BECOMING THE BIGGEST AND THE BEST-EQUIPPED HARBOR COMPLEX, WITH THE CAPACITY AND THE INFRASTRUCTURE TO MOVE GOODS ON TO MAJOR RAIL SYSTEMS, THE SAN PEDRO BAY SETTLED INTO A PERIOD OF HEGEMONY. HOWEVER, EVEN WITHOUT THE EXPANSION OF THE PANAMA CANAL, NEW TRENDS ARE EMERGING THAT THREATENED TO SIPHON AWAY SIGNIFICANT CARGO TRAFFIC FROM THE POWERHOUSE PORTS OF LOS ANGELES AND LONG BEACH. IN THE CANADIAN NORTHWEST, THE PORT OF PRINCE RUPERT HAS BEEN EXPANDING ITS HANDLING CAPACITY AND ENJOYS AN ADVANTAGE BY BEING 700 NAUTICAL MILES CLOSER TO ASIA. THIS CLOSER PROXIMITY REDUCES OCEAN SHIPPING TIME BY A COUPLE OF DAYS. PRINCE RUPERT IS SERVED BY AN EXPRESS CANADIAN RAIL SYSTEM WHICH CAN DELIVER GOODS TO A CENTRAL POINT NORTH OF THE US BORDER WITH A DIRECT RAIL SHOT TO CHICAGO AND MEMPHIS. THE CANADIAN GOVERNMENT IS FULLY BACKING AND PROMOTING PRINCE RUPERT AS PART OF AN ASIA PACIFIC GATEWAY AND CORRIDOR INITIATIVE. THIS EFFORT SEEKS TO ATTRACT AS MUCH CARGO AS POSSIBLE FOR THE EXPANDING CANADIAN FACILITIES. >> THE PORTS OF SEATTLE AND TACOMA ARE ALSO CLOSER TO ASIA AND ALSO DESIRE TO TAKE A LARGER SHARE OF THE CARGO FROM THE FAR EAST THAT'S DESTINED FOR DELIVERY BY RAIL TO THE MIDWEST. INVESTMENTS OF NEARLY A BILLION DOLLARS HAVE OCCURRED OVER THE PAST 15 YEARS TO IMPROVE THE SEATTLE AND TACOMA PORT INFRASTRUCTURES. MEXICO HAS BEEN DISCUSSED AS A PACIFIC COAST COMPETITOR IN THE FUTURE. AMONG THE PLANS AND DEVELOPMENT IS ONE TO UTILIZE THE PORT OF LAZARO CARDENAS IN CONNECTION WITH AN EXPRESS RAIL NETWORK TO TRANSPORT CONTAINERS DIRECTLY FROM MEXICO TO KANSAS CITY. >> WE KNOW THAT MOST BIG SHIPPERS WILL LOOK AT ALTERNATIVES. THEY WENT TO THE FOUR CORNERS APPROACH IN THE MID 2000S LOOKING AT A PACIFIC NORTHWEST, A PACIFIC SOUTHWEST, A GULF AND THE EAST COAST PORT TO TRY TO BALANCE THEIR CARGO FLOWS AND NOT JUST BE IN ONE PORT. >> THE EXPANSION OF THE PANAMA CANAL WILL ALLOW SHIPS TO TAKE [BACKGROUND MUSIC] SIGNIFICANTLY LARGER LOADS FROM EAST ASIA TO US GULF PORTS AND PORTS ON THE EASTERN SEABOARD. GULF PORTS IN HOUSTON, NEW ORLEANS, MOBILE, AND TAMPA NOW MAY LOOK MORE ATTRACTIVE TO SHIPPERS WHO DESIRE MULTIPLE REGIONAL CONCENTRATIONS OF WAREHOUSING ARRANGEMENTS. IN THE SOUTH ATLANTIC SECTOR, HANJIN SHIPPING IS CONSTRUCTING A FACILITY IN JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA WHICH IS SCHEDULED TO OPEN IN 2013. PORT COMPLEXES IN SAVANNAH, GEORGIA, CHARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA AND NORFOLK, VIRGINIA PRESENT POSSIBILITIES FOR EXPANDED OR ADDITIONAL ALL WATER ROUTES FROM EAST ASIA TO THE EAST COAST. OF THESE, VIRGINIA IS BEST EQUIPPED TO SERVICE THE LARGER SHIPS. OCEAN ROUTES THAT KEEP CONTAINERS ON VESSELS FOR THE ENTIRE JOURNEY REQUIRE MORE TIME BUT CAN SAVE HANDLING COST COMPARED TO SAIL AND RAIL COMBINATION ROUTES. COST REDUCTIONS CAN AMOUNT TO AS MUCH AS 1000 DOLLARS PER CONTAINER IF PATIENT SHIPPERS CAN AFFORD TO WAIT FOR LONGER DELIVERY TIMEFRAMES. THE PORT AUTHORITY OF NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY IS ALSO ANTICIPATING RECEIVING MORE CONTAINER SHIPS DIRECTLY FROM CHINA VIA THE PANAMA CANAL. A PROBLEM IN NEW YORK IS THE BAYONNE BRIDGE WHICH LIMITS THE HEIGHT OF VESSELS HEADING FOR CONTAINER TERMINALS IN NEW JERSEY. EFFORTS ARE UNDERWAY TO DEEPEN THE CHANNEL AND TO RESOLVE THE BRIDGE DILEMMA. >> SO, THE WHOLE IDEA OF PUTTING THE DISCUSSION AROUND THE PANAMA CANAL IN A GLOBAL CONTEXT CAN VERY EASILY BE APPLIED TO A REGIONAL SCENARIO FOR THE EAST COAST IN THE UNITED STATES, THE ABILITY TO TAKE ON LARGER VESSELS, LONGER BERTH, STEEPER DRAFTS [PHONETIC], CAPACITY OF CRANES AND SUCH, IT'S GOING TO RESONATE ACROSS THE ENTIRE SUPPLY CHAIN AND HAVE A PARTICULAR IMPACT NOT ONLY ON THE EAST COAST OF THE UNITED STATES BUT THE GULF AS WELL. [ BACKGROUND MUSIC ] >> LARGE SHIPPERS WHO SEEK REGIONAL DIVERSIFICATION FOR WAREHOUSING MAY DECIDE TO INVEST IN SEVERAL POINTS OF DISEMBARKATION. THIS STRATEGY ENCOURAGES COMPETITION, LOWERS COSTS OVERALL, SPREADS RISKS AND PROVIDES INSURANCE AGAINST ANY MEGA-PORT ACQUIRING A CONTROLLING MONOPOLY ON GOODS MOVEMENT. RAIL DEVELOPMENT IS CRITICAL FOR ANY PORT TO GROW AND TO DISTRIBUTE DISCRETIONARY CARGO MORE THAN 400 MILES FROM THE WATERFRONT. WARREN BUFFETT'S BERKSHIRE HATHAWAY GROUP OWNS THE BURLINGTON NORTHERN SANTA FE RAILROAD KNOWN AS BNSF. BOTH UNION PACIFIC AND BNSF HAVE A LARGE STAKE IN THE WEST COAST INTERMODAL SYSTEM FOR INLAND CARGO DELIVERY. BNSF CLAIMS INTERMODAL TRAINS FROM THE WEST COAST CAN CUT AS MANY AS 9 DAYS OFF DELIVERY TIME TO THE EAST COAST COMPARED TO ALL WATER PANAMA CANAL ROUTES. >> JUST BECAUSE THE CANAL GETS EXPANDED DOESN'T CHANGE THE FACT THAT THE SHORTEST AND FASTEST SHIPPING ROUTES BETWEEN ASIA AND THE UNITED STATES IS BY THE WEST COAST. THAT'S AN UNDISPUTABLE FACT. AND AS SUCH, THE VAST MAJORITY OF FREIGHT THAT MOVES BETWEEN ASIA AND THE UNITED STATES HAS ALWAYS MOVED TO THE WEST COAST AND IT WILL ALWAYS MOVE TO THE WEST COAST. NOW, IT IS A FACT ALSO THAT THERE HAS BEEN A LITTLE BIT OF A SHEER SHIFT FROM THE WEST COAST TO THE EAST COAST OVER ROUGHLY THE LAST DECADE OR SO. BUT THAT HASN'T REALLY OCCURRED BECAUSE OF THE MARKET FUNDAMENTALS WHICH POTENTIALLY COULD BE AFFECTED BY THE EXPANSION OF THE CANAL. THE SHORT-- AGAIN, THE SHORTEST ROUTE AND THE FASTEST ROUTE WILL ALWAYS BE BY THE WEST COAST DESPITE WHAT HAPPENS WITH THE CANAL. [ BACKGROUND MUSIC ] >> EASTERN RAIL NETWORKS LACK THE INFRASTRUCTURE TO DELIVER FREIGHT ON A MASSIVE SCALE TO POINTS WEST, NORTH AND SOUTH. HOWEVER, SOME OF THE RECENT TRANSPORTATION INVESTMENT GENERATING ECONOMIC RECOVERY GRANT KNOWN AS STIMULUS TIGER GRANTS HAVE PLANTED THE SEEDS FOR MORE INTERMODAL RAIL DEVELOPMENT IN THE EAST. THE RECIPIENTS OF THESE GRANTS NOW SEEK TO INCREASE THE NUMBER OF DOUBLE STACK TRAINS PASSING THROUGH AREAS SUCH US GULF PORT MISSISSIPPI AND THE REGIONAL RAIL HUBS OF MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE AND BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMA. ONE OF THE LARGEST TIGER GRANTS WAS AWARDED TO THE NATIONAL GATEWAY FREIGHT RAIL CORRIDOR AFFECTING THE STATES OF OHIO, PENNSYLVANIA, WEST VIRGINIA AND MARYLAND. A SEPARATE PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP PROJECT KNOWN AS THE HEARTLAND CORRIDOR HAS BEEN BURROWING OUT THE EXISTING TUNNELS OF VIRGINIA, WEST VIRGINIA AND KENTUCKY ALONG THE NORFOLK SOUTHERN RAILROAD LINE. THE TUNNELS ARE NOW TALL ENOUGH TO ENABLE DOUBLE STACK CONTAINERS TO TRAVEL ON RAIL FROM THE INTERMODAL PORT OF VIRGINIA THROUGH THE HEART OF THE CENTRAL APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS TO A DESTINATION POINT IN COLUMBUS, OHIO. A NEW EXTENSION FOR THE LINE HAS BEEN APPROVED TO CONTINUE THE DOUBLE STACK CLEARANCE DOWN STATE TO CINCINNATI. BEYOND NEW RAILROAD DEVELOPMENT, THERE ARE OTHER ISSUES THAT THREATEN THE STATUS QUO IN GOODS MOVEMENT. A GROWING TREND IS THE TRANSLOADING MARKET WHICH COULD PUSH MORE DELIVERIES TO SPECIALIZED FACILITIES THAT ARE NOT LIMITED TO THE USUAL ONE SIZE FITS ALL SCHEME. TRANSLOADING INVOLVES SHIFTING GOODS FROM JUST ARRIVED STANDARD 40-FOOT INTERNATIONAL CONTAINERS TO MIXED CARGO 53-FOOT DOMESTIC CONTAINERS. IN PANAMA, CANAL AUTHORITIES HAVE PLEDGED TO STAY COMPETITIVE REGARDING CONTAINER FEES. THE CONSTRUCTION BOND TO EXPAND THE CANAL WILL REQUIRE AN ANNUAL THREE AND A HALF PERCENT INCREASE IN CONTAINER FEES FOR 20 YEARS. PANAMA IS BETTING THESE INCREASES WILL NOT DISCOURAGE TRAFFIC NOR OUTPACE POTENTIAL FEE INCREASES FROM WEST COAST COMPETITORS WHO MUST CONTEND WITH ENVIRONMENTAL MITIGATION COSTS, COMMUNITY CONGESTION CONSIDERATIONS AND INFRASTRUCTURE IMPROVEMENT EXPENSES. BECAUSE OF THESE AND OTHER ISSUES, PANAMA AND THE EAST COAST PORTS WILL TRY TO CAPITALIZE ON A PERCEPTION BY SOME SHIPPERS THAT WEST COAST PORTS ARE NOT BUSINESS FRIENDLY. TO THEIR CREDIT, THE PORTS OF LOS ANGELES AND LONG BEACH HAVE ADAPTED TO CALIFORNIA'S MOST STRINGENT EMISSIONS REGULATIONS IN THE NATION. THROUGH BOTH POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC NECESSITY, THESE TWIN HARBOR GIANTS HAVE LED THE FIGHT WITHIN THE INDUSTRY FOR CLEANER AIR AND GREENER PORTS. IN THE FUTURE, IF POTENTIAL FEDERAL MANDATES SUCH AS THE PROPOSED AMERICAN POWER ACT BEGIN TO IMPOSE CARBON CAPS, FEES AND EMISSIONS CONTROLS, THE CUTTING EDGE WORK DONE BY LA AND LONG BEACH WILL BE REQUIRED OF OTHER US PORTS, ADDING COSTS AND COMPLICATIONS FOR THOSE COMPETITORS. YET ANOTHER CONCERN THAT COULD TILT THE BALANCE OF GLOBAL LOGISTICS IS THE DRIFT OF LARGE-SCALE MANUFACTURING TO LOCATIONS SUCH AS INDIA AND LATIN AMERICA. ALTHOUGH CHINA AND OTHER NATIONS IN EAST ASIA MAINTAIN A CLEAR ADVANTAGE IN TECHNOLOGY, FACILITIES AND SUPPLIER NETWORKS, OTHER REGIONS COULD EVENTUALLY START TO CATCH UP. GOODS FROM INDIA AND SOUTH ASIA CAN TRAVEL VERY EFFICIENTLY THROUGH THE SUEZ CANAL FOR DELIVERY TO THE EASTERN SEABOARD. PRODUCTS ORIGINATING FROM LATIN AMERICA CAN USE THE PANAMA CANAL WHILE NAVIGATING ROUTES BOTH EAST AND WEST. THE HARBOR COMPLEX AT HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA IS THE CLOSEST NORTH AMERICAN PORT TO THE SUEZ CANAL. FROM NOVA SCOTIA, THE EXPRESS RAIL NETWORK ACROSS CANADA AND INTO THE MIDWEST IS BEING USED FOR DELIVERING GOODS TO AMERICA'S HEARTLAND. >> BUT AS THINGS GET A LITTLE BETTER, SERVICE BECOMES PREDICTABLE AND RELIABLE, MEANING THAT YOU CAN MEASURE THE TIME WITH A STOPWATCH FROM SOUTH ASIA THROUGH THE PANAMA CANAL UP TO JACKSONVILLE, LET'S SAY. AS ALL OF THOSE THINGS IMPROVE AND BECOME MORE PREDICTABLE, THE MORE COMPETITIVE THOSE EAST COAST PORTS ARE GOING TO BE TO THE DETRIMENT OF THE WEST COAST. [ BACKGROUND MUSIC ] >> STAKEHOLDERS IN THE PORTS OF LOS ANGELES AND LONG BEACH HAVE MUCH TO PONDER BETWEEN NOW AND 2014. HOLDING ON TO DISCRETIONARY CARGO AND THEREBY MAINTAINING THE ASSOCIATED JOBS AND ECONOMIC BENEFITS WILL REQUIRE A CONCERTED EFFORT IN VIEW OF THE NEW AND IMPROVED LOCKS IN PANAMA. DECISIONS ARE BEING MADE RIGHT NOW BY SHIPPERS AND THEY ARE CONSIDERING ALL OF THEIR OPTIONS. ITEMS SUCH AS CAPACITY, EFFICIENCY, RELIABILITY, FLEXIBILITY AND COST WILL ADD UP TO THE SUM TOTAL OF WHERE THE EMPLOYMENT WILL RESIDE AND WHERE THE GROWTH WILL OCCUR IN THE FUTURE. THE QUESTION IS WHETHER THE SUN WILL START TO SET ON THE SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA GOODS MOVEMENT INDUSTRY OR WILL THE CHALLENGES OF NEW COMPETITION CONCEIVE A NEW SUNRISE FOR THE WESTERN WATERFRONT. 348 00:17:46,100 [ MUSIC ]

Contents

Background

In May 1898, a small squadron of the United States Navy, consisting of the torpedo boats USS Foote and USS Winslow, the gunboats USS Wilmington and USS Machias, and the U.S. Revenue Cutter Hudson, was operating off the northern coast of Cuba. On May 11, 1898, this fleet entered the Bay of Cárdenas to destroy the three small Spanish gunboats reportedly moored in the harbor. Having swept the area for mines, Captain Todd ordered the Winslow to approach the shore and investigate a steamer moored alongside the wharf to determine whether the vessel was an enemy warship.

The Spanish squadron based on Cárdenas consisted of three ships: Ligera, Alerta and Antonio López,[1] under the command of Teniente de Navío Mariano Mateu. The 42-ton Ligera, which had driven off Foote two weeks earlier in a fortuitous encounter off harbour's mouth, was under Lieutenant Antonio Pérez Rendón, while Alerta, of the same tonnage, was under Lieutenant Pasquín. Both gunboats mounted a cannon of 42 mm and a Maxim of 37 mm. Antonio López was a small tug armed with a Nordenfelt gun,[2] and under the command of Lieutenant Domingo Montes Reguefeiros.[2] The Spanish Line had transferred the Antonio Lopez to the navy some years before.

Battle

USS Winslow's conning tower, damaged from Spanish gunfire during the battle.
USS Winslow's conning tower, damaged from Spanish gunfire during the battle.

By 13:35, Winslow reached a point approximately 1,500 yards from her quarry when a white puff of smoke from Antonio López's bow gun signaled the beginning of an artillery duel which lasted one hour and 20 minutes. Winslow responded with her 1-pounders. The Spanish concentrated their efforts on Winslow, and she soon received several direct hits. The first shot to score on the torpedo boat destroyed both her steam and manual steering gear. Her crew tried to rig an auxiliary steering system, but she swung broadside to the enemy and a shot pierced her hull near the engine room and knocked the port main engine out of commission. She maneuvered with her remaining engine to evade enemy fire and maintained a steady return fire with her 1-pounders. Wilmington and Hudson brought their guns to bear on the Spanish ship and shore, and the combined fire of the three American warships put the Spanish tugboat out of action while several waterfront buildings caught fire.

All but disabled, Winslow requested Hudson to tow her out of action. The revenue cutter approached the stricken torpedo boat and rigged a tow line between the two ships. As Hudson began to tow Winslow out to sea, one of the last Spanish shells to strike the torpedo boat hit her near the starboard gun and killed Ensign Worth Bagley who had been helping to direct the warship's maneuvers by carrying instructions from the deck to the base of the engine room ladder. Ensign Bagley became known as the first U.S. naval officer killed in the Spanish–American War, killed along with four other sailors, John Barberes, John Daniels, George B. Meek and E.B. Tunnell.[3]:73

Aftermath

Badly damaged, Winslow was towed clear of the action. Her commanding officer and several others in her crew were wounded. Lieutenant John Bernadou saw that the dead and wounded were transferred to Hudson, and he then left the ship after turning command over to Chief Gunner's Mate George P. Brady, who — along with Chief Gunner's Mate Hans Johnsen and Chief Machinist T. C. Cooney — later received the Medal of Honor.

Because at the time members of the Revenue Cutter Service were not eligible for the Navy Medal of Honor, Congress approved a special medal struck for them. Frank Newcomb, the commanding officer of Hudson, received the medal in gold, his officers received it in silver, and the enlisted crewmen in bronze. On the Spanish side, Teniente de Navío Montes, commander of the Antonio López, received the Laureate Cross of Saint Ferdinand.[4]

The Spanish gunboat squadron, made of seven steam launches, remained unscathed until the end of the war, when all the units were sold by the Spanish government.[5]

Notes

  1. ^ a b Rodríguez González, p. 115
  2. ^ a b c d Rodríguez González, p. 116
  3. ^ Nofi, A.A., 1996, The Spanish–American War, 1898, Pennsylvania: Combined Books, ISBN 0938289578
  4. ^ Franco Castañón, Hermenegildo, 1898: Los españoles que derrotaron a EE.UU. (Historia de Iberia Vieja, nº 7, pags. 80-85) (in Spanish)
  5. ^ Ligera Vida Marítima. Retrieved on 16 January 2012 (in Spanish)

References

This page was last edited on 11 March 2019, at 09:17
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