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List of people subject to banning orders under apartheid

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This list of people subject to banning orders under apartheid lists a selection of people subject to a "banning order" by the apartheid-era South African government. Banning was a repressive and extrajudicial measure[1] used by the South African apartheid regime (1948–1994) against its political opponents.[2] The legislative authority for banning orders was firstly the Suppression of Communism Act, 1950,[3] which defined virtually all opposition to apartheid as "Communism", which was superseded by the Internal Security Act, 1982. The régime ceased to deploy bannings and lifted all remaining banning orders in 1990, in the run-up to the advent of democracy in South Africa in 1994.[2][4]

A banning order entailed restrictions on where the banned person could live and who they could have contact with, required that they report weekly to a police station, and proscribed them from travelling outside a specific magisterial district. The banned person was prohibited from attending meetings of any kind, speaking in public, or publishing or distributing any written material. It proscribed broadcasters and the press from broadcasting, publishing or reporting the banned person's words. It thus mixed elements of internal exile, suppression orders and censorship. The prohibition on attending meetings meant that the banned person could not be with more than one other person at a time. The banned person was forbidden all contact with other banned persons and was forbidden to engage in any political activity. The penalty for violating a banning order was up to five years in prison.

Some People subject to banning orders

Steve Biko
Steve Biko
Farouk Asvat
Farouk Asvat
Ruth First
Ruth First
Albert Lutuli
Albert Lutuli
Winnie Madikizela-Mandela
Winnie Madikizela-Mandela

See also

References

  1. ^ Suppression of Communism Act, 1950, at South African History Online
  2. ^ a b Number of banned persons in South Africa totals 936, at South African History Online
  3. ^ Suppression of Communism, Act no. 44 of 1950, full text PDF
  4. ^ South Africa profile - Timeline - BBC News
  5. ^ Herbstein, Denis (24 September 1999). "Phyllis Altman". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 September 2016.
  6. ^ "Jacqueline (Jackie) Arenstein". South African History Online. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
  7. ^ Berger, Iris (1992). Threads of Solidarity: Women in South African Industry, 1900-1980. Indiana University Press. p. 267. ISBN 9780852550779.
  8. ^ Who was on the apartheid police spy list? | IOL
  9. ^ David Clover (16 December 2013). "No Easy Walk to Freedom: Nelson Mandela in the Archives". Senate House Library. Archived from the original on 22 October 2016. Retrieved 22 October 2016., p. 49
  10. ^ Hilda Bernstein, author, fighter for women's rights, Luthuli award winner - Profile
  11. ^ Hilda Bernstein obituary, The Independent (UK)
  12. ^ Treason trial to Rivonia - Rusty (Lionel) Bernstein
  13. ^ Steve Biko: Five facts you didn’t know about the anti-apartheid activist, at The Independent (UK)
  14. ^ Woods, Donald (1978). Biko. New York and London: Paddington Press. p. 49. ISBN 0-8050-1899-9.
  15. ^ Mangcu, Xolela (2014). Biko: A Life. London and New York: I. B. Tauris. p. 190. ISBN 978-1-78076-785-7.
  16. ^ Hadfield, Leslie (2010). "Biko, Black Consciousness, and 'the System' eZinyoka: Oral History and Black Consciousness in Practice in a Rural Ciskei Village". South African Historical Journal. 62 (1): 84. doi:10.1080/02582471003778342. S2CID 143822840.
  17. ^ Hill, Shannen L. (2015). Biko's Ghost: The Iconography of Black Consciousness. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. p. 151. ISBN 978-0816676361.
  18. ^ a b c Cited in article on Peter Ralph Randall
  19. ^ Peter Brown at South African History Online
  20. ^ Peter Brown obituary, at The Independent (UK)
  21. ^ a b c d e f g "Banning orders served on NUSAS leaders". www.sahistory.org.za. 16 March 2011.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h South African Democracy Education Trust (2004). The Road to Democracy in South Africa: 1970-1980. Volume 2 of Road to Democracy. Unisa. p. 864. ISBN 9781868884063. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
  23. ^ "The Freedom Charter is adopted in Kliptown: Sunday, 26 June 1955". South African History Online. 22 June 2018. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  24. ^ "Bettie du Toit". South African History Online. 29 June 2012. Retrieved 3 September 2016.
  25. ^ Paula Ensor, at South African History Online
  26. ^ Paul Ensor at Tshisimani Centre for Activist Education
  27. ^ Sutherland, Allan (16 December 2011). "Vic Finkelstein: Academic anddisability activist". The Independent. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  28. ^ "ANC Veteran, Bertha Gxowa, Dies". SA News. 19 November 2010. Archived from the original on 23 September 2016. Retrieved 4 September 2016.
  29. ^ "Anti-apartheid activist Adelaine Hain dies aged 92". IOL News. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  30. ^ "Viola Hashe". South African History Online. 23 January 2013. Retrieved 3 September 2016.
  31. ^ "My heart goes through leaps and bounds". www.ihrc.org.uk. 19 October 2012.
  32. ^ "Sedick Isaacs". www.sahistory.org.za. 20 March 2012.
  33. ^ "Bennie Khoapa Khoapa". www.sahistory.org.za. 23 March 2012.
  34. ^ Sheila Lapinsky nee Barsel, at South African History Online
  35. ^ "South African Dept. of Justice list of banned persons" (PDF).
  36. ^ "1969 UN List of Opponents to Apartheid Subjected to Banning Orders in South Africa" (PDF).
  37. ^ "Food and Allied Workers Union". www.fawu.org.za.
  38. ^ "TRC testimony of Mac Maharaj". www.justice.gov.za. 2 November 1998. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  39. ^ Vincent Joseph Gaobakwe Matthews | South African History Online
  40. ^ Human Sciences Research Council (2000). Women Marching Into the 21st Century: Wathint' abafazi, wathint' imbokodo. HSRC Press. pp. 33–34. ISBN 978-0796919663.
  41. ^ "Shulamith Muller". South African History Online. 12 September 2011. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
  42. ^ Luckhardt; Wall. "Organize... or Starve! - The History of the SACTU". South African Congress of Trade Unions. South African History Online. Archived from the original on 22 August 2016. Retrieved 7 September 2016.
  43. ^ Meredith, Martin (1999). Nelson Mandela: A Biography. United States: Public Affairs Books.
  44. ^ Robert M. Resha | South African History Online
  45. ^ "NUSAS President Ian Robertson is banned". South African History Online.
  46. ^ "Kennedy and South Africa". The Harvard Crimson.
  47. ^ "Jeanette Eva Schoon (née Curtis)". South African History Online. 15 August 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
  48. ^ "Jeannette Schoon and her daughter are killed by a letter bomb". www.sahistory.org.za. 16 March 2011.
  49. ^ Williams, Clifford (5 May 2011). "Dorothy Williams obituary". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 3 January 2020.

Further reading

This page was last edited on 30 September 2020, at 13:00
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