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A 17th-century map by the Dutch cartographer Jan Janssonius showing the Barbary Coast, here "Barbaria"
A 17th-century map by the Dutch cartographer Jan Janssonius showing the Barbary Coast, here "Barbaria"

The term Barbary Coast or Berbery or Berber Coast was used by Europeans from the 16th to early 19th century to refer to much of the collective land of the Berber people.

The term Barbary Coast emphasizes the Berber coastal regions and cities throughout the middle and western coastal regions of North Africa – what is now modern nations of Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya. The English term "Barbary" (and its European varieties: Barbaria, Berbérie, etc.) referred mainly to the entire Berber lands including non-coastal regions, deep into the African continent, as seen in European geographical and political maps published during the 17th–20th centuries.[1]

The name derives from the Berber people of North Africa (from greek Bàrbaroi, Βάρβαροι, "barbaric"). In the West, the name commonly evoked the Barbary pirates and Barbary slave traders based on that coast—who attacked ships and coastal settlements in the Mediterranean Sea and eastern North Atlantic Ocean, and captured and traded slaves or goods from Europe, America and sub-Saharan Africa. These actions finally provoked the Barbary Wars of the early 19th century.[2] The slaves and goods were being traded and sold throughout the Ottoman Empire or to the Europeans themselves.

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  • ✪ In Search Of History - Pirates Of The Barbary Coast (History Channel Documentary)
  • ✪ Barbary Wars | 3 Minute History

Transcription

be gentle now on the History Channel stories from the pages of time stories of triumph and tragedy adventure and achievement as we go in search of history in the late 1700s the fledgling nation of America awoke to a startling reality US trade ships in the Mediterranean were being overrun by pirates who terrorized American crews held them for ransom even sold them into slavery these outrages would lead to a little-known war as we go in search of history for pirates of the Barbary Coast northern Africa's sun-baked barbary coast of Morocco Algeria Tunisia and Tripoli now known as Libya has been a pirates haven for centuries for the Barbary Coast Buccaneers most of them Muslim the lucrative spoils of piracy were a mainstay of their nations economies by the 1600s it had evolved into virtually a business it was a major source of income and support for the rulers of these four states basically what they did was made a national policy of always been at war with somebody then you sold a piece sometimes sold it for a flat rate sometimes for annual tribute sometimes a combination of the two the Barbary pirates patrolled the waters of the Mediterranean demanding tribute or ransom for safe passage the hefty tributes help to maintain local economies and prop up the regime's of leaders called Pasha's or days for centuries in the area the Mediterranean world these vassal states along the north coast of Africa facing the Mediterranean had it as their business to control the waters nearby their Shores they were in a way sort of early exponents of the 200-mile limit they believed that if you sailed within their waters which they defined as being pretty far out you had to pay tribute trade vessels from around the world were compelled to submit to these conditions in order to sail the Mediterranean waters without interference from pirates in most instances the European nations England France Sweden Spain Portugal had over the years worked out a rather an arrangement with the Barbary Corsairs by which annual tribute was paid and by that payment they were buying an insurance policy that then allowed their vessels to sail through those waters unmolested the richer countries of the world didn't mind paying in order to keep the peace Great Britain even hoped to bankrupt other nations by driving up the going price of tribute England and France could afford to pay off Algiers and then turn the Algerians on to their enemies this was a way of keeping down their commercial competition so there was a saying in England and in France and in Holland that if there were no Algiers we would have to build one because louis xiv is supposed to have said this because it benefited france to have algiers capturing france's rivals the British commercial men were supposed to have said this because it benefited England and Dutch merchants also were supposed to have said this these countries could afford to pay a large tribute because they did so much business in the Mediterranean but by the late 1700s there was a new presence on the international scene the United States of America the young and hungry Federation of States was eager to trade with the nations of the world but the upstart country was in for a rude awakening when its merchant ships arrived on the Barbary Coast as long as the American colonies were part of the British Empire we were protected by the Royal Navy and we were covered under that umbrella insurance policy after independence though after 1783 we were no longer part of the British Empire and now as an independent nation we the United States of America had to deal with the Barbary States the problem during the 1780s is the government doesn't have the enough money to either bribe them or to build a navy and fight them the Barbary Buccaneers had an uncomplicated strategy for their business of piracy they often simply waited for ships to enter the Mediterranean Sea then sailed alongside them and what the Barbary Corsairs did is they set up a toll gate and you paid at the toll gate if you paid and went through the toll gate then everything would be just fine if you didn't pay at the toll gate then they would attack and capture you and hold you for ransom hold you up make you force you to pay tribute the consequences of being taken prisoner were far worse for some seafarers than others the Pirates instituted a class system for their hostages how you treated these captives depended on who they were if they were a captain or a passenger or officer you would often give them basically the freedom of the city now if you weren't someone like this who you were in rags and but generally they kept you chained together sometimes they chained two three four people together sometimes they chained you individually to a heavy weight the American prisoners were put to work building fortifications for algerian cities with their fate contingent on whether ransom would be paid some died from disease or malnutrition while waiting for american intervention ships from the embattled United States soon became known as easy prey for the Barbary Coast pirates the United States was born into a very hostile world no one wished us well certainly the English didn't wish us well they weren't good losers the French had been our allies during the revolution but now they were our rivals and certainly the Barbary Corsairs did not wish us well either we had virtually no defense for our trade we had no Navy a number of Americans were already enslaved at hard labor in algerian prisons its reputation and expansion threatened the young america faced a dilemma would it follow in the tradition of other world powers and pay tribute to the Barbary Coast pirates buying freedom for those captured or would its political leaders challenged the stranglehold of the Mediterranean Corsairs by 1785 more than 20 American sailors were captives in algerian prisons President George Washington sent emissaries to the Mediterranean to discuss ransom arrangements but America couldn't leave behind any fighting ships to ensure continuing peace Washington was more concerned about the outbreak of war between the French and the British which he saw as a greater danger to US interests President Washington had a lot of other problems other than the two dozen American sailors in Algiers he appointed Jefferson to be Secretary of State and one of the first things Jefferson did was to draw up a report on Mediterranean trade and Jefferson said there are essentially three things the United States can do in to secure peace and trade in the Mediterranean one a tribute to Algiers Tripoli in Tunis to leave the Mediterranean altogether or three and build a navy to subdue the Algerians the trepal items and the Tunisians Jefferson's findings received a decidedly mixed reaction from government leaders in Washington nobody was eager to engage in a war on the other side of the world simply to ensure trouble-free training the ultimate goal is free and safe passage through their waters we need to be able to sail through those waters in order to do business and that is fundamental we need to be trading in the Mediterranean and the Barbary Corsairs are an obstacle to trade this is not an issue of imperialism this is not an issue of conquering territory this is a matter of business commerce and trade still the Barbary States plundered and pillaged and will this enraged Jefferson who took a much harder line than Washington though he was opposed to funding a large Navy Jefferson recognized the threat the Barbary Corsairs posed to America's tenuous standing as an emerging world power in his opinion something had to be done but still America's political leaders hesitated and it wasn't until finally in 1794 when it grew so wearisome when the problem could no longer be ignored that President Washington managed to persuade the Congress to authorize the construction of six frigates six large sailing warships it didn't seem like much at the time but the new legislation marked the birth of the United States Navy the landmark legislation passed over the objections of Jefferson and other Republicans who saw it as a violation of states rights but a compromise was found to placate Jefferson and other southern politicians if peace was achieved with Algiers only three ships would be built just one year later Algiers signed a treaty and hostilities were suspended as a result the US Navy began very humbly with just three vessels they became the first vessels in the new American Navy the most famous is USS Constitution she was launched in Boston in October of 1797 commissioned in Boston still afloat oldest commissioned warship in the world the following year John Adams defeated Thomas Jefferson in the race to become the second president of the United States Jefferson was named vice president but the two men clashed over the issue of whether to pay ransom to the Barbary Corsairs you've got Adam saying you know it's a matter of trade it's a matter of doing business pay the money and let's get on with business you got Jefferson saying it's a matter of Honor the American people want justice and if we demand justice and respect for the United States we'll gain stature in Europe sighs piracy again plagued American merchant ships in the Mediterranean and the Barbary pirates seemed emboldened by America's failure to respond by the time Thomas Jefferson won the presidency in 1800 he realized that bribes to Barbary States totaled over two million dollars more than one-fifth the total income of the US government to that date yet the president who had advocated the use of force while holding lower offices seemed to turn gun-shy back in the 1780s Jefferson had said we need to fight them but when Jefferson comes into office Jefferson is more interested in balancing the budget reducing the national debt and he makes a drastic cuts in the Navy and he tries to negotiate with these Corsairs and he is willing to pay them off at this point but the price is simply too high Yussef the cunning and mercurial Pasha of Tripoli soon forced Jefferson's hand in the spring of 1801 the greedy Yousef demanded outrageous tributes from the US when America declined payment he chopped down the flag in front of the American consulate things really began to heat up with Tripoli in 1801 and they really began to torment us and annoy us in ways and to a degree of seriousness that hadn't been achieved before cutting down the American flag was a declaration of war and America reacted accordingly Jefferson ordered a squadron of four ships already in the Mediterranean to attempt a military blockade the fleet was too small and the effort was a dismal failure to make matters worse America's best fighting ship the Philadelphia ran aground and was captured by Barbary pirates on October 31st 1803 over 300 American sailors were herded into Tripoli tunisians Philadelphia represented maybe a third of American naval power in terms of guns in the Mediterranean at this time so when the Tripoli Tain's take it in are they refloated and they were working to rearm it and remastered and so forth the balance of power would fundamentally shift to their favor in the Mediterranean if that ship can be put back into commission by them though it was undeclared the United States was now truly at war with Tripoli and already at a disadvantage president Jefferson took swift and decisive action he sent his new Commodore of the Navy to the Barbary Coast to remedy the situation command of the American squadron was given to Commodore Edward treble Preble was from Maine he was a had officer a very hot and difficult and an extremely competent officer Preble sailed into Tripoli Harbor only to find that the pride of America's fledgling Navy was now in the hands of Barbary pirates with his tiny fleet could Preble hope to win this undeclared war and negotiate a lasting and favorable peace with one of the fleet's best fighting ships now controlled by the Barbary pirates commander Edward Preble faced a critical decision should he try to retake the Philadelphia or destroy her Preble settled on destruction and asked for volunteers to lead the dangerous mission a courageous 25 year old Navy lieutenant named Stephen Decatur was the first to raise his hand Stephen Decatur had a way of commanding people from an early age he never backed away from a fight he frequently took on people much bigger as a child so he exhibited a lot of leadership qualities early on he was a devoted patriot and at that time in American history that's what was needed everyone knew that he was a very emotional individual everyone knew that he had a very fine sense of honour everyone knew that he was fearless Decatur had already distinguished himself as a young Navy officer but clearly he had aspirations beyond his immediate station the world of the sailing warship was a world that we in the late 20th century would have great difficulty comprehending a tight world a dirty world a confining world a world that was constantly filled with tension and it was in that world that Stephen Decatur this lieutenant functioned a man of great bravery boldness and absolutely impetuous and filled with ambition he wanted nothing more than to be famous the events that followed would help ensure Decatur's place in history on the night of February 15th 1804 Decatur stashed his crew below decks on a boat called the Intrepid and launched his assault on the Philadelphia still held by Barbary pirates he sailed the Intrepid into the harbor at Tripoli and he came up with a daring plan which was to disguise it as a merchant ship but he had the pilot speaking a fluent Italian to the people who were on the Philadelphia so as not to arouse any suspicion Decatur's boat tied up next to the unwitting Philadelphia and the brave young lieutenant led the attack to defend America's honor once they've tied up very quickly someone aboard the Philadelphia discovered who they were screams Americanos but by then it's too late the Americans swarmed over them almost immediately Decatur in the sixty Americans and others came aboard the Tripolitan ship and overwhelmed the Tripolitan crew driving them off of the ship a lot of them dove into the water and quite a number were killed in this action and then Decatur and his men went below deck and started fires at every possible point where they could came off the ship back on to the Intrepid and sailed out of the harbor with the Pasha's cannons blazing and the flames from the Philadelphia lighting up the night sky Decatur and his men returned to the safety of the American squadron the unprecedented raid had been successful perhaps even beyond Decatur zone wildly ambitious dreaming news the Philadelphia was completely destroyed and Decatur and his men had left Tripoli Harbor without losing a single man in this operation Lord Nelson the British Admiral said "This was the most bold and daring naval act of the age" and Nelson was someone who knew about bold and daring naval acts Back home the news of Decatur's victorious attack thrilled an American public starved for good news about their country's fighting efforts this was a new symbol that American sailors like Decatur could perform acts like this acts of courage and skill in destroying this ship so it had an immediate impact in the United States and Jefferson recognized its importance as soon as he heard of this he proposed promoting Decatur to captain and Congress voted to give Decatur a sword he was the youngest commissioned captain in the Navy at the age of 25 a record that has not been broken yet Decatur's uncommon bravery had not been exhausted by the attack on the Philadelphia his brother James also a Navy sailor had himself been fighting Barbary pirates in ongoing gun battles when James boarded a Tripolitan ship that had surrendered the pirate captain suddenly pulled a gun and shot him dead the news soon reached Stephen Decatur on his nearby gunboat when Decatur hears this he's incensed and he immediately turns back now Decatur has aboard his gunboat less than a dozen men he turns around Wade's back into the fight where his brother had been and in virtually a fit of rage attacks him Decatur avenged his brother's death by killing in hand-to-hand combat the Barbary captain who had taken James's life the exploit added even more luster to his growing legend with momentum suddenly on his side after the burning of the Philadelphia in July Commander Preble laid siege to Tripoli which was defended by 25,000 troops 24 warships and 155 cannons Preble flotilla of just seven American vessels bombed the city for four days in August of 1804 but the Tripolitans showed few signs of backing down the Americans were outnumbered and to the dismay of the many brave young officers who served under him Preble's tour of duty was ending basically Preble has laid the groundwork for victory by the time he leaves but then he's superseded in command he returns to the United States and his successors and it's Samuel Baron is less pugnacious his successor is interested in negotiating a peace when commander Samuel baron arrived on the Barbary Coast two months later to replace Preble he sailed with the largest u.s. squadron ever assembled more than 20 fighting ships he also brought with him a man who unwittingly would forge a place for himself in the lore of America's fighting forces his name was William Eaton and he had long been critical of America's actions toward the Barbary States he was a military officer he had been a colonel in the American army in the 1790s after trying to pursue a number of different careers he had taught school for a while he had engaged in business and then he had been appointed to the army and in 1798 he was appointed American Consul to Tunis Eaton had been in the United States and had tried to convince the United States that it should invade this area that it should send an army he of course got no support the idea of sending American troops across the Atlantic was simply beyond consideration by a government at that time by the spring of 1805 and had hatched an audacious scheme to end the four year old war with the Barbary States the plan didn't generate much support from commander Maron who granted even the only a tiny fighting unit of one midshipman and eight US Marines which Eaton managed to augment with a few hundred Arab, Greek and Albanian mercenaries yet the exploits of Eden's ragtag fighting force would make history and would help inspire the Marine Hymn still sung proudly to this day when American adventurer William Eaton arrived in the Mediterranean in the spring of 1805 Tripoli still held more than 300 American prisoners in his hellish prisons the conventional wisdom was that the only way to subdue Tripoli and the other Barbary States was by dominating the seas the audacious Eton had other plans to overthrow Yusuf the Pasha of Tripoli and replace him with Yusuf's brother Achmed. Yusuf had seized power from Achmed in 1795 and Achmed even though he was the older brother was not a very charismatic figure and was not a very good ruler Eaton conceived really an ingenious idea that if the United States have could set up met up and Darrin the true Politan people would rally to his support because Yousef was a great tyrant. Eaton was granted a small Expeditionary Force consisting of one midshipman and eight Marines to implement his plan his next challenge was to find Achmed who had been driven into exile by Yusuf Eaton was taken to Egypt because by this time Achmed had disappeared again he kept wandering around the Mediterranean eaten finally tracked him down in Egypt and they signed an agreement that Achmed would make eaten a general in this expeditionary force and Eaton would raise an army of Arabs Albanians various mercenaries along with some American marines even led his ragtag army of Marines and mercenaries across six hundred miles of treacherous North African desert and the plan is to march across the desert where they'll rendezvous with three ships from the u.s. mediterranean squadron and then they'll jointly attack the city of Derna which is the second largest city in tripoli and as they march across the desert the brother the Pretender is able to recruit more and more soldiers by the time they get there he's got about a band of about 600 that arrive outside the city of Derna just surviving the hostile desert had been miraculous now the army of eatin and off met was gathered outside the walls of Derna preparing to attack there they meet up with the three US Navy ships and with the ship's firing on the fork from one side they attack it from the land side and capture they move from there to occupy in the city and once they occupy the city they of course announce that this is that the free Libya with a legitimate ruler so on behalf of the United States and up met Cara Manley the American flag is planted over the city of Darrin the first time it will fly over a captured foreign city but then two things happen which really stunned William Eaton first the people of Tripoli failed to rally to Achmed cause the people seemed to like use of Kara manly much more than they like his brother so there isn't a popular rebellion second off the coast of Darrin appears an American ship and Eaton believes at first its bringing reinforcements to supply them on their march to Tripoli but instead it brings news that the United States and Yusuf have signed a peace treaty under which the United States and Tripoli agree to an exchange of prisoners stunned by what he perceived as a betrayal by the US government Eaton had precious few options he fled Derna along with Achmed insisting all along that Yousef could have been toppled had he been allowed to march on Tripoli Eaton goes back to the United States and he's furious with the Jefferson administration Eden's bitter disappointment over the incident in Tripoli led to a downward spiral that finally culminated in a lonely death in 1811 still his brave but misguided coup was forever etched in the annals of US history I suppose we're meetin is best remembered because of the Marines him from the halls of Montezuma to the shores of Tripoli and to the shores of Tripoli are the Marines who join with William Eaton and Hammond Cara Manley on this assault against the Tripoli Tain's the treaty with Tripoli was soon followed by another with Tunis and for the next five years the United States enjoyed peace along the Barbary Coast America's attention was soon redirected to the war of 1812 the war heroes like Stephen Decatur continued to distinguish themselves in that struggle the fighting took its toll on American trained during the conflict the British blockaded the Mediterranean the US Navy couldn't enter Mediterranean waters so unprotected American merchant ships once again began to fall victim to the Barbary pirates the old troubles began anew by then James Madison had been elected president of the United States long a proponent of Jefferson's aggressive policy toward the Barbary problem Madison wasted no time in making the unofficial war a matter of public record he declared war on Algiers on March 2nd 1815 it's immediately at the end of the war of 1812 that our government decides it has to do something about this President Madison immediately dispatched to u.s. naval squadrons to the Mediterranean one sailing under the steady hand of Stephen Decatur renowned as the fearless officer who had torched the Philadelphia and captured the imagination of the American public the first hero of the Barbary Wars now commanding a ten vessel American squadron was Stephen Decatur the man to end the barbering Wars eleven years after sailing into Tripoli Harbor aboard the tiny intrepid Stephen Decatur returned to the Barbary States in 1815 with orders from President Madison and an impressive squadron of American fighting ships under his command Decatur got there and outside of the Straits of Gibraltar for the flagship the Algerian Navy captured that and then sailed into port and as he said dictated peace terms at the mouth of a cannon and after doing this he toured the other three states and closed treaties on them arriving in Tripoli Decatur was treated as a hero by the very men against whom he'd fought a decade earlier his forceful demeanor and swiftly negotiated peace treaties restored American honour and secured the Seas for American ships within days of Decatur's arrival America's long-running Barbary wars were over but Stephen Decatur the first hero of the new American Navy would one day find that his fame would earn him mortal enemies in 1808 Decatur was called upon to act as a judge at the court-martial of Captain James Barron the brother of Samuel Baron who had once replaced Edward Preble as commander of the Mediterranean fleet Barun was on trial for cowardly actions against a British warship and Decatur was among those who voted against him in doing so Decatur created an enemy for life in 1819 Decatur finally acquiesced to Berens repeated challenges to duels the date for the blood match was set for March 22nd 1820 Decatur and Aaron met at Bladensburg Maryland and Decatur I believe said will buy at eight paces and Decatur and also said he would aim low so as not to mortally wound his opponent the two men fired at precisely the same instant and both were wounded the bullet that struck Decatur ricocheted off his hip and tore through his abdomen but he fell almost instantly and Baron fell as well and there within 10 feet of each other and they both think they're going to die so Baron says he forgives decatur from the bottom of his heart and decatur accepts this Barun recovered from his injuries but Decatur expired a few days later in his last words Decatur lamented that he had not died in the service of his country Decatur's funeral was a great state funeral every public official in Washington came out to mourn Stephen Decatur who had been the bravest of the American sailors of the war against Tripoli and one of the heroes of the war of 1812 I think Stephen Decatur's legacy is one of patriotism and love of country and that was an important thing at the beginning of the 19th century when the Navy was forming by the time of Decatur's death piracy along the Barbary Coast had reached its end the British perhaps inspired by America's hardline stance adopted a more confrontational strategy that proved effective but the British sent a fleet to Algiers which bombards Algiers and Algiers in the wake of the British attack agrees to suspend all capturing of Christian ships this really pretty much puts an end to capturing of ships by Barbary powers in 1830 the French invaded jeers and colonize it with that the tranquil waters of the Mediterranean once the domain of the feared Barbary pirates were safely open to the ships of the world and America's memory of the Barbary Wars seemed to fade into the background Americans don't like to remember that we were so weak that our trade our ships can be pushed around by these tiny little North African states we also don't like to remember the fact that we paid tribute to them for over 20 years of one sort or another and lastly we don't like to remember that after the capture of Derna in our peace treaty with Tripoli we abandoned this man who was our ally though overshadowed by larger conflicts like the Civil War and the world wars of the 20th century the Barbary wars were critical to America's development the United States Navy was created for the specific purpose of safeguarding American merchants from Barbary pirates and the Marine Corps established itself as an overseas fighting force for the first time in the assault on Tripoli the wars also led to the end of sanctioned piracy in tribute and a long-standing American presence in the Mediterranean Sea a presence that continues to this day historians see still other effects of the war with the Barbary States the United States accepted the fact that if you're going to defend American rights American interests American trade around the world you're going to have to have a naval presence Americans become very interested in the idea of honor and how we're going to be treated and perceived overseas and we follow a policy almost of retribution any time we find American men mistreated an American ship captured or something we go out and punish the people who did it and so in a way the Babri courses were convenient for us it allowed us to engage in a war that we could and that we did win the Barbary wars were also important because they were a training ground for American naval offices the men who had come to lead the American Navy learned their trade in the Barbary Wars despite being fought nearly 200 years ago the Barbary wars brought about changes that continue to reverberate in the modern world a reminder that even little-known conflicts echo for generations as we go in search of history

Contents

History

Ex-Voto of a naval battle between a Turkish ship from Algiers (front) and a ship of the Order of Malta under Langon, 1719.
Ex-Voto of a naval battle between a Turkish ship from Algiers (front) and a ship of the Order of Malta under Langon, 1719.

Barbary was not always a unified political entity. From the 16th century onwards, it was divided into the political entities of the Regency of Algiers, Tunis, and Tripolitania (Tripoli). Major rulers petty monarchs during the times of the Barbary states' plundering parties included the Pasha or Dey of Algiers, the Bey of Tunis and the Bey of Tripoli.[3]

Before then, the territory was usually divided between Ifriqiya, Morocco, and a west-central Algerian state centered on Tlemcen or Tiaret. Powerful Berber dynasties such as the Almohads (12th century) and briefly thereafter the Hafsids, occasionally unified it for short periods. From a European perspective, Tripoli in modern-day Libya, was considered its capital or chief city—though Marrakesh in Morocco was the largest and most important Berber city at the time. Some[by whom?] saw Algiers in Algeria, or Tangiers in Morocco as the capital.

Purchase of Christian captives in the Barbary States.
Purchase of Christian captives in the Barbary States.

The first United States military land action overseas, executed by the U.S. Marines and Navy, was the Battle of Derna, Tripoli (a coastal town in modern eastern Libya) in April 1805. It formed part of an effort to destroy all of the Barbary pirates, to free American slaves in captivity, and to put an end to piracy acts between these warring tribes on the part of the Barbary states, which were themselves member states of the Ottoman Empire. The opening line of the Marines' Hymn refers to this action: "From the halls of Montezuma to the shores of Tripoli..." This was the first time the United States Marine Corps took part in offensive actions outside of the United States.

The modern word razzia is, via Italian and French, from Algerian Arabic ghaziya (غزية "raiding")[citation needed], originally referring to slave raids conducted by Barbary pirates.

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ Maps of Barbary Archived October 11, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ Carver, Robert (25 April 2009). "Not so easy alliances: Two Faiths, One Banner: when Muslims marched with Christians across Europe's battlegrounds (book review)". The Tablet. p. 24. Archived from the original on 2017-06-20.
  3. ^ Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Barbary Pirates" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 383–384.

References

External links

This page was last edited on 7 January 2019, at 22:43
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