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Barack Obama "Hope" poster

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The most widely distributed version of Shepard Fairey's Obama poster, featuring the word "hope". Other versions used the words "change" and "progress".
The most widely distributed version of Shepard Fairey's Obama poster, featuring the word "hope". Other versions used the words "change" and "progress".

The Barack Obama "Hope" poster is an image of Barack Obama designed by artist Shepard Fairey, which was widely described as iconic and came to represent his 2008 presidential campaign.[1][2] It consists of a stylized stencil portrait of Obama in solid red, beige and (light and dark) blue, with the word "progress", "hope" or "change" below (and other words in some versions).

The design was created in one day and printed first as a street poster. It was then more widely distributed—both as a digital image and other paraphernalia—during the 2008 election season, initially independent of, but with the approval from, the official Obama campaign.[3] The image became one of the most widely recognized symbols of Obama's campaign message, spawning many variations and imitations, including some commissioned by the Obama campaign. This led The Guardian's Laura Barton to proclaim that the image "acquired the kind of instant recognition of Jim Fitzpatrick's Che Guevara poster, and is surely set to grace T-shirts, coffee mugs and the walls of student bedrooms in the years to come."[4]

In January 2009, after Obama had won the election, Fairey's mixed-media stenciled portrait version of the image was acquired by the Smithsonian Institution for its National Portrait Gallery. Later in January 2009, the photograph on which Fairey based the poster was revealed: a June 2006 shot by former Associated Press freelance photographer Mannie Garcia. In response to claims by the Associated Press for compensation, Fairey sued for a declaratory judgment that his poster was a fair use of the original photograph. The parties settled out of court in January 2011, with details of the settlement remaining confidential.

On February 29, 2012, Fairey pleaded guilty in a New York federal court to destroying and fabricating documents during his legal battle with the Associated Press. Fairey had sued the news service in 2008 after it claimed that the famous poster was based on one of its photos. Fairey claimed that he used a different photograph for the poster. But he admitted that, in fact, he was wrong and tried to hide the error by destroying documents and manufacturing others, which is the source of the one count of criminal contempt to which he pleaded guilty.[5] In September, Fairey was sentenced to two years of probation, 300 hours of community service, and a fine of $25,000.[6]

In 2009 Fairey's Obama portrait was featured in the book Art For Obama: Designing Manifest Hope and the Campaign for Change which Fairey also edited.[7][8]

In an interview with Esquire in 2015 Fairey said that Obama had not lived up, "not even close," to his expectations. He continued, "Obama has had a really tough time, but there have been a lot of things that he's compromised on that I never would have expected. I mean, drones and domestic spying are the last things I would have thought [he'd support]."[9]

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • ✪ Photoshop: Create & Personalize Obama’s HOPE Poster Design
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  • ✪ Obama Hope Poster: Design your Own face in Photoshop cc Tutorial (2018)
  • ✪ How To Create Obama’s HOPE Poster Design In Photoshop CC

Transcription

This tutorial is sponsored by Fotophire, the easiest and most user-friendly way to perfect your photos with just a few clicks. In just seconds, you can remove unwanted objects, clone, easily crop and blur, remove & replace backgrounds, color correct and so much more. Fotophire has a massive library of over 200 effects that you can use to instantly make your photos look awesome and professional-looking. Until the middle of this month, Fotophire is giving everyone a $50 discount off its price. Click the link in my video's description! Hi. This is Marty from Blue Lightning TV. Politics aside, I'm going to show you how to recreate the iconic “HOPE” poster of Barack Obama’s 2008 Presidential campaign designed by Shepard Fairey using a different headshot. This is an update of a tutorial I did many years ago on a much earlier version of Photoshop. Before we begin, I want to mention that I'll be moving a bit faster for more advanced users. I provided a Photoshop template that you can download, so you can follow along. Its link in located in my video's description or project files. It includes the original "Hope" poster design and a separate layer of the framed border including the bottom shape that your text will be placed onto. In addition, I included the link to the font, "Nevis Bold", which is relatively close to the original font, "Gotham" used in the poster. "Gotham" isn't free, but "Nevis Bold" is. Open a photo of someone that you'd like to use for this project. It can be color or black and white. The first step is to make a selection around your subject. Since I want the selection to be as sharp as possible, I drew paths with the Pen Tool and then converted it into a selection. I did an in-depth tutorial of the Pen Tool, so if you'd like to watch it, I provided that link, as well. Once you made a selection around your subject, click the Layer Mask icon to make a layer mask of the selection next to your subject. We'll convert he entire layer into a Smart Object, so we can modify it non-destructively. To do this, click the icon at the upper, right and click "Convert to Smart Object". With your Move Tool active, drag the subject onto the tab of the poster template. Without releasing your mouse or pen, drag it down and release. Drag the subject below the frame. We'll make a new layer below the subject by Ctrl-clicking or Cmd-clicking the New Layer icon. In this empty layer, we'll create a two-tone, gray background behind the subject. But first, go to View. If "Rulers" and "Snap" aren't checked, just click on them to make them active. Go to the ruler on the left and drag out a guideline to the middle until it snaps in place. If you don't see the guide line, press Ctrl or Cmd + H. If your foreground and background colors aren't black and white respectively, press "D" on your keyboard. Click the foreground color to open the Color Picker. In the Brightness field, type in 50%. The, click OK or press Enter or Return. Open your "Rectangular Marquee Tool" and drag a rectangular selection over the left side of the poster, making sure it snaps to the middle guide line. Fill it with the foreground color by pressing Alt or Option + Delete. Deselect it by pressing Ctrl or Cmd + D. Click the foreground color again and type in 25% for the Brightness. This time, drag your tool over the right side of the poster, making sure it snaps to the guide line. Fill it with the foreground color and deselect it. Make the frame visible. Hide the guide line by pressing Ctrl or Cmd + H. Go to View and click “Snap” to deactivate it. Make your subject active. We want the top of our subject's head to go beyond the frame. If it's not, just drag it up. If you want to enlarge your subject instead, open your Transform Tool by pressing Ctrl or Cmd + T. Go to a corner and when you see a diagonal, double-arrow, press and hold Alt or Option + Shift as you drag it out. Go to Filter, Blur and Surface Blur. Type in 10 for the Radius and the Threshold. Surface Blur essentially blurs an image while preserving the edges. Go back to Filter and click "Filter Gallery". Open the "Artistic" folder and click "Cutout". Make the "Number of Levels": 5 because the poster has 5 colors. Make the "Edge Simplicity": 5 and the "Edge Fidelity": 1. To save some space in the Layers panel, click the small arrow icon on the right of the layer, which collapses the effects. Click the Adjustment layer icon and click "Channel Mixer". Check "Monochrome", which makes all the colors neutral gray. If your photo is already black and white, it's still a good step to use, since there may be a subtle color cast to it. Click the Adjustment layer icon again and click "Posterize". Make the Levels: 5. This sets the number of tonal levels (or brightness values) for each channel in an image. Open your Magic Wand Tool. Make the Tolerance: 10, check "Anti-Alias" and make sure "Contiguous" is not checked. Click on the second lightest tone of your subject to make a selection of it. Go to Select and Save Selection. Click OK and deselect it. Click the Adjustment layer icon one more time and click "Gradient Map". Click the gradient bar to open the Gradient Editor. Click the lower, left Stop. This will be our darkest color. Click the color box and in the hexadecimal field, type in 00324D. Then, click OK or press Enter or Return. Click below the gradient bar to create a new Stop. For its Location, type in 25%. Click the color box and type in E01825. Make another Stop and for its location, type in 50%. For its color, type in 7498A4. Click the lower, right Stop and for its location, type in 75%. For its color, type in FDE5A9. Click the right corner under the bar to add another Stop. Notice this Stop's location is 100% and it's color is the same as the one to its left. To save more space in the Layers panel, we'll place all of the Adjustment layers into a folder. To do this, Shift-click the bottom adjustment layer to make all of them active and press Ctrl or Cmd + G. Name it "Adjustment layers". We'll make a new layer below the folder by Ctrl-clicking or Cmd-clicking the New Layer icon. Click the foreground color and for Brightness, type in 50%. Fill the empty layer with the foreground color. The reason it's not gray is because the gradient map adjustment layer delineated the 50% gray tone into this specific blue color. Go to Filter and Filter Gallery. Close the "Artistic" folder and open the "Sketch" folder. Click “Halftone Pattern”. The Pattern Type is: "Line", the Contrast is: 50 and the Size is: 1. Open the Channels panel. If you don't see it, go to Window and "Channels". Ctrl-click or Cmd-click the the thumbnail of "Alpha 1", which makes a selection of it. Open back your Layers panel and click the Layer mask icon to make a layer mask of the selection next to the line pattern. We're ready to add the text. Make the frame layer active. Our text will be placed above it. Open your Horizontal Type Tool and pick "Nevis Bold", which is the font I provided the link to. I'll make the size temporarily 225 points, Sharp and Center Alignment. Click the color box and click the blue background to pick up its color. Click on your document and type out your text. To adjust the space between two characters, click between those characters and press and hold Alt or Option as you press the right or left arrow key on your keyboard. To resize it, click your Move Tool and open your Transform Tool. Position and resize it over the dark blue panel. Then, press Enter or return. To center it, press Ctrl or Cmd + A to select the canvas and click the "Align Horizontal Centers" icon. Then, deselect it. Lastly, make a composite snapshot of the poster by pressing Ctrl + Shift + Alt + E on Windows or Cmd + Shift + Option + E on a Mac. Doing this, results with a stronger line pattern in the poster. Flattening the layers also creates the same effect. This is Marty from Blue Lightning TV. Thanks for watching!

Contents

Concept and design

Shepard Fairey, who had created earlier political street art critical of government and of George W. Bush, discussed the nascent Obama campaign with publicist Yosi Sergant in late October 2007. Sergant suggested Fairey create some art in support of Obama. Sergant contacted the Obama campaign to seek its permission for Fairey to design an Obama poster, which was granted a few weeks before Super Tuesday. Fairey has said that his decision to create a portrait of Obama stemmed from Fairey's feeling that Obama's "power and sincerity as a speaker would create a positive association with his likeness."[10] Fairey found a photograph of Obama using Google Image Search (eventually revealed to be an April 2006 photo by freelancer Mannie Garcia for The Associated Press)[11][12] and created the original poster design in a single day. The original image had the word "progress" and featured Fairey's signature obey star—a symbol associated with his Andre the Giant Has a Posse street art campaign—embedded in the Obama campaign's sunrise logo.[13] Due to the Obama campaign's concerns about the troublesome connotations of the original wording, Fairey changed the slogan printed under Obama's image from "progress" to "hope."[10]

According to design writer Steven Heller, the poster was inspired by Social Realism and, while widely praised as original and unique, can be seen as part of a long tradition of contemporary artists drawing inspiration from political candidates and producing "posters that break the mold not only in terms of color and style but also in message and tone."[14] Fairey has said, "My historical inspiration was the well-known JFK portrait where he is posed in a three-quarters view looking slightly upward and out into the distance. The image of Lincoln on the five-dollar bill has a similar feel."[10]

Distribution during the 2008 campaign

Fairey began screen-printing posters soon after completing the design and showing it to Yosi Sergant. Initially, he sold 350 and put 350 more up in public. Beginning with that sale and continuing throughout the campaign, Fairey used proceeds from selling the image to produce more of it; after first printing, he made 4,000 more that were distributed at Obama rallies before Super Tuesday. He also put a printable digital version on his website. As Fairey explained in an October 2008 interview, the image quickly went viral, spreading spontaneously through social media and word of mouth.[13]

After the initial 700 posters, the Obama campaign conveyed through Sergant that they wanted to promote the theme of hope, and most of the posters sold by Fairey subsequently had the word "hope" and later "change" instead of "progress"; the obey star was also absent from later versions. By October 2008, Fairey and Sergant claimed to have printed 300,000 posters (with less than 2,000 sold and the rest given away or displayed) and 1,000,000 stickers, as well as clothing and other items with the image sold through Fairey's website, in addition to copies printed by others.[13][15] According to Fairey and Sergant, proceeds from sales of the image were used to produce more posters and other merchandise in support of the Obama campaign, rather than direct profit for Fairey.[13]

Parodies and imitations

As the campaign progressed, many parodies and imitations of Fairey's design appeared. For example, one anti-Obama version replaced the word "hope" with "hype", while parody posters featuring opponents Sarah Palin and John McCain had the word "nope".[16] In January 2009 Paste magazine launched a site allowing users to create their own versions of the poster. More than 10,000 images were uploaded to the site in its first two weeks.[17][18][19]

Mad magazine parodied the "hope" poster with an "Alfred E. Neuman for President!" poster. Alfred was on the poster, and the word "hope" was replaced with "hopeless". Anti-Gaddafi protesters in Chicago, in solidarity with the 2011 Libyan civil war, have co-opted the image. Dynamite Comics released a four-part crossover with Obama and Ash Williams of their Army of Darkness comics and the Evil Dead films. One of the issues covers had a picture of Ash Williams (played by Bruce Campbell in the films) in the style of the "Hope" poster with the bottom text reading "Hope?"

Fairey was also commissioned to create a number of works in the same style. He produced two other versions, based on different photographs, officially on behalf of the Obama campaign,[20] and another to serve as the cover of the Person of the Year issue of Time.[21] He also created a portrait of comedian Stephen Colbert in the same style, which appeared in an issue of Entertainment Weekly honoring Colbert's television show The Colbert Report.[22]

Firas Alkhateeb, the student who designed the controversial Obama "Joker" image, cited Fairey as being his greatest influence.[23] Alkhateeb described the "Joker" image as a corrective to Fairey's glowing portrayal of Obama.[23][24] Fairey has both criticized and praised the "Joker" poster, stating "The artwork is great in that it gets a point across really quickly", but "I don't agree with the political content of the poster".[24][25]

Conservative satire site The People's Cube made visual and verbal punning images, such as "Chaos" with an image of Rush Limbaugh ("Operation Chaos"), "Shrugged" with an image of Ayn Rand (for her novel Atlas Shrugged) and "Marxism" with an image of Groucho Marx.

The September 2009 issue of The Advocate, America's oldest-continuing LGBT publication, featured a cover image similar to Fairey's design. The blue and red coloring was replaced with pink and purple, but instead of "hope", the caption was "nope?".[26] Jon Barrett, the magazine's editor-in-chief, said the cover expressed the frustration among some Democratic members of the LGBT community.[26]

Veep promotional poster on the side of a building
Veep promotional poster on the side of a building

The poster has also been parodied in popular culture. In the Futurama episode "Proposition Infinity," a similar poster of President Richard Nixon can be seen, with the slogan "DESPAIR". In the 2010 movie Megamind, a version of the poster can be seen using Megamind's visage and the caption "NO YOU CAN'T", parodying Obama's campaign slogan "Yes we can". Disney's animated series Phineas and Ferb has two episodes, "Nerds of a Feather" and "She's the Mayor", both with Obama's poster parodied with Candace's face. American heavy metal band Five Finger Death Punch has released a version with their mascot and the words "WAR", referring to their album War Is The Answer. In Iron Man 2, Tony Stark receives a similar poster of the Iron Man armor and hangs it in his Malibu garage, much to the displeasure of his assistant and love interest Pepper Potts. The 4th season of BoJack Horseman features Mr. Peanutbutter's version of the poster as he's running for governor.

Honest Gil Fulbright SOLD Poster
Honest Gil Fulbright SOLD Poster

Honest Gil Fulbright

Shepard Fairey created an adaptation of the Obama HOPE poster for satirical Kentucky politician Honest Gil Fulbright.[27] The poster for Honest Gil Fulbright features a portrait of Frank L. Ridley, the actor who portrays Fulbright, with the words "SOLD," which refers to Fulbright's "honest" political message: "I'm only in this thing for the money, but at least I'm honest about it."[28]

Veep

Home Box Office (HBO) created a parody of the poster to promote the fifth season of their satire comedy Veep. The poster was placed on roadside billboards,[29] and other public places to help promote the return.

Fairey's adaptation for the Occupy movement

Fairey's 2011 adaptation for the occupy movement
Fairey's 2011 adaptation for the occupy movement

Sympathizing with the Occupy movement, in November 2011 Shepard Fairey introduced a variation of his "Hope" poster. In the new poster, he featured a Guy Fawkes mask, and the message "Mister President, we HOPE you're on our side", with the word "HOPE" in large font and the rest of the sentence in small font. The Obama campaign logo on the right was replaced by a similar logo with the inscription "We are the 99%".[30]

Acquisition by Smithsonian

On January 7, 2009, the Smithsonian Institution's National Portrait Gallery announced it had acquired Fairey's hand-finished collage (stencil and acrylic on paper) version of the image (with the word "hope"), which the gallery said would go on display shortly before Obama's inauguration on January 20, 2009. The work was commissioned and later donated by art collectors Heather and Tony Podesta (Tony is the brother of Obama's transition co-chairman John Podesta). It is an unusual acquisition, in that the National Portrait Gallery normally collects official portraits as presidents are leaving office rather than before they take office.[31][32]

Origin and copyright issues

An AP photo by Mannie Garcia (upper left) was shown to be a near-perfect match, in contrast with a Reuters photograph (lower left) earlier purported to be the source.[12][33][34]
An AP photo by Mannie Garcia (upper left) was shown to be a near-perfect match, in contrast with a Reuters photograph (lower left) earlier purported to be the source.[12][33][34]

The original source photograph Fairey based the poster on was not publicly known until after Obama had won the election. After a mistaken attribution to Reuters photographer Jim Young for a similar-looking January 2007 photograph, in January 2009 photographer and blogger Tom Gralish discovered that the poster was based on an Associated Press photograph by freelance photographer Mannie Garcia. It was taken at a 2006 media event with Kansas Senator Sam Brownback, where the actor George Clooney was raising awareness of the War in Darfur after a trip to Sudan he had taken with his father.[35][36]

In February 2009, the Associated Press announced that it determined "that the photograph used in the poster is an AP photo and that its use required permission" and announced they were in discussions with Fairey's attorney to discuss an amicable solution.[37] Fairey was represented by Anthony Falzone, executive director of the Fair Use Project at Stanford University. Falzone was quoted in the press release: "We believe fair use protects Shepard's right to do what he did here."[37] Fairey subsequently filed a federal lawsuit against the Associated Press, seeking a declaratory judgment that his use of the AP photograph was protected by the fair use doctrine and so did not infringe their copyright.[38]

Fairey subsequently admitted that he had based the poster on the AP photograph and had fabricated and destroyed evidence to hide the fact.[39] Fairey's admission came after one of his employees told him that he had discovered relevant documents on an old hard drive. Realizing that these documents would reveal his cover-up, Fairey told the truth to his attorney.[10]

Photographer Mannie Garcia contended that he retained copyright to the photo according to his AP contract. He said that he was "so proud of the photograph and that Fairey did what he did artistically with it, and the effect it had," but that he did not "condone people taking things, just because they can, off the Internet."[36] Fairey countered that his conduct did not constitute "improper appropriation" because he had not taken any protected expression from Garcia's original photo. In addition, he claimed his behavior would qualify as a fair use. At trial AP would have to address both arguments.[10]

A judge urged a settlement, stating that AP would win the case.[40] The AP and Shepard Fairey settled out of court in January 2011. In a press release, the AP announced that the AP and Fairey "agreed to work together going forward with the Hope image and share the rights to make the posters and merchandise bearing the Hope image and to collaborate on a series of images that Fairey will create based on AP photographs. The parties have agreed to additional financial terms that will remain confidential."[41]

In a separate criminal action, federal prosecutors suggested that Fairey should face prison time for the destruction of evidence in the case, with the government sentencing request stating that "[a] sentence without any term of imprisonment sends a terrible message to those who might commit the same sort of criminal conduct. Encouraging parties to game the civil litigation system [...] creates terrible incentives and subverts the truth-finding function of civil litigation."[42] However, his sentence was ultimately limited to 300 hours of community service and a $30,000 fine.[43]

References

  1. ^ Pasick, Adam (January 15, 2009). "Iconic Obama poster based on Reuters photo". Reuters. Archived from the original on January 20, 2009. Retrieved January 20, 2009.
  2. ^ "Copyright battle over Obama image", BBC News, February 5, 2009. Retrieved February 22, 2009.
  3. ^ Cohen, Alex (April 7, 2008). "Shepard Fairey Tells Of Inspiration Behind 'HOPE'". NPR.org. Archived from the original on March 12, 2009. Retrieved April 13, 2019.
  4. ^ Hope - the Image that is Already an American Classic by Laura Barton, The Guardian, November 10, 2008
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  28. ^ "Gil Fulbright: Honest Politician". www.facebook.com. Retrieved March 22, 2018.
  29. ^ https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-0ScGC7IOTMg/VxJ_uNk8r5I/AAAAAAACSrM/4cuJyXpIX9UXKZvarC5Qs6g5F_ocjXSsACLcB/s800/Veep%2BMaybe%2Bseason%2B5%2Bbillboard.jpg
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  33. ^ Tom Gralish, "MYSTERY SOLVED! The Obama Poster Photographer ID'd Archived January 21, 2009, at the Wayback Machine", Scene on the Road, January 14, 2009. Retrieved January 17, 2009.
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  38. ^ Itzkoff, Dave (February 9, 2009). "Shepard Fairey Sues Associated Press Over Obama Poster". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 11, 2009. Retrieved February 9, 2009. The case is Shepard Fairey; Obey Giant Art Inc. v. The Associated Press, No. 09-CV-1123, S.D.N.Y..
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External links

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